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Conceptual and Relational Issues in Academic Advising Compass Project Learning Community Meeting Tom Brown April 23, 2010

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1 Conceptual and Relational Issues in Academic Advising Compass Project Learning Community Meeting Tom Brown April 23,

2

3 The context for this session: A continued focus on student learning, engagement and success.

4 Shift in emphasis…. 1970s and 80sAccess 1980s and 90s Retention 1990s forwardSuccess Alfredo de los Santos Arizona State University

5 A continuing shift…. Teaching Learning Student Success Vincent Tinto, Syracuse University, 2007

6 We recognize that student success is more than just graduation; it is the demonstration of achievement and the sense of accomplishment that gives students options beyond graduation. BSC Project Compass Proposal

7 Student Success Academic achievement Academic achievement Engagement in educationally purposeful activities Engagement in educationally purposeful activities Satisfaction Satisfaction Acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies Acquisition of desired knowledge, skills and competencies Persistence Persistence Attainment of educational objectives Attainment of educational objectives Post-college performance. George Kuh & Associates, 2007 Post-college performance. George Kuh & Associates, 2007

8 Faculty members, whose first priority is excellence in teaching, are committed to working closely with students as instructors, academic advisers, and mentors…. ECSU Fulfilling The Mission

9 Academic Advisors: Lights in the Labyrinth

10 Academic advising is the only structured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution. Wes Habley, ACT

11 TRIAD FOR STUDENT SUCCESS High Quality Teaching Comprehensive Support Programs Developmental Academic Advising

12 A key question: Does academic advising matter to student success?

13 No student service is mentioned in retention research more often as a means of promoting student persistence than academic advising. The Strategic Management of College Enrollments Hossler and Bean, 1990

14 Quality interaction with faculty seems to be more important that any other single college factor in determining minority student persistence. Levin and Levin 1991

15 Making the Most of College Good advising may be the single most underestimated characteristic of a successful college experience. Richard Light, 2001 Making the Most of College Good advising may be the single most underestimated characteristic of a successful college experience. Richard Light, 2001

16 Research has shown that advising improves student retention rates through the establishment of relationships with faculty or staff members who help students to clarify their academic and career goals. Noel Levitz 2006

17 Next to the quality of instruction, academic advising is consistently the next most important area of the college experience to students. Five Year Trend Study- National Student Satisfaction Report Noel Levitz 2006

18 If faculty and staff were knowledgeable about retention strategies and the needs of FFMI students, they would work to meet those needs. LSC Project Compass Proposal

19 Three interventions with greatest impact on student retention in 4-year public colleges 1. Academic advising—integrating advising into first year programs, advising specific populations. 2. First-year programs—first year seminars, learning communities, etc. 3. Learning support—required developmental coursework, tutoring, comprehensive learning assistance.

20 The more interaction students have with faculty and staff, the more likely they are to learn effectively and persist toward achievement of their educational goals.

21 Academic advisors can mediate the gap between student experiences and their expectations.

22 The Status of Academic Advising Sixth National Survey Institutions Responding ACT National Academic Advising Association (NACADA)

23 Faculty continue to be the primary deliverers of academic advising. 6th National Survey on Academic Advising, 2004

24 Too often faculty members are left to sink or swim when it comes to effective student advising—they are blamed for something they lack the professional training to do. Dr. Yolanda Moses President, AAHE Faculty Advising Examined, 2003

25 Most faculty report having had little or no training or other preparation prior to being assigned advisees on their campuses Brown Survey of Faculty,

26 When I first began to advise, I had adequate preparation and training. (n=1570) Strongly agree/agree30% Disagree/strongly disagree53% Brown Survey of Faculty,

27 Adequate preparation and training? I began getting advising folders in the campus mail even before I was actually an advisor. No one told me why I was getting them or what to do with them…. Brown Survey of Faculty,

28 Adequate preparation and training? I had no advising preparation at all. I learned by trial and error…. Brown Survey of Faculty,

29 Lowest Ratings for Advising Program Effectiveness Six th National Survey on Academic Advising (2004 ) Implementing training program for advisors Implementing training program for advisors Evaluating effectiveness of advising program Evaluating effectiveness of advising program Evaluating effectiveness of advisors Rewarding good advisor performance Very effective4-Effective3-Neutral 2-Ineffective1-Very Ineffective

30 TRIAD FOR ADVISING EXCELLENCE Assessment And Evaluation Recognition & Reward Advisor Development

31 Many key competencies are developed after educators arrive on campus. Therefore, colleges must assume the responsibility for teaching and developing their own educators to enhance student learning inside and outside the classroom by providing professional development programs. Brown & Ward, 2007

32 LSC will use Project Compass to design and implement professional development that provides faculty and staff with the resources they need to prepare every student for success… LSC Project Compass Proposal

33 Engage Adjunct Faculty Derek Bok stresses the importance of ensuring that adjunct faculty be properly trained in order for campuses to attain their educational goals… Our Underachieving Colleges Derek Bok, 2006

34 The Center for Education Excellence will facilitate formation of a blended community of part- time and full-time faculty related to best practices for advising, tutoring, teaching and learning at Eastern… ESCU Faculty/Staff working Group

35 Redefining academic advising: From prescriptive to developmental. From an event to a process.

36 1960s Definition Academic Advising “A task concentrated during registration and enrollment that consists mainly of aiding students in the selection of courses.” Handbook of College Administration Asa Knowles 1965

37 Academic Advising… a systematic process based on a close advisor student relationship intended to aid students in achieving their personal, educational, and career goals…. focuses on helping students to acquire skills and attitudes that promote their intellectual and personal development. assists students to make full use of campus and community resources in the process. Developmental Academic Advising Winston, Miller, Ender, Grites & Associates. 1984

38 Faculty and staff who work as advisors assist students with advising or degree program questions, goal setting, course registration, referral to campus resources, and other services designed to contribute to their academic experience. UMPI website

39 The Academic Advising Center coordinates the advisement services for the registration process of new and continuing students. The Advisement Center provides students with information and assistance regarding academic-related matters, handles students’ academic appeals for courses outside a student’s major program, and provides academic support services to freshmen, undeclared, and probationary students. ECSU

40 Bridgewater State College has a commitment to provide academic advising for every matriculated undergraduate. This program provides each student a minimum of five advising contacts, starting with New Student Orientation, and extending through the first semester of enrollment.

41 Quality advising at Lyndon State is a collaborative relationship between a studentand an academic advisor [and] empowers students to realize their maximum educational potential. Quality advising helps students clarify life and career goals and provides referrals to campus resources.

42 Advising is more meaningful when treated as a teaching process rather than a product. Academic Advising for Student Success: A System of Shared Responsibility Susan Frost. 1991

43 Teaching and advising need to be part of a seamless process, sharing the same intellectual sphere, informed by a relatively consistent educational philosophy. Robert M. Berdahl, Historian and President University of California, Berkeley “Teaching Through Academic Advising: A Faculty Perspective.”

44 Shared Goals of Teaching and Advising Increase knowledge Enhance critical thinking abilities Skills acquisition Increase problem solving abilities Broaden Perspectives Integration of learning: making connections and finding meaning

45 Increase Knowledge Purposes of college and learning Purposes of college and learning About themselves About themselves About the worlds in which they live and will live their lives About the worlds in which they live and will live their lives

46 Advisors teach students to: Value the learning process Put the college experience into perspective Core Values National Academic Advising Assn

47 Enhance Critical Thinking Advisors help students think through short-term decisions and long-range plans, which enables students to take charge of their lives. Empowering Lifelong Learning Arthur Chickering Fall 1994 NACADA Journal

48 Advisors teach students to make decisions. Core Values National Academic Advising Assn

49 Skills Acquisition As students frame questions about the future and seek information needed to formulate answers, they practice behaviors and develop skills they will use throughout their lives. Academic Advising for Student Success Susan Frost, 1991

50 Problem Solving The fundamental purpose of academic advising is to help students become effective agents for their own lifelong learning and development. Chickering, 1994

51 A goal of education is helping students to think and solve the problems of life….

52 Broaden Perspectives Learning vs. grades Learning vs. grades

53 Students are afraid: afraid of failing, of not understanding, of having their ignorance exposed or their prejudices challenged, of looking foolish in front of their peers…. Parker Palmer The Courage to Teach, 1998

54 Role of failure Those students who do well in my class aren’t afraid to fail. If they read a problem and don’t instantly know how to do it, they don’t quit or feel embarrassed. They understand that they’re not failing the course because of a failed experiment. Faculty Viewpoint Understanding University Success, 2003

55 Role of Criticism Students need to be willing to receive a critique of their work without perceiving it as an attack on their integrity, intelligence or creativity. Faculty Viewpoint Understanding University Success, 2003

56 Integration of Learning Do Students recognize the value of general education requirements? (n=1555) Strongly agree/agree21% Disagree/strongly disagree52% Brown Survey,

57 Do Students recognize the value of general education requirements? Major, Major, Major! Students, for the most part, have tunnel vision where their studies are concerned Brown Survey of Faculty,

58 Making the Most of College The most effective advisors ask questions or posed challenges that forced students to think about the relationships between their academic work to their personal lives. Richard Light, 2001 Making the Most of College The most effective advisors ask questions or posed challenges that forced students to think about the relationships between their academic work to their personal lives. Richard Light, 2001

59 Field of Study vs. Major/Program

60 Exercise: Constructing a field of study

61 The question students should seek to answer through advising... NOT…. “What courses do I need to take?”

62 The questions students should seek to answer through advising... “How do I want to live my life?” “What can I do at this college to help me move toward this vision of my future?”

63 Big enough questions… What is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life? The Summer Day Mary Oliver, 1992

64 HIERARCHY OF ADVISING Life goals, values, abilities, interests, limitations Vocational/career goals Academic program/Field of Study Selection of courses Scheduling classes Terry O’Bannion, 1972, 1994

65 HIERARCHY OF ADVISING Life goals, values, abilities, interests, limitations Vocational/career goals Academic program/Field of Study Selection of courses Scheduling classes Terry O’Bannion, 1972, 1994

66 Academic advising is assisting students to share the responsibility for academic planning with faculty, with students finally being able to find their own answers and use their advisors as sounding boards. Academic Advising for Student Success Susan Frost, 1991

67 Advisor Responsibilities Help students define and develop realistic goalsHelp students define and develop realistic goals Identify special needsIdentify special needs Connect students to available resourcesConnect students to available resources Assist students to plan consistent with their goals, interests, aptitudes & limitationsAssist students to plan consistent with their goals, interests, aptitudes & limitations Monitor progress toward goalsMonitor progress toward goals Discuss linkage between academic preparation and careersDiscuss linkage between academic preparation and careers

68 Advisee Responsibilities Gather relevant decision making informationGather relevant decision making information Clarify goals, interests, and valuesClarify goals, interests, and values Become knowledgeable about programs, policies, requirements and proceduresBecome knowledgeable about programs, policies, requirements and procedures Accept responsibility for decisionsAccept responsibility for decisions

69 Student Responsibilities Build rapport with his/her advisor. Build rapport with his/her advisor. Determine his/her educational goals and make an educational plan that includes courses and out-of-class activities. Determine his/her educational goals and make an educational plan that includes courses and out-of-class activities. Know curriculum requirements and track progress toward graduation. Know curriculum requirements and track progress toward graduation. Follow college policies, procedures (such as add/drop), and deadlines Follow college policies, procedures (such as add/drop), and deadlines

70 Student Responsibilities Use advising sessions effectively by making appointments, arriving on time, bringing needed materials, asking Use advising sessions effectively by making appointments, arriving on time, bringing needed materials, asking specific questions, and expecting advisors to work with them. Check campus at least twice per week and daily during the week registration opens. Check campus at least twice per week and daily during the week registration opens.

71 Advisement is a two way street Faculty suggested that students’ educations cannot be meaningful if they don’t take ownership of their educations… ESCU Self Assessment Report

72 A Shared Responsibility: A Model

73 Changing Environment & Changing Students 1 st Year2 nd Year3 rd Year4 th, 5 th, 6 th Year Creamer, 2000 Need for Information Need for Consultation Changing Needs for Advising

74 Changing Environment & Changing Students 1 st Year2 nd Year3 rd Year4 th, 5 th, 6 th Year PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL Lynch, 1989; Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000 Need for Information Need for Consultation Changing Needs for Advising Moving InMoving Through Moving On Changing Contexts for Advising

75 Changing Environment & Changing Students 1 st Year 2 nd Year 4 th, 5 th, 6 th year & beyond PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL Lynch, 1989; Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2006 Need for Information Need for Consultation Changing Needs for Advising Moving InMoving Through Moving On II/ S I/SS/ I S I = College/University faculty, advisors, etc. S = The student Changing Contexts for Advising

76 Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions: Moving into college Moving into college Moving through college Moving through college Moving on from college Moving on from college

77 Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions: Moving into college Moving into college Moving through college Moving through college Moving on from college Moving on from college

78 Students who leave college often do so as the result of experiences during the first six weeks…. Astin, Crockett, Tinto

79 Students need additional academic advising and planning during their first year… ESCU Strategy #3: Improving First-Year Advising of Project Compass most at- risk students

80 National Drop Out Rates Freshman to Sophomore Year Mean % Overall 34.3 Mean % Overall 34.3 Four-year public MA 30 Traditional ( SAT mean) 29.5 Liberal ( SAT mean) 35.9

81 National Drop Out Rates Freshman to Sophomore Year Mean % Overall 34.3 Mean % Overall 34.3 Four-year public MA 30 Traditional ( SAT mean) 29.5 Liberal ( SAT mean) 35.9 BSC 26 ECSU 26 LSC 47 UMPI 37

82 Helping students move into college is far and away the most important task for academic advisors. Professor Arthur Chickering, 1994

83 New students make an effective transition to the university community by participating in a first year program. This program encourages academic excellence, creativity, student involvement and self- understanding and fosters a commitment to diversity and civility. ECSU Fulfilling the Mission

84 Progress at BSC First-year students of color Cohort yearPersistence Rate Year %

85 Progress at BSC First-year students Low SES Cohort yearPersistence Rate Year %

86 What are some issues that advisors need to address with first-year students?

87 Students usually have a realistic understanding about the demands of academic work and what is required to be successful in their classes. (n = 1587) Strongly agree/agree13% Disagree/strongly disagree69% Brown Survey of Faculty,

88 Do students understand what is required to be successful in college? Most of them don’t have a clue! They see college work as an extension of high school, and for most of them high school involved little effort. BrownAdvisingSurvey, Most of them don’t have a clue! They see college work as an extension of high school, and for most of them high school involved little effort. Brown Advising Survey,

89 58% reported A/A- as their average high school grade. 93% earned a B average or higher. 65% expect to earn at least a B average in college CIRP Survey Public Universities

90 Do students understand what is required to be “successful”? How many hours did you study during a typical week in your last year of high school? 36%More than 10 hours 36%More than 10 hours 51% Five hours or less 51% Five hours or less 44% Less than two hours a week!! CIRP Freshmen Survey Public Universities, % Less than two hours a week!! CIRP Freshmen Survey Public Universities, 2008

91 Students have a realistic understanding of what is required to be successful. My favorite comment from students: “This is way not high school….” Brown Advising Survey,

92 A major part of working with first year students is helping them understand that they’re not in high school anymore… Sam Gorovitz, Professor of Philosophy Former Director, First-Year Programs Syracuse University

93 Most students are never taught how to study. We call it the “hidden curriculum.” Marcy Fallon University of Maryland, 2002

94 Preparing for a “big test” Say a prayer—that’s what I do. Say a prayer—that’s what I do. Eat lots of peanut butter or other “brain foods.” Eat lots of peanut butter or other “brain foods.” Listen to Enya the night before a test. University of Utah Chronicle of Higher Education December 6, 2002 Listen to Enya the night before a test. University of Utah Chronicle of Higher Education December 6, 2002

95 I have to teach students how to study before I can get to course content… Faculty Member Odessa Community College, 2005

96 Advisor Skills Listening--Comfortable with silenceListening--Comfortable with silence Open-ended questionsOpen-ended questions Providing clarification and feedbackProviding clarification and feedback Being positiveBeing positive Self-disclosingSelf-disclosing Offering options and alternativesOffering options and alternatives

97 No one expects advisors to be counselors and tutors. Referrals are best if advisors initiate the connection or coach students about how to make the connection themselves. LSC Self Assessment Report

98 Referral Skills Know how to refer andKnow how to refer and when Don’t refer too quicklyDon’t refer too quickly Know referral resourcesKnow referral resources Clarify reasons for referralClarify reasons for referral Explain what referral resource will provideExplain what referral resource will provide Refer to a specific personRefer to a specific person Assist in making the appointmentAssist in making the appointment Follow-upFollow-up

99

100 Students referred to one service will use other services without referral…. ESCU Self Assessment Report

101 Intrusive Advising? Intrusive Advising?

102

103 Active Outreach Advising

104 Intrusive advising has been shown to improve the effectiveness of advising, enhance student academic skills and increase retention. Earl, 1987

105 Studies have shown that probationary students have higher GPAs when intrusive advising is used. Heisserer & Parette, 2002

106 There is compelling evidence regarding the importance students place on the value of intrusive advising relationships in the context of their ability to persist. DeAnna Burt, 2009

107 Students who were happiest with their Portfolios of Excellence (POE) experience were those who had a peer mentor who reached out to them to take charge of the connection and where a professional or faculty mentor was easily available. BSC POE Focus Group Report

108 Intrusive Advising Intrusive advising does not mean “hand holding” or parenting. Rather, it does mean active concern and a willingness to assist students to explore programs and services to improve their skills and motivate them to persist toward their goals.

109 Intrusive Advising Intrusive advising means taking a personal interest in students and approaching them with an open caring attitude. A personal relationship with a concerned member of the campus community can reduce the psychological distance that hinders academic integration.

110 Intrusive Advising Strategies Assessment and placement Mandated orientation programs Required advising meetings Learning communities First-year seminar courses Early alert systems

111 The university will employ intrusive first year advising… ESCU Strategy #3: Improving First-Year Advising of Project Compass most at- risk students

112 Academic advising is the only structured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution. Wes Habley, ACT

113 Comments? Questions? Challenges? Successes?

114 Active Outreach Advising: People AND Programs

115 Required Advising Meetings Structured content: What should be discussed and when? What would be discussed at a first advising meeting? At a meeting three weeks into the first term? At a meeting following midterms? Prior to registration for the following term? At the first meeting of the following term?

116 Early alert systems Identify students who are having difficulty and also provide recommended sources of assistance. These were originally sent to faculty through campus mail, but they are increasingly available in web-based formats.

117 Intrusive Advising Strategies Midterm grades/progress reports Supplemental Instruction Peer Support/Study groups Clear statements of responsibilities Advising “contracts” Mentor/Peer mentor programs Others??

118 SUCCESS=Commitment+Determination+ HARD WORK Jaime Escalante HARD WORK Jaime Escalante

119 SUCCESS=Commitment+Determination+ HARD WORK Time

120 The intrusive model is proactive and seeks to address problems as they emerge, rather than being reactive. Essentially, advisors reach out to help students instead of waiting for students to seek help. University of Minnesota General College


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