53. Best Practice for Mine Closure Source: Environmental Policy in Mining, A. Warhurst
6Singrauli Coalfields (SC) 14,873 hectares for 10 mining blocks44.4% for mining excavation12.2% for overburden dumps17.0% for infrastructure26.4% for other operationsEnvir. ManagementExternal dumping area is kept to a minimum.Dragline, shvel-dumper combination and dozers are for filling purposesPeriphery of overburden dump slope kept an angle of 28°Height no more than 30mResultsSeveral species of plants grown on overburden dumps (Dep. Botany, Banaras University)
7(Bharat Aluminum Co. Ltd.) Amarkantak BauxiteMines (ABM) – SSM(Bharat Aluminum Co. Ltd.)Reclamation ProgrammeReclamation work started in 1979Void areas filled with lateritic overburdenAnd covered with top soil layerRestored land > 150 ha18-20 ha/year reclaimed with aprox. 60,000 trees of 52 speciesIt is possible to reclaim them through crop cultivation andSmall appropriate dose of NPK fertilizers
84. Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI) Amjhore Pyrite Mine (APM)Acid Mine Drainage most serious problemShales excavated contains in dilution until 22% sulphurMaterial from excavations are aprox. 0.3 TonsIn rainy season increases the acidity of the soilHigh acidity affects the revegetation process.EnvironmentalImpactsCMRISuccessfully revegetation processwas obtained using lime,phosphatic waste, and industrialcinders.It works!
95. Planning for ClosureSource: Environmental Policy in Mining, A. Warhurst
106. Constraints and Opportunities Developing CountriesLack of infrastructure and resources.Ineffective information technologyPolicy failuresPolitical barriersLack of monitoring and controlIndiaMulti-disciplinary HR.Infrastructure facilities.Well-recognized R&D facilities.
117. Conclusions & Recomendations Environmental considerations at every stage.Good understanding of resource deposits and rehabilitation philosophy.Water treatment of mine discharges.Considering of Environmental Policy Reforms.International Agencies co-operation improves the process of clean technology transfer.
128. ReferencesEnvironmental Policy in Mining, A. Warhurst, L. Noronha, 1999Metallic - Minerals map of India,, 15:17h, 15:32h, 17.10(Gevra)(Gevra)Jharia CFRaniganj CF