Presentation on theme: "Eric Hockersmith,Gordon Axel, and Earl Prentice (NOAA Fisheries Service) Development of an Ogee-based PIT-tag Detection System for Spillbays Roger Anderson,"— Presentation transcript:
Eric Hockersmith,Gordon Axel, and Earl Prentice (NOAA Fisheries Service) Development of an Ogee-based PIT-tag Detection System for Spillbays Roger Anderson, Alex Artyukhov, and Eric Waters (Destron Fearing) Don Warf, Scott Livingston, Darren Chase (PSMFC) Presenter: Sandra Downing Jack Sands, Jon Lomeland, Stuart Gregory, & Mark Plummer (Corps) Scott Bettin (BPA)
Why are PIT-tag systems needed for spillbays? Outline of Presentation Design considerations Evaluation of installed PIT-tag system Development process Installation schedule
The spillway has long been considered the safest passage route for migrating juvenile salmonids at Columbia and Snake River dams. A review of 13 estimates of spillway mortality published through 1995 concluded that the mortality rates for fish passing standard spillbays range from 0 to 2%. Radiotelemetry has shown that the RSWs attract ~50-60% of the fish using the spillways.
Why are PIT-tag systems needed for spillbays? 25-35% of the salmonids detected as adults do not have any detection records as juveniles except for tagging information More detections could help with survival estimates for reaches and specific ESUs Detections would provide route specific information RPA 55.7 – Investigate the feasibility of developing PIT-tag detectors for spillways and turbines. With spill being used as the preferred passage route, fewer PIT tagged fish are being detected at the dams. A PIT-tag system in spillbay could potentially help to return the precision of smolt survival indices back to historical levels.
Where to install PIT-tag antennas? Forebay side, on spillbay gate, or in ogee? Design considerations
Ogee face Ogee-based design is attractive for several reasons: 1)it will not affect hydraulics; 2) there will be no debris issues; 3) the design will permit multiple antennas to be installed across the length of the ogee and therefore reduce the impact of tag collisions (i.e., multiple tagged fish being in the field simultaneously); 4) the design will permit multiple antenna arrays to be installed, which is important from an O&M perspective and to reduce the impact of tag collisions; and 5) the design will potentially worked for all styles of spillbays
Nice laminar flow along ogee face in RSW Spillbay
390 ft 350 ft 380 ft-water depth is 4.0 ft velocity is 62 fps 372 ft- water depth is 3.7 ft, velocity is 66 fps 360 ft 370 ft Black arrows represent every 5’ on face of ogee Ogee-based design is difficult for several reasons 350 ft 380 ft 353 ft-water depth is 3.2 ft velocity is 75 fps 363 ft -water depth is 3.5 ft, velocity is 71 fps How fish pass down the ogee is unknown
Design Considerations for the Ogee-based PIT-Tag Detection System Want flexibility in generating field shapes to help minimize tag collisions and dealing with unknown fish passage behavior Multiple antenna arrays Test a faster tag Need powerful antennas Multiple antennas within each array
Ogee-based PIT-tag Detection System Four antenna arrays Four or five antennas in each array Transceivers will be under water Faster 16-msec PIT tag
This design is actually similar to the corner-collector antenna design. The design also uses what Destron Fearing learned with the antenna tests done with the spillbay gate in the repair bay at Bonneville Dam. Antenna Design: Vertical Flat Plates Each antenna has 3 subantennas
X Y Why are Tag Collisions an Issue? For ogee-based systems, this can happen in the X, Y, and Z directions.
Multiple antennas within the trenches What to do to minimize tag collisions in different directions? X direction Y direction Z direction Multiple trenches Reduce power so antenna field is only 3’ wide (possible? 2 subantennas?) Reduce power so antenna field is only 3’ deep Y and Z directions at same time Reduce power so antenna field is only 2’ deep Reduce power so antenna field is only 3’ wide and 2-3’ deep (possible?)
water depth: 4 feet water velocity: 65 fps Distance for 2 messages: 4 feet Easy to imagine multiple fish being in such a large field Top Antenna Array 5.5’-wide at bottom and 4-5’-wide field for top foot of water Full power – option 1
water depth: 4 feet water velocity: 65 fps Distance for 2 messages: 4 feet Top Antenna Array 5’-wide for most of field and covering 3’ of water Middle power – option 1 This shape only helps minimize tag collisions in Z direction
water depth: 4 feet water velocity: 65 fps Distance for 2 messages: 4 feet Top Antenna Array 5’-wide for most of field and covering 2’ of water Low power – option 1 This shape only helps minimize tag collisions in Z direction (Most likely would get non-reading gaps between antennas).
water depth: 4 water velocity: 65 Distance for 2 messages: 4 ft Distance for 2 short messages: 2 ft Top Antenna Array 3’-wide at bottom and covering 3’ of water Middle power – option 2 This shape helps minimize tag collisions in Y and Z directions
water depth: 4 water velocity: 65 Distance for 2 messages: 4 ft Distance for 2 short messages: 2 ft Top Antenna Array Low power – option 2 3’-wide at bottom and covering 2’ of water Adjust power down even more to minimize tag collisions in Y and Z directions
Development process New ogee transceiver finished in March 2011 Testing at Pasco with transceivers and 6 subantennas Dry and submerged testing Faster 16-msec tag completed in 2010
Installation schedule If installed at Ice Harbor Dam, 2012 If another dam is chosen, 2013 at earliest MOU between BPA and Corps will dictate the schedule
How do we evaluate how well the system detects tagged fish? How do we determine what modifications are needed for future systems? Evaluation of installed PIT-tag system
PIT-tag only fish released above spillbay using pipes inserted at depths used for evaluation of RSWs or TSWs. Fish double tag with PIT and an active tag released into the forebay.
S1 S2 S3 S4 D1 D2 TestRelease point & Group Three different water depthsD1-A, D2-A, S1-A Three or four different locations across the entrance S1-A, S2-B, S3-B, ?: S4-B Fish tagged with 31-msec and 16-msec tagsS1-A, S1-C ?: also S2 Evaluate 2 or 3 different power settings or field shapes with both tag types S1-A, S1-C, S1-D, S1-E ?: also S2 Evaluate groups of fish at 2 or 3 different power settings with both tag types S1-F, S1-G, S1-H, S1- I ?: also S2 S=surface and D=depth Preseason Evaluation of Ogee-based PIT-tag Detection System Minimum of 12 tests with yearling Chinook salmon, 5 tests with Steelhead and subyearlings
Preseason Evaluation of Ogee-based PIT-tag Detection System Release individually tagged hatchery into the capture velocity Individual trenches Evaluate detection efficiencies for Combination of individual trenches (e.g., 1&2; 1&3; 1&4; 1,2,&3; 1,2,&4) All trenches together Determine number of reads per tagged fish for Different antenna sizes, trenches, species, tag types Use above data to determine how many antenna arrays are needed
Release double-tagged fish at Lower Monumental Dam Release 500 double-tagged yearling Chinook salmon Release 500 double-tagged steelhead Release 1,000 double-tagged subyearling Chinook salmon Monitor double-tagged fish at RSW Spillbay at Ice Harbor Dam Fish will be double-tagged with PIT tags and either acoustic or radio active tags Inseason Evaluation of Ogee PIT-tag Detection System
Inseason Evaluation of Ogee PIT-tag Detection System If preseason testing indicated a large significant difference between power settings, use a block design to compare two settings during the normal outmigration season. Monitor number of fish detected Monitor number of reads per tagged fish over time Monitor noise measurements for the transceivers over time
Ice Harbor Dam Spillway RSW Bypass TurbineNav Lock PIT-tag system NEW PIT-tag system Depending on the salmonid group and spill pattern, 5-20% of the fish use the bypass and 60-90% use the spillway. The RSW attracts ~50% of the spillway fish. Therefore, we are currently detecting 5-20% of the tagged fish with the full-flow PIT-tag system. Adding the new ogee-based PIT-tag detection system, we hope to detect around 50% of the tagged fish passing the dam.