4Egyptian Rulers From the 1st to 18th Dynasties Beginning of the Beginning of the Beginning of theOld Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom3rd Dynasty th Dynasty th Dynasty th Dynasty4th DynastyKing Khufu King Titi Queen Hatshepsut1st King Khaba B.C B.C B.C.Dynasty B.C.***More on next slide!
5Egyptian Rulers from the 18th to the Ptolemaic Dynasties Beginning of the18th Dynasty cont th Dynasty Late Kingdom th Dynasty PtolemaicKing Tutankhamen th Dynasty DynastyB.C Ramesees IIKing Amenhotep IV B.C King Nefertiti Queen Cleopatra VIIB.C B.C, B.C.*Did you Know* *Did you Know*That the 30th Dynasty was the last dynasty That Queen Cleopatra did not rule alone?with Egyptian born pharaohs? She ruled alongside King Ptolemy XIII
6Egyptian Family LifeEgyptians treasured family life greatly. They thought of children as a huge blessing. If a man and a woman could not have children they would either pray to the gods and goddesses, place letters by the tombs of dead relatives, sometimes they would attempt to use magic to have children. If none of the listed ideas would work, they would consider adoption.Most women had the responsibility of raising the children and taking care of the household chores. Some women had limited jobs available to them such as: working in courts and temples as acrobats, dancers, singers, and musicians, nannies or maids, some even worked as professional mourners and perfume makers.If parents of children were to die, the sons inherited the land and the daughters inherited the household items. If there were no sons nothing stopped the daughters from inheriting the land.6
7Egyptian EducationFamilies who could afford it sent males to school, from the age of seven, to learn reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Some say that females learned how to read and write at home but there is no evidence to prove it.Schools then started early in the morning before it would get warm outside and ended promptly by noon.Usually young males did not pick their own careers. They frequently followed in the family profession.At the age of just fourteen sons of farmers or craftsmen would start working with their fathers.7
8Egyptian FoodMost Egyptian food was cooked in clay oven or on open fires. Wood was used to fuel the fires, even though it was scarce back then.Food was also either baked, boiled, stewed, fried, grilled, or roasted.Beer was the most popular beverage and was made with barley. Wine was popular for usually just the wealthy.To make break, first the women ground the wheat into flour. Next the flour would be pounded by men to make fine grain. Sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter, or herbs were often added to the dough to help flavor the bread.8
9Egyptian ClothingDuring the Old and Middle Kingdoms men wore a kilt or short skirt. During that same time women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps. Wealthy men wore pleaded kilts and older men wore longer kilts. In the summer children ran around nude. In the winter moths children wore wraps and cloaks.In the New Kingdom noblemen wore a long robe over their kilts where as women wore pleaded dresses with shawls. As for shoes most went barefoot except on special occasions they wore sandals. Kings and Queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing with feathers and sequins. For shoes Kings and Queens wore elaborately decorated sandals, and sometimes decorative gloves on his hands.Most clothing were chosen to fit the hot dry weather.9
10Egyptian Shelter Most Egyptian homes were made from bricks of adobe. A Nobleman’s house is divided into three parts: a reception area, a hall, and the private quarters. Each window and door in the home were covered with mats to keep flies, dust, and heat from coming in. The inside walls were decorated with wall hangings made of leather, and the floors were covered with tile. Some homes had a room on the roof with three walls where the family slept on hot summer nights.The commoners lived in town houses usually two to three stories high. The first story was usually reserved for businesses. The second and third floors consisted of the family’s living space. Just like the Noblemen, some people slept on the roof to keep cool.10
11Egyptian RecreationFor recreation most a popular place was the Nile river. They did activities such as, fishing, river boat outings, swimming, hunting crocodiles and hippopotamuses, or boat games where two teams of men in boats with long poles, would try to push each other into the water.A famous activity for Noblemen was hunting in the desert.\Children would often play board games, play with toys like carved ivory animals, wooden horses on wheels, and balls.Wealthy Egyptians kept themselves entertained by throwing large parties with tons of food and music.There where also festivals usually celebrating in honor of gods or goddesses.11
12Egyptian ReligionThe Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, or the belief in more than one god or goddess. Some Egyptians believed in over 2,000 gods!Gods and goddesses were often described as part human and part animal. For example, Horus, the god of sky, had the head of a hawk, and body of a human.Egyptians had many different beliefs on how the world began. One legend has it that it started with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land rose up and the sun god, Re, appeared. He created light and all things.If you became a priest one of your jobs were to care for the gods and make sure all their needs were taken care of.12
14The steps to embalming. The body must be washed with palm oil. The body is rinsed with water from the Nile River.A small cut is made on the left side of the body.The internal organs which are liver, lungs, small intestines, and large intestines are removed.The brain is removed by a long hook inserted through the nose will pull out the brains. ( the Egyptians did not know what the brain was for, so they removed it.)The body in covered and stuffed with natron. This is known as the drying stage.Wait 40 days for the body to dry.The body will be washed with water from the Nile River.The body will be covered with sweet smelling oils.The body is then stuffed with dry things, such as sawdust, leaves, and linen.The body is covered with more oils.The internal organs are put into canopic jars.Now the body is ready for the next stage wrapping.
15The wrapping of the mummy. The head and neck are wrapped. The fingers and toes are wrapped. The arms and legs are wrapped. The sacred amulets are placed. The Isis knot, and the Plummet. The spells from the book of the dead are read. The arms and legs are tied together. A scroll is placed between the hands of the deceased. The full body is wrapped. The body is painted with liquid resin as glue. A cloth with Osiris painted on it is wrapped around the body. A large cloth is wrapped around the body.
16More steps to the wrapping process. Linen stripes are wrapped around the body to hold the cloth in place. The mummy is put in the first coffin. The mummy is put in the second coffin. The funeral is held. The opening of the mouth ceremony is performed. The mummy is put in the sarcophagus. The mummy is put in its final resting place, the tomb.
17A mummy that looks like it has been unwrapped. It looks like a husband and wife laying next to each other.
18The Great SphinxThe body of the Great Sphinx is 200 feet or 60 meters in length and 65 feet or 20 meters tall. The face of the Sphinx is 13 feet or 4 meters wide and its eyes are 6 feet or 2 meters high.The Great Sphinx was believed to have been built in 2500 B.C.The Great Sphinx is made of limestone which originated fifty million years ago from sediments deposited at the bottom of sea waters.The stele, which is a stone slab that is located between the Sphinx’s paws, describes a story about a young price’s dream. In the dream the Sphinx tells the prince that if he cleared away the sand covering its body that the prince would become the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt.18
19The Great SphinxTo preserve the sphinx archaeologists, geologists, sculptors and scientists have removed large old stones and cement from the earlier repairs and replaced them with new blocks and mortar mixed from lime and sand.Also, water just below the sphinx is getting too close so the landmark is being examined by Cairo University’s Faculty of Engineering.19
20Translating English to Hieroglyphics Rosetta StoneTranslating English to Hieroglyphics
21Our Names in Hieroglyphics Chad in Hieroglyphics is-Mark in Hieroglyphics is-Logan in Hieroglyphics is-Bailey in Hieroglyphics is-
22Our Names in Hieroglyphics cont. Brittnee in Hieroglyphics is-*Did you know*That just a “z” typed into the hieroglyphic generator translates to a “door bolt”?Meaghan in Hieroglyphics is-*Did you know*That both an “f” and a “v” typed into the generator translates to a viper?
23The Rosetta StoneThis is a picture of the real Rosetta Stone in The British Museum in London.It was very difficult to take pictures of it because of the glass and all of the people pushing and shoving to get a better view.
24Rosetta Stone cont.The Rosetta Stone has three different languages on it. They are Latin, Dalmatic, and of course Hieroglyphics. When found, the Rosetta Stone helped uncover Hieroglyphics for the first time.*Did you Know*That the Rosetta Stone was founded by Captain Pierre-Francois Bouchard.
26Cheops Pyramid cont. It is called the Cheops pyramid. It is 450 feet tall and it its base is 13 acres across, which is large enough to fit 10 football fields.Each Stone weighs 2.5 tons and there are about 230,00 blocks.It was built by 100,000 slaves.