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1/16/2014 1 Copyright 9-2002 Edwin L Young, PhD Levels of Maturity Tailoring Programs to Facilitate Growth in Maturity of Youth in the Stars and Stripes.

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Presentation on theme: "1/16/2014 1 Copyright 9-2002 Edwin L Young, PhD Levels of Maturity Tailoring Programs to Facilitate Growth in Maturity of Youth in the Stars and Stripes."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD Levels of Maturity Tailoring Programs to Facilitate Growth in Maturity of Youth in the Stars and Stripes Program By Edwin L. Young, PhD The Natural Systems Institute

2 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION IX 1.LESSON 1 HOW LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6 ARE DEALT WITH IN STARS AND STRIPES 2.LESSON 2 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM: PERSONAL MATURITY FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO 3.LESSON 3 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM: INTER-PERSONAL MATURITY FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO 4.LESSON 4 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM: MATURITY IN INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO 5.LESSON 5 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM: INTELLECTUAL MATURITY FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO 6.LESSON 6 LEVEL 7 MATURITY, UNIVERSALISM: SOCIETAL MATURITY FOR STAFF TO ASPIRE TO

3 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD TABLE OF CONTENTS LESSON 1 LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6 1.Developmental Ages from Childhood through Late Teens Correspond Roughly to the Progression through Stripes to Star 2.Ages and Stages Evolve through Significant Structural Transitions –Over Time, as a Result of Significant Life Events, in Relationships, through Roles, and within Social Structures 3.A Progression of Seven Potential Levels of Maturity 4.A Persons Level of Intelligence Limits the Probable Upper Range of Their Level of Maturity 5.Some Important Attributes Involved In The Progression Through Successive Levels Of Maturity 6.Level 1: Pleasure-Pain 7.Level 2: Power 8.Level 3: Rules 9.Level 4: Loyalty 10.Level 5: Principles 11.Level 6: Individual Situations 12.Application of the Concept of Levels of Maturity to the Stars and Stripes Program 13.Characteristics of Progression through Stripes in Relation to Intelligence and Maturity Levels 14.How Age and Life Experiences Are Related to Progression in Stripes 15.How Changes in the Self Take Place in Adolescents in the Institution 16.Some Characteristics Typically Acquired During Adolescent Developmental Stages Compared to Criteria for Progression in Stars and Stripes 17.The Social Arts Learned in Stars and Stripes Program Features Correspond to the Progression in Interpersonal and Societal Maturation 18.Work and Recreational Activities Suited to Each Maturity Level 19.The Heart and Soul of Stars and Stripes

4 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD Developmental Ages from Childhood through Late Teens Correspond Roughly to the Progression through Stripes to Star STAGES Early childhood: initiates enduring incorporation of the Implicit Other. Play taking of parent roles. Will competency expansion through spontaneous self selected challenges. Pre-teens: initiates increased autonomy of will and competency of skill. With increased experimentation comes accelerated mastery and excitement and challenge and also possibility of danger. Early teens: initiates beginning of emotional and territorial independence from parents; re- orientation to peers; establishing informal roles and identities, complementary relationship scenarios with close friends. Late teens and early adulthood: initiates territorial and emotional separation from parents and moves toward an independent belief system, values, view of the world, life style, economic self reliance, vision of ones role and destiny in ever encompassing strata of the world, and, culminating in establishing enduring intimate relationships and parenting. STRIPES Stripe 1. No runaway [AWOL] attempts Controls verbal aggression Controls physical aggression Follows directions and rules Respect for others ownership Respect for property Stripe 2. School behavior/grades Social skills Positive group member Non-agitation Controls horseplay Basic self-awareness Stripe 3. Problem-solves Coaches Encourages Mentors Patience Problem-solves Short-term goals Long-term goals Stripe 4. Shows positive leadership Communication skills Accepts success and failure gracefully Assists in solving conflicts, Mediates Endures unavoidable delays, hardships, setbacks Has completed project benefiting others

5 5 copyright Edwin L. Young Ages and Stages Evolve through Significant Structural Transitions – Over Time, as a Result of Significant Life Events, in Relationships, through Roles, and within Social Structures Infancy: development of the basic orientation of the Will has the most pervasive effect on the remainder of life. Early childhood: initiates enduring incorporation of the Implicit Other. Play taking of parent roles. Will competency expansion through spontaneous self selected challenges. Pre-teens: initiates increased autonomy of will and competency of skill. With increased experimentation comes accelerated mastery with the excitement of challenge and the possibility of danger. Early teens: initiates beginning of emotional and territorial independence from parents; re-orientation to peers; establishing informal roles and identities, complementary relationship scenarios with close friends. Late teens and early adulthood: initiates territorial and emotional separation from parents and peers and moves toward an independent belief system, values, view of the world, life style, economic self reliance, vision of ones role and destiny in ever encompassing strata of the world, and, culminating in establishing enduring intimate relationships and parenting. The impact of parents, parent substitutes, events, and setting structures on the infant up through early childhood is to define for the child a fundamental sense of I can versus I cant. In early childhood these same factors plus peer relations begin to define the child in terms of I should versus I shouldnt. This orientation of restraint versus experimenting determines the growth of competency, confidence, and satisfaction with self. From here through late teens, status and identity of parents is a major aspect of identity formation. In pre-teens there is increased exploration out of the sight-range of parents which is accompanied by an ever-increased drive for autonomy and competency. This leads to the increased possibility of mis-behavior and accidents. To curb the newly empowered will of the pre-teen, parents invoke rules and imbue rules with an aura of absolutism. Rule oriented games are played and spontaneous play begins to be governed by group initiated rules with arguments and negotiations over acceptable rules. The will is being is being expanded but constrained by and conformed to rules. In early teens the influence of parents and adult authorities diminishes, setting structures ascend, and peer relations and social roles begin to predominate. The former restraint versus experimentation orientation reveals the power of its early influence in the face of expanding territorial independence. The greater the earlier empowered will, the greater the territorial adventuring. The insecurity of moving out into the strange adult world is overcome by mutual dependency within a peer group. To have security, peers must develop a code of loyalty to one another. What the group says now has to become the rule so the united power of the group functions to back each other up. This paves the way for an evolving degree of independence, strength, and self reliance of Will. Emotional security at this stage determines the extent to which the teen develops social, intellectual, and physical competence. The initial assignment or adoption of formal and informal roles shapes their developing character, preferences, and behavior. Roles change frequently based on the expediency of the moment. At the same time, with the fluidity of childhood carried over, and knowing adulthood is around the corner, they engage in trying on identities. They eventually develop a degree of emotional independence from the peer group. They begin to want to trust their own judgment, yet still needing their judgment validated by others. These dynamics eventually work together to begin to crystallize Identity. Dominance of rules and group loyalty is replaced with the necessity to use judgment informed by newly developing awareness of consequences. As they develop a capacity for abstract thinking they make the move to adopt general principles by which to guide their acts. At this stage, identity reorients in that it becomes more shaped from within and is developed as a counterpoint in relation to parents. Independence of will takes a surge forward and encompasses knowledge, skill, traits, beliefs, values, preferences, style. Departing from the ways of parents and peers and separating emotionally, territorially, and economically requires the freedom and strength of will to envision ones own future and how to prepare for it. Identity is the launching pad for this great adventure. Life becomes more complex and demands the self reformulate the bases for decision making. A transition is gradually made to learning to judge each unique situation on its own merits and seeing exceptions even to principles. 1/16/2014

6 6 Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 3. A Progression of Seven Potential Levels of Maturity Level 7: Uses broader and deeper perspectives that encompasses Universalism to evaluate choices for action Level 6: Uses assessment of individual Situations as basis for actions Level 5: Actions are guided by conventional Principles of living Level 4: Actions are influenced by Loyalty to Peers Level 3: Oriented to Rules laid down by authorities with the understanding that the rules should be absolute Level 2: Acts are Oriented to the Power of those in charge or those with the most strength or leverage in bargaining Level 1: Guided by immediate or anticipated Experience of Pleasure-pain THE CENTRAL LEADING PRINCIPLE, AT EACH LEVEL OF MATURITY, ON WHICH THE PERSONS CONDUCT OF THEIR LIFE IS BASED

7 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 4.A Persons Level of Intelligence Limits the Probable Upper Range of Their Level of Maturity Levels of Maturity Levels of Intelligence Very High High Above Average Average Below Average Low Very Low Intelligence range Maturity range Very High High Above Average Average Below Average Low Very Low PROBABLE RANGE

8 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 5. Some Important Attributes Involved In The Progression Through Successive Levels Of Maturity The Following Are Some of the Attributes that Either Phase in or Are Gradually Transformed Over the Successive Ages and Stages Outlined in the Following Levels of Maturity Focus of attention Relation to objects Relation to people Relation to time Degrees of differentiation of peoples characteristics Role playing parental roles Relation to own behavior Strategies for coping, acquiring, and fighting – from physical to verbal Relation to rules Degrees of awareness of consequences Internalizing parents Relation to peers Quest for mastery Territorial expansion Role playing heroes Emancipation from parents Orientation to ones future Expanded view of the world Emancipation from Peers Relation to the complexities of life Abstract understanding of values and conscious prioritizing of values Economic integration, life style independence, and self reliance Relation to own family Accepting dependents

9 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 6. LEVEL 1: Pleasure-Pain CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 1 Level 1 is typical of very young children and increasingly rare with increase in age. If early life conditions were chaotic, neglectful, and devoid of nurturing, Level 1 persists with aging. Attention and focus of awareness is on the immediate, what can be touched, seen, heard, smelled, as well as internal bodily sensations like hunger, thirst, elimination, and physical pain and pleasure. Time orientation is restricted to the present and immediate past and future. Schedules are not internalized or observed. Others persons are reacted to on the basis of whether they inflict pain or pleasure. They do not take notice of whether the other is experiencing pleasure or pain. Others are more like any other object except that they can inflict pain and they can give or take what the person wants. The others wishes are not regarded. Their actions are determined by immediate experiences or directed to, what among immediately present objects, they want. Their memory is confined to stimuli that produce pain or pleasure and actions to avoid pain or elicit pleasure. They do exhibit curiosity, but explorations and experimental manipulations are not guided by a strategy to understand or solve perplexities. There is very limited retention of successful or unsuccessful patterns of action. There is no awareness of their affect on others, nor do they intend affect others feelings. Decision making is more rudimentary and is rather limited to the prominence of immediate stimuli from which to choose. Their reaction to frustration is rage, screaming, or crying. Others attempt at controlling them is met with the same frustration reactions.

10 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 7. Level 2: Power CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 2 Level 2 is typical of early childhood and usually extends roughly from age two through seven or eight. Orientation to power is influenced by parenting styles and manner of exposure to peers. Attention and focus of awareness shifts to the characteristics of people in the immediate vicinity. The child begins to notice that avoidance of pain and frustration and access to desired objects has something to do with interactions with the bigger people. Inhibiting some behaviors and exhibiting others in the presence of and at the signals from these bigger people can make life easier and results in more often getting what one wants. Time orientation shifts to expectations of what may come next when one behaves in a certain way and to anticipations of when the bigger people come and go and what they may do next. Other people are differentiated into those who have the power to affect and control ones life as well as their power over peers and to the manner in which they execute this power. They begin to store this knowledge of who has power and who does not and what influences the actions of these powerful people. They begin to learn how to use this knowledge to manipulate power figures in order to get and avoid what they do and do not want and even to manipulate the power figures in relation to peers. They can hold intentions in check and inhibit behavior and make rudimentary decisions among behavioral possibilities of relative advantage and disadvantage. They can selectively exhibit and inhibit signs of frustration like rage, screaming and crying. They learn to use behavioral and even linguistic signs to produce more favorable results from power figures. Peers become possible rivals, allies, or enemies and they rapidly alternate between which of these possibilities their peers will be for the moment. They learn how to interact with objects to make them more interesting or pleasure-ful or less painful and frustrating. They learn to manipulate objects to elicit desired responses from power figures. They retain this information for future use and even combine behavior patterns and build upon them. They experience intrinsic satisfaction or reward from creating new successful behavioral patterns and this engenders a quest for mastery and its concomitant experience of satisfaction. They begin to learn to induce cooperative strategies from peers and therefore begin to see peers as people with characteristics. Discriminating between and using these peer characteristics leads to a sense of social mastery.

11 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 8. Level 3: Rules CHARACTERISTICS of LEVEL 3 Level 3 tends to begin around seven or eight and extends to around twelve. Having learned the satisfaction of intending and succeeding and acquiring a strong motivation for unopposed mastery, this strong willed creature was subsequently faced with the more powerful will of the big people. On the one hand, the parents control is often backed up by the force of physical punishment and the terror of booming, harsh voices. On the other hand, control is reinforced by pleasant consequences when the little will is enacted in approved ways. The child eventually becomes a expert at discerning relevant signs from adults and differentiating between the patterns associated with different adults. The adults take advantage of this knowledge by framing approval and disapproval for common behaviors as rules. This simplifies the childs world so that he/she internalizes the rules and how to apply them to sets of situations and behaviors. The control patterns of the parents, their rule dispensing traits, become embedded in the childs mind as implicit parents that are now portable. Wherever, he/she goes, in or out of the view of the actual parents, the implicit parents invisibly and unconsciously maintain control over the childs will and behavior. The child picks up the powerful and magical character of rules. At the same time, the child begins to be able to transform the implicit parents, or rather transform himself into the parents, and is able to play as though he/she were a parent. The child pretends to be or role-plays the parents, especially this powerful characteristic of the parents of controlling through rules. The child can now control the will and behavior of peers with rules like the parent does. This is a new form of mastery that is felt not only as a great extension of power but also gives the child a powerful sense of self or a sense of self that is very powerful and therefore extremely pleasant and reinforcing. Now, when a peer does not act the way the child wants them to, he/she does not have to hit but can invoke the rule. He/she can say, You are not supposed to do that. That is against the rules. The parenting style of the parents will determine the way the child relates to itself in terms of expressing or inhibiting behavior encompassed by the parents rule orientation. The child also, similarly, relates to others with respect to rule related behavior. Furthermore, these processes determine the way the child relates to rule-ness in itself and in general. For example, should parents show hostility to rules and exhibit inconsistency, arbitrariness, and inconsistent but extremely harsh consequences for rule breaking, the child will grow up with a tendency to focus on but rebel against rules and as well as against rule dispensers, namely authorities. Each parental style with respect to rules will show up in some manner in the rule orientation of the child. This may likely stay with the child for the rest of its life.

12 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 9. Level 4: Loyalty Level 4 begins roughly around age 13, just as the youth is beginning puberty and has hit a spurt in growth, and can extend indefinitely into the persons future. Most youths at this age have learned about rules but each has their own way of relating to rules. At this age, and his physical size suddenly approaching that of the older youths, the youth develops an increased drive for mastery. With the combination of age, hormones, and size, along with considerable experience exploring the world, the youth feels the time is right to move farther beyond the supervision of adults. He is not sure enough of himself to do this alone so he teams up with others his age. He joins or forms a peer group. The surge for independence causes them to want to challenge and defy the rules of adults. As the group begins to plan, adventure, and explore the world they find they have different ideas about rules. Their awareness of consequences in this larger world is, however, still limited at this time. Together, they take pleasure in engaging in risky and devious activities. They can demonstrate their power without the constraints of adults and their rules. While they compete with one another and other groups in showing off their mastery and daring, puberty also makes the male aware of the girls watching their feats which tends to push them beyond their limits, while the girls watch and cheer or ridicule. Finding that they can maneuver about the world demonstrating their power, yet aware of possible real danger that they cannot handle alone, they bond together as an identifiable group. They feel increasingly powerful. They develop their own rules and plan new challenges together. They envision possibilities of new triumphs. During this phase, they learn the skills of cooperation and coordination that enable them to execute more complex plans in the future with more fine-tuned timing. To succeed, they must be able to count on one another. Their adventures require that they must perfect the art of deception toward outsiders. To operate efficiently, they have to parcel out roles so that they know who can and will do what, when, especially when threatened and especially when they are temporarily separated from one another. While the power of rules seemed magical at the earlier level, now it is the power of the prowess of the group. With a few successes and their lack of knowledge of consequences, they are lead to feel invincible. The ethos of each group is that their group is the coolest, smartest, most powerful, and most formidable. While they assign each other roles, frequently changing circumstances demand that roles change quickly and frequently. A hold-over of childhood imagination permits them to fantasize that they are the greatest in each role. When they see heroes on the screen playing that kind of role, they fantasize that they are that screen hero. This becomes a temporary identity and the exuberance that comes with each new identity is so prized that any dirty dig about it, especially from outsiders, can start a fight. Insiders often play at digging each other. Serious dirty digs, however, are to be used only toward outsiders and their use becomes a valued art in a kind of verbal warfare that perpetually treads dangerously close to precipitating battles between groups. If a battle is going to break out, they each must be able to count on being backed up by the rest of the group. The extent to which this loyal in-group becomes antisocial and delinquent is a function of the structures of the community, the institutions having responsibility over them such as school and police, and also parents.

13 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 10. Level 5: Principles LEVEL 5 begins after Level 4, however, there is no time table. 1.For Level 5 to begin, there must be certain preconditions. a.There must be adult-minded people who know, understand, live by, can teach, and coach the youth about principles. b.There also must be some kind of consistent structure where choices requiring, or providing the opportunity to, exercise principles exist and where correct choices are recognized and reinforced. c.The persons teaching and coaching must be available at opportune times to allow the youth to discuss principles and the situations he faced or faces that did or could invoke the use of principles. 2.Level 4 peer groups can have a code that is the opposite of recognized principles and yet the group members can feel they are perfectly in the right to uphold their code. Moving beyond loyalty to their unprincipled group code and up to principled living requires a major effort of will and strength of character that rejects the peer group code and usually requires a major effort of mind to understand the rationale and abstract ideas entailed in each principle. 3.Many youths are not mentally capable of this level of abstract reasoning. However, if the youth is in an institution, for an extended period of time, that is structured to: a. Guide the youth to act with principled behavior; b. To provide recognition and positive feedback for adhering to and upholding principles; and, furthermore, c. Is designed to overcome the countervailing negative influences that could come from peer groups in the institution, d. Then the youth can learn principled behavior without having to understand the abstract reasons for the principles. 4.Some of the basic topics concerned with principles are: Honesty, Integrity, Fairness, Responsibility. Compassion, Perseverance, Respectfulness, Cooperation, Civic Duty, and Courage. 5.Youths may be able to make the move to Level 5 if they are fortunate enough to have either been brought up with these preconditions or have been placed in an institution that provides a structure with these preconditions and does so in a way that overcomes the influence of a negative home environment and a negative peer group in the home community. 6.Furthermore, in order for these fortunate youths to rise to Level 5, they must be in an institutional program that facilitates their own personal goals to meet the following internal conditions: a.They have to achieve an emotional emancipation from their parents. b.They also have to develop an emotional independence from their peer group. c.They have to want to learn to trust their own judgment. d.They have to: i.Move toward their own independent belief system, ii.Develop values that they own, iii.Develop their own view of the world and what ethical principles should be observed in that world, iv.Create their own life style, v.Establish economic self-reliance, vi.Have a vision of their future role in the world, vii.All of which culminate in establishing an intimate relationship with a lifes partner and starting their own family. 7.When these internal conditions are met, they will feel and understand ethical dilemmas and the difficulty of adhering to principles but also will more readily be able to appreciate and uphold their principles.

14 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 11. Level 6: Individual Situations 1.Level 6 does not usually begin to develop until the person passes over into young adulthood and enters the world of work and family life. Principles could become a preoccupation in the in-between period, particularly if the person attends college. 2.The conditions that prompt a move to a situation-oriented life, and particularly situation-based ethics, have to do with facing real-life situations that can entail far-reaching and perilous consequences. These conditions are likely to arise when facing relationship decisions that can do extensive damage to others in the short or long term. For example, if the person faces a dilemma that entails: if you tell, you lose, if you do not tell you create a false basis for the relationship. Also, as a newcomer in a company, these situations with ethical dilemmas will arise quite often. For instance there may be situations where, if you take the decision to adhere to your principles you avoid a sense of personal culpability, but you also may put the health of many people at risk. It is a matter of being able to take larger perspectives and put values on a priority scale. 3.In the company workplace, the dedicated rule-oriented person is often seen as a buffoon. Yet, in a dispute between management and employees, even principled people can resort to strict adherence to rules because they know that by doing so they sabotage the company or bring work flow to a virtual standstill and force management to concede. In such circumstances, one can usually avoid blame by hiding behind rule-based behavior. 4.In another example, a situation could have to do with exposing the possibility of widespread harm that is nevertheless difficult to detect. A close friend erred in decision making that caused the potential danger. It may be difficult to lay the blame at your door if you adhere to the principle of non-betrayal of the friend who has erred. The principle of truth-telling presents a conflict with the non-betrayal principle. In such a case the non-betrayal principle can easily be conceded to. While truth-telling may expose the friends negligence and expose both the friend and you, as whistleblower, to the possibility of losing your jobs and risking the welfare of your families. The alternative of withholding the truth of possible danger in order to protect the friend may expose many people to danger. Many TV dramas have such dilemmas at the core of the plot. 5.The principled persons fallacy in the workplace is not obvious. Principles can be used as a guise when, for instance, an administrator of a large companys employees health plan says it is a matter of principle to prohibit approving benefits for necessary medical procedures even if the consequences are life-threatening. Yet, he knows, but for cost, the policy could be changed. From opposite end of the spectrum, a physician may say that it is matter of principle to make sure that he gets his patient a donor organ when to do so violates the policy of adhering to a donor list and ensuring fairness for all in need. He faces the horror of either seeing his patient die or violating the policy. If he violates the policy, he does not have to see some other patient die. Hard choices! However, when looked at from the broader perspective, the value of maintaining fairness for all, even those whom you do not see, outweighs the seemingly altruistic dedication to the one, namely yours. 6.When one enters the world of family responsibility but also has an occupation, rules and principles that apply to either family or company may conflict, leaving one in impossible dilemmas. In either case, principles may have to be suspended in favor of values pertaining to larger scale issues. In one case ones own family may be put at risk in favor of a higher value and in another case a whole company may be put at risk. The stakes can be very high. Such issues require being able to see the larger picture and accepting the disadvantage on the smaller, more personal scale of one family or one company. The issues can be quite complex. 7.The social pre-conditions for being able to face these situational dilemmas are typically entrance to the larger context of the adult world. The pre-conditions for facilitating facility at understanding these more fuzzy and abstract choices and resolving them with the great moral courage they require are, primarily, having mentors in the organization who are of great moral stature and wisdom. 8.The personal pre-conditions are having gained a broad and deep understanding of the complexities of life and a perspective on the possibilities for consequences that are socially and temporally far-reaching and therefore not immediately present to the awareness of oneself. One may stand alone in such cases as others who are present with you may be only be capable of comprehending what is visibly and immediately present. Standing alone in the midst of disapproval from co-workers, family, or employers and having this broader perspective, understanding, and knowledge can make the conflict between competing values on the two planes soul-wrenching. 9.Making such decisions wisely and living with the personal costs can develop a very strong character.

15 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 12. Application of the Concept of Levels of Maturity to the Stars and Stripes Program In applying of the concept of levels of maturity to the youth in the Stars and Stripes program, only the first five levels will come into play. The goal is to try to facilitate each youths growth to as near Level 5 as possible. The program is designed so that all youth are initially confronted with the demands typical of Level 3. Youths will enter the program with different levels which can range from Level 1 through Level 6. The extremes of Level 1 and Level 6 are improbable. Those youths who enter at the higher levels will advance through Stripes more quickly. These youths are ideal candidates to take the pro-social roles of orienting, training, mentoring, teaching and tutoring the beginners. They are required to do so in order to achieve the higher Stripes. Those entering at the lower levels will take longer to achieve the first Stripes. When these youths reach the stage where they are expected to orient and train, etc., they should be well prepared to do so. However, many will be limited in their effectiveness if they are considerably below average in intelligence. They can be assisted in these tasks by more proficient cohorts since maturity and character are more critical factors than intelligence. All are exposed to program features that are typical of Levels 3 through 5 from the beginning. Therefore, when they have to meet the criteria for higher Stripes, they already have had exposure to youths who have achieved the higher Stripes and serve as models as well as trainers of beginners. It is vital that staff as well as advanced youth are finely attuned to where the beginners are in terms of their developmental maturity. As such, they can learn to target just what the youth is ready for in relation to the criteria for the next Stripe. These skills can be modeled, illustrated, and taught by staff most readily through Support Teams, Mediation Training, and Student Government. Staff, however, can also be trained in situational coaching so that they can coach youths whom they perceive to be having difficulty relating and carrying out tasks as the situation is occurring. Situational coaching opportunities can occur in classes, in recreation, during competitions, at meal times, when rising and at bedtime, while working on projects, during visitation with family, while performing work assignments, when evaluating one another for promotions, while conducting or participating in ceremonies, on outings, when there are visiting dignitaries, and on many other occasions. When the program is working well, even youth who are having a hard time reaching criteria and taking an extra long time will, nevertheless, not be stressed because they know that everyone is supportive and working together for their success and all truly have their best interest at heart. When youth attain their criteria and go through the promotions, they know that they have succeeded because they incorporated and demonstrated the values and behaviors exemplary of the attained Stripe and therefore of the related characteristics of maturity and character. The attained maturity and character then becomes associated with their identity at each advance in Stripes and eventually is incorporated into their self-concept and self-esteem to carry with them for the rest of their life, and especially when returning to home.

16 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 13. Characteristics of Progression through Stripes in Relation to Intelligence and Maturity Levels IN SUMMARY Residents come into Stars and Stripes with widely varying levels of intelligence and maturity. Each resident is going to progress at the pace of which they are capable. Each is going to fulfill the successive pro-social roles with different levels of proficiency in accord with the limits of their capacity. Since Stars and Stripes is a community oriented program designed for mutual facilitation and support of each other, residents can assist one another when the demands of the role exceed their capacity, yet empower each other to reach their capacity. Since the mission of the program is facilitating each youth in development of their judgment, maturity, and character, both staff and residents can join in the cultivation of each others maturity and character. While each resident may perform the prescribed pro-social role with different degrees of proficiency, depending upon their inherent capacity, nevertheless, all can reach the same level of care and dedication in fulfilling the respective pro-social roles. When it is clear that a youth has sincerely reached the point of genuine care and dedication, consistently across settings, and seems to have truly incorporated the spirit of the pro-social role, this is when promotion to the next Stripe is in order.

17 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 14. How Age and Life Experiences Are Related to Progression in Stripes Maturity and character are not only related to levels of intelligence. They are also related to two other major factors. –They are related to the age of the resident. The younger the resident is, the more likely it is that they should, on average, be less mature. Yet, level intelligence does still remain a factor. –Life experiences also have a major influence. Youths whose parents or extended family have put little effort into being good role models and have done little coaching of the youth to cultivate his maturity and character will enter the program at a much lower maturity level and, with respect to character and social skills, may be expected to be fairly unsocialized and even be fairly anti-social. When these factors of age and life conditions are taken into consideration, staff can see that some youths will need a lot more attention and concentrated coaching. Staff will have to put considerable effort into forming the kind of bond with the youth that is a pre-condition for creating receptivity to the coaching lessons. The program is designed, specifically, to work with such youths. That is why the total institution is involved, every single staff member, twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. That is why every function, every contact with every department, every program, and every setting is carefully designed to induce the teachable moment in the youths. The program is designed to facilitate his growth in maturity and character step by gradual step, according to the natural developmental stages for maturation. The training of the staff is also designed to facilitate the creation of those necessary relationship bonds. Furthermore, that is why it is so necessary for staff, also, to be concerned with increasing growth in their own maturity and character so as to, for the first time in many youths lives, provide them with good role models. When the program is operating in an optimal manner, it becomes possible to gradually overcome the youths negative and neglectful life experiences and allow the youth to progress in a manner that is natural for his age and intelligence.

18 A Key for Staff to Use in Helping Youth Develop Mature Judgment

19 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 15. How Changes in the Self Take Place in Adolescents in the Institution When I was first developing Stars and Stripes, the thought that development stages of maturation during adolescence was the underlying foundation for the Stars and Stripes framework occasionally crossed my mind. It seemed real but not really solidly justifiable from a theoretical point of view and so I left it to lie fallow until now. Now I wonder why I did not see how it was such a natural and vital dynamic underlying the rationale for the program. As this concept unfolds in this new exploration I am also seeing how it resolves some crucial unresolved problems. I also well knew that traditional juvenile correctional programs and past experimental programs had not worked and also knew that individual counseling was not only useless but often counterproductive. I knew adolescents minds were conceptually organized differently from adults and this type of organization, common to all adolescents, made their minds unreceptive to counseling in contrast to the organization of the adult mind. Counseling sessions were, in some cases with institutionalized youths, comforting to them and sometimes elicited catharsis and confidential information and, therefore, therapists were convinced that counseling was helpful in the way it is helpful to adults. However, over the years, extensive experience with these youths urged upon me the conclusion that these assumptions were incorrect and counterproductive. The adolescent lives life with an urgent attention to the immediate present and very near future. They neither are concerned with nor ready to probe the past nor were they prepared to engage in directed guidance or problem solving within a counseling session. They can emote but tend to feel probing their feelings is a waste of time. Their urgent need, on the other hand, is to understand what is going on in this bewildering new world they are just entering and to find ways to survive what they feel are life and death threats to their existence. It is the time factor! It is the time of life they are in that is the dominant influence in their lives. Living life forward, completely naïve in this beginning, and moving into bewildering new challenges in totally un-chartered territory creates an inner state that screams, Help me! Yet the nature of their position while facing this challenge forces the inner adolescent to say, I dont need anyones help! I am an adult and I am self sufficient. This bit of knowledge about adolescents is common knowledge even among the most ill-informed adults. Nevertheless, tracing the steps backwards so as to ask how adolescents need to be helped eludes almost everyone, especially professionals. A few fortunate souls have hit upon the solution accidentally even though without having the answer that explains why this is so. For institutionalized youth, this answer comes in the form of the structure of a program that gives every youth: – a significant, formal role; – prepares those in advanced roles to orient, teach, counsel, and tutor beginners; – places the youth with surrogate parents in a Support Team that emphasizes allowing the youth to learn to use their own judgment without criticism for failures; – creates a positive peer group through student government in the dorms; – gives them badges that provide visual confirmation of the prerogatives of each progression in roles along with the accompanying status and self-esteem; – and puts staff in the role of coaches for how to face difficult situations more maturely rather than counseling them; as well as many other features that address the specific vulnerabilities of adolescents but does it in a 24/7 controlled environment with a structure that emphasizes consistency. In this new, un-bewildering, structured atmosphere where help does not imply loss of face, they are able to forge their identities and personalities in an intrinsically rewarding way. Now, they can begin shaping their selves, as all other adolescents do, for the first time. Now, as adults, they may not have to go back for therapy and undo the damage of the past, something adult counseling may be much better suited to do.

20 20 Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD Some Characteristics Typically Acquired During Adolescent Developmental Stages Compared to Criteria for Progression in Stars and Stripes Developing leadership, and social and civic responsibility Developing a capacity for positive identification with social institutions Developing appreciation for wisdom, peace, and a positive vision Learning moderation and conservation in using property and resources Learning to integrate time and short and long term goals with reality Learning delay of gratification Learning patience with delays Developing a capacity for bonding in constructive relationships Learning consideration for others, empathy, politeness, and diplomacy Learning a sense of timing and fair turn-taking Developing a capacity for responsibility and reliability Learning self reliance and the value of productivity Developing a capacity for self determination and persistence Appreciating independent judgment and accountability Understanding how to estimate risk and show discretion and courage Developing a tendency toward conscious pursuit of initiative, creativity Learning fairness in sharing Learning the value of honesty and integrity Developing a capacity for resistance to negative peer influence Understanding the value of adhering to values and principles Developing a capacity for self-control and self-correction Learning to think and think twice before acting Learning to listen to and accept constructive feedback and criticism Understanding positive and negative consequences Understanding and using realistic cause and effect concepts Remembering past information and tagging for future recall Understanding and properly expressing ones own feelings Learning to respect and follow rules and schedules Learning to make a conscious effort to retain and use knowledge Developing a love of learning, trying, skill acquisition, and mastery Learning a socialized expression of curiosity and adventuresome-ness Learning socialized fun, spontaneity, outgoingness Characteristics Acquired Through Stars and Stripes Progression 4. Shows positive leadership Communication skills Accepts success and failure gracefully Assists in solving conflicts, Mediates Endures unavoidable delays, hardships, setbacks Has completed project benefiting others 3. Problem-solves, coaches, encourages, mentors Patience Problem-solves Short-term goals Long-term goals 2. School behavior/grades Social skills Positive group member Non-agitation Controls horseplay Basic self-awareness 1. No runaway [AWOL] attempts Controls verbal aggression Controls physical aggression Follows directions and rules Respect for others ownership Respect for property Stripes 1 Through 4 1/16/2014

21 21 Copyright Edwin L. Young, PhD The Social Arts Learned in Stars and Stripes Program Features Correspond to the Progression in Interpersonal and Societal Maturation Group goal setting and implementing with diligence Problem solving and planning thoroughly Decision-making with consensus development Meeting-discussing seriously and openly Coordinating institutional social events responsibly Supervising work carefully and constructively Performing cooperative work with consideration Making promotion decisions for peers objectively Evaluating peers for promotion constructively Teaching-tutoring peers with dedication and patience Mediating conflicts with fairness, patience, firmness Negotiating conflicting interests without bias Giving and accepting Awards with grace and humility Carrying out work assignments responsibly Playing sports with observance of sportsmanship Engaging civilly in teamwork and competition Learning proper gender relations Socializing properly at institutional functions Participating civilly and wholeheartedly in recreation Peer counseling-listening with empathy Helping with compassion and accepting help graciously Dealing with others feelings with sensitivity Expressing feelings honestly and diplomatically Resolving conflicts and curbing aggression Dealing with ethnic differences with respect Dealing with individual differences with sensitivity Dealing with different beliefs and values with tolerance Studying and learning with discipline and purpose Setting ones long and short term goals realistically Self discipline with consistency under all conditions Acceptance of and adherence to rules THE SOCIAL ARTS LEARNED THROUGH STARS AND STRIPES PROGRAM: 20.Encouragement of all, staff and residents, to assume a responsibility for maintaining a healthy, positive community within the institution 19. A pre-release program that facilitates re- incorporation into the family with a new positive role and identity 17. Criteria for advanced ranks that involve longer term goals and projects to give back to the community 16.A well-trained staff where all function as maturity coaches 15. Consistency of program throughout the total institution and around the clock, seven days a week 14. A vocational program that establishes an identity that includes vocation 13. An educational program that is individualized, self paced, socially inclusive, and totally positive 12. Student government to learn civic responsibility and replacing a negative with a positive peer group 11. Training to be peer counselors followed by Certification to be Mediators 10. Advanced ranks orienting and training beginners 9. Visible emblems signifying ranks that validate status, responsibilities, privileges and instill self- esteem 8. Community ceremonies to mark promotions 7. Progression in work assignments according to ranks 6. Progression in pro-social roles associated with ranks 5. Emphasizing use of own judgment is goal setting 4. Support Teams that function as surrogate parents 3. Involvement of both staff and peers in promotions 2. Measured criteria must be met to progress 1. Progression through the ranks of Stars and Stripes PROGRAM FEATURES FACILITATING MATURATION: 1/16/2014

22 22 Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 18. Work and Recreational Activities Suited to Each Maturity Level 1.Very High is suited to: work and recreation requiring leadership; creativity; complex instructions; developing new plans; coordinating; longest range goals; supervising; instructing; learning and teaching new knowledge and skills; entertainment that requires thought and interpretation; recreation with complex rules; subtle rewards. 2.High is suited to: leadership; coordinating; instructing; supervising; long range goals; learning and teaching new skills; entertainment that has a point or goal; social and psychological rewards. 3.Above Average is suited to: following; near term goals; supervising routine tasks; learning and teaching simple, basic skills; recreation with simple rules; social and concrete rewards. 4.Average is suited to: following; near term goals; learning basic skills; familiar activities; performing routine social and physical activities; simple, action-oriented entertainment; public and concrete rewards. 5.Below Average is suited to: following in non-complex activities; immediate goals; learning basic skills; repetitive performance; familiar, routine social and physical activities; immediate, frequent, explicit feedback; immediate, public, simple and concrete rewards. 6.Low is suited to: simple, vigorous physical activities with very brief, explicit, repeated instructions; work with simple physical tasks and objects; recreation with highly familiar routines; reinforced with frequent and immediate feedback; simple, public, concrete rewards. 7.Very Low is suited to: vigorous, repetitive, gross motor, physical activities that appeal to senses of smell, color, taste; oriented to goals that can be seen; simplistic, action packed entertainment; reinforced with frequent, simple, immediate, tangible rewards. Maturity range Very High High Above Average Average Below Average Low Very Low Level of Maturity Activities Appropriate To Each Level Of Maturity

23 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD 19. The Heart and Soul of Stars and Stripes After reviewing the concepts of Levels of maturity, it is now possible to clearly see how the structure of Stars and Stripes is designed to facilitate, within a juvenile correctional institution, a natural progression through levels of maturity that is in harmony with the natural progression that occurs in healthy, wholesome homes and communities everywhere.

24 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD EXERCISES FOR LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6

25 1/16/ Copyright Edwin L Young, PhD MOVIES FOR LEVELS OF MATURITY 1 THROUGH 6


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