Presentation on theme: "Product Title:Communicating with your child in sign:American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six Age of Intended Audience: Parents/Guardians/Caregivers."— Presentation transcript:
1 Product Title:Communicating with your child in sign:American Sign Language Development from Birth to SixAge of Intended Audience: Parents/Guardians/Caregivers of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children (Ages will vary)Product Goals/Objectives:- To provide information to parents/caregivers who are curious or interested in American Sign Language as a language option for their child and familyTo discuss language development of children who have consistent models of American Sign LanguageAbstract: This tool was developed in a flip-book format, one side being the English version, and the other side being the Spanish version. The tool was developed with a family centered focus; the intention of an early support specialist sitting with a parent/caregiver and discussing/modeling the information in the tool. It discusses developmental milestones of ASL development for ages birth through six, parent-infant interactions, creating a visual environment, and tools and resources for learning ASL.
2 Communicating with your child in sign: American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six
3 Table of Contents Page Introduction 1 Expressive/Receptive ASL Milestones: 2Ages Birth to SixParent Infant Interactions: Motherese/Fatherese Creating a Visual Environment 18Learning American Sign Language:Tools and resources 19Bibliography
4 IntroductionLanguage development is influenced by many factors. Among them are access to language, and parent-child interactions. You are instrumental in your child’s language development.Many deaf children are visually oriented, and may learn language more effectively through visual means. American Sign Language is one mode through which deaf children learn language. Exposure to consistent, proficient language users facilitates language development in deaf children.We will look at the developmental milestones of deaf children who have consistent, proficient models for language, the importance of parent-child interactions in the development of language, strategies to make the environment more visually accessible to your child, and available resources for beginning your American Sign Language journey.
5 Between birth and one year, your child may: Developmental Milestones:Ages Birth-OneReceptive Language:Between birth and one year, your child may:Understand single signs/wordsRecognize facial expressions when expressions match behaviorExample: Lowered eyebrows and head shaking plus the sign for NORespond to simple commands and questionsExample: COME HEREDisplay responsive behaviors – eye contact, visual searching of the environmentCan you think of examples of these with your child?brochure.htm
6 Developmental Milestones: Ages Birth-One Expressive Language:CryingCooingPointingChuckling, gasping, gruntingGesturing (for emotional needs, to stimulate your response)Uses repetition – to learn about his/her environment through communicationAs you can see, both deaf and hearing children display these behaviors. Deaf and Hearing are more alike than different in their language developmentBetween birth and one year, your child may display the following:LCID/sld013.htm
7 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Birth-OneExpressive Language:BabblingVocal- (birth-6 months)-past 6 months, lack of auditory stimulation will cause vocalizations to fadeManual-(7-10 months)-syllabic stage:Sequences of gestures that resemble signing/words, but have no meaningWill babble manually in “neutral space” in front of the bodyFirst handshapes- “5” and “S”First Signs/Words (8-12 months)typically nounswill be approximations – different formations than signsused by adultsExample: MamaparentLinks.phpsigns.htmleesASL4.htmlpages-signs/momdad.htm
8 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages One-TwoReceptive Language:Between ages one and two, your child may:Understand multi-word phrasesRecognize frequently fingerspelled wordsUnderstand basic meanings of facial expressionsExample: Frown and Lowered eyebrows means SAD, ANGRYRespond to NOUnderstand simple questionsExample: Do you want milk? (MILK WANT)Understand names of objects in the environmentDevelop an attention span up to five minutes
9 Between ages one and two, your child may display: American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:Ages One-TwoExpressive Language:Between ages one and two, your child may display:Manual Jargon Babbling (12-14 months) babble sequences that look like ASL but have no meaningAttempts to use 2 sign combinations, but will still rely on single signs with simple handshapes (13-22 months)Additions to handshape repertoire: A, B, C, O, and 1Sign NO or use headshake to express noBegin to name objects instead of just pointingBegin using facial expression in signingExample – Raised eyebrows plus sign for a Yes/No questionAttempts at fingerspelling (when vocabulary reaches approximately 100 words)faq.htm
10 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages One-TwoExpressive Language:“Vocabulary Explosion” – Expansion of vocabulary from 5 to 250 wordsUse WHERE and WHAT signs for questions ( months)Use signs that denote physical states (15-24 months)Examples: TIRED, THIRSTY, HUNGRYUse emotional signs (18-20 months)Examples: SAD, HAPPY, SCAREDBegin to use simple verbs WANT and LIKE ( months)Use many words to mean NO – DON’T WANT and NONE (18-24 months)Begin to use handshapes for familiar objectsExample: TREE, CARonlinestore.html
11 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Two - ThreeReceptive Language:Between ages two and three, your child may:Understand and carry out more complex commands and requestsExample: Bring me your shoes (SHOES+BRING)Show interest in explanations of how and whyIncrease attention span up to 20 minutesGain eye contact before conversation begins
12 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Two - ThreeExpressive Language:Between ages two and three, your child may:Name and describe scribbled creationsSign continually during waking hoursSign to himself/herself during playAsk simple questionsConverse about here and nowAttempt more complex signs, but still rely on simple handshapesUse directional verbsExample: GIVEExpress possessionExample: MY+SHOEUse action + object formExample: DRINK+WATERhi/hearing_impaired.html
13 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Three - FourReceptive Language:Between ages three and four, your child may:Understand language related to basic concepts of number, color, and timeUnderstand and carry out commands that include more than one action or objectExample: When you are done playing, put your toys in the box (PLAY+FINISH, BOX+TOYS+MOVE)spectrum.giffal00soa_h.htmldic/ASLabc.html
14 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Three - FourExpressive Language:Between ages three and four, your child may:Use language easily to relate ideas, feelings, stories, and problemsTell two events in correct sequenceHold long, detailed conversationsUse language to draw attention to himself/herselfAcquire and more consistently attempt to use complex handshapes: L, R, V, X, Y, 3Attempt complex sentencesExpand facial grammar to include number, intensity, and timeUse handshapes with movement for familiar objectsExample: CAR, RAINnlscy/mar98_e.shtml
15 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Four - FiveExpressive Language:Between ages four and five, your child may:Tell long stories accuratelyKnow and express first, middle and last nameUnderstand and express concepts of time with accuracyAsk for clarification if he/she does not understand communicationnew-
16 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages Five - SixExpressive Language:Between ages five and six, your child may:Use complex handshapes clearly and oftenFingerspell more clearly than beforeUse complex sentences appropriately:Topicalization – setting up a situation and then elaborating content of story (Topic-Comment word order)Use space to show location of nouns and verbsUse “Bracketing”- WH-question words used at beginning and end of questionExample: WHERE+BATHROOM+WHEREfun.htm
17 Parent-Child Interactions Motherese/FathereseWhat is Motherese?Motherese is “baby talk” exhibited by all parents. It is adult language to children that is generally adapted to the language level of the child.Hearing Parents’ Baby TalkHigher pitch than adult conversation; exaggerated intonation with longer vowel productionSpecial words (Baby talk)Talking about “here and now”Repetition of words/phrasesProlonged gazing/eye conactUse of questionsNonverbal communication signals (touch, facial expression)Long pauses between sentences/phrasesShort, simple, but grammatically correct sentencesImitation and expansionsDeaf Parents’ Baby TalkExaggerated size of signs; positive facial expressionSpecial words (Baby talk)Talking about “here and now”- object being discussed brought into conversational spaceRepetition of signsProlonged gazing/eye contactExtensive use of POINTInterspersing nonverbal affective acts with language (tickling, tapping)Long pauses between periods of signingMajority of utterances are single signsImitation expansionHatfield, Nancy (n.d.) Promoting early communication II: The role of the family. Hearing, Speech and Deafness Center, Seattle, WA.
18 Parent-Child Interactions html/pc/asl.htmParent-Child InteractionsMotherese/FathereseAs you can see, Baby talk is similar among Deaf and Hearing parents. Exaggeration of words/signs and facial expressions, slower, simpler forms of language are used by both Deaf and Hearing parents to facilitate language development.A Visual EnvironmentBoth Deaf and Hearing parents naturally interact and communicate effectively with their deaf children. Parenting behaviors such as playing with your child and displaying affection are universal, and extremely important to your child’s development. The main difference between parent-child interactions is the knowledge that Deaf parents have about the visual needs of their child. It is natural for them because of their own visual needs. You may or may not be accustomed the visual needs of your child.Let’s look at some strategies to make your environment more visually accessible to your child.
19 Parent-Child Interactions Creating a Visual EnvironmentAdjust lighting so that visual communication can take placeUse distinct facial expressionsUse appropriate attention getting strategies (a tap on the arm, leg, or shoulder)Sign in your child’s visual fieldBe sure that your child has a clear view of your face and handsIf possible, get down on the floor and either across from your child, or with him/her on your lapSign on your child’s body to model placement and form of signs- where signs occur and correct handshapesMove the object of interest between you and your child (if possible, hold it up by your face) so that signing about the object can take place in your conversational space
20 Parent-Child Interactions Creating a Visual EnvironmentFollow the interests of your childNotice what he/she is focused onWait for him/her to shift focus from the object to youRespond to his/her eye contact with smiling and signing about the object of interest***Repeat all of these interactions so your child will learn to connect these experiences with language, link objects with meaning, and continue to develop language***
21 Learning American Sign Language Tools and ResourcesSign language Videotapes/BooksSign with your baby- Includes a book, video, and quick reference guideSigns for Me: Basic Sign Vocabulary forChildren, Parents and Teachers- Has picture along with sign- Has index in Spanish, Hmong, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, Tagalog, and EnglishRandom House Webster's ConciseAmerican Sign Language DictionaryAmerican Sign Language ClassesContact your local continuing education programContact your state school for the Deaf
22 Learning American Sign Language Tools and ResourcesWhile you are practicing to become a proficient visual language model, interacting with Deaf people will provide opportunities for language development for both you and your childInteraction with Deaf Adults and ChildrenDeaf Mentor ProjectsDeaf storytellingPlaygroups with other families with deaf childrenNewsletter/2000Fall.htmnew-
23 Learning American Sign Language Tools and ResourcesAmerican Sign Language Alphabetling001/asl_alphabet.jpg
24 BibliographyAnderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur communicative development inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2),Bonvillian, J.D., & Folven, R.J. (1993). Sign language acquisition: Developmental aspects. In Marschark, M., & Clark, D. M. Psychological Perspectives on Deafness (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press.Carew, M.E. (ed.) (2001). Schools and programs in the United States. American Annals of the Deaf, 146,French, M.M. (1999). The toolkit: Appendices for starting with assessment. Washington, DC: Pre-College National Mission Programs.Hatfield, N. (n.d). Promoting early communication II: The role of the family. Hearing Speech and Deafness Center, Seattle, WA.Jamieson, J. R. (1995). Interactions between mothers and children who are deaf. Journal of Early Intervention, 19 (2),Marchark, M. (1993). Psychological development of deaf children. New York: Oxford University Press.Ogden, P.W. (1996). The silent garden: Raising your deaf child, new fully revised edition. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.Pettito, L. A., & Marentette, P.F. (1991). Babbling in the manual mode: Evidence for the ontogeny of language. Science, 251,Spencer, P.E. (2001). A good start: Suggestions for visual conversations with deaf and hard of hearing babies and toddlers. Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Retrieved October 20, 2002 from:Spencer, P.E., Bodner-Johnson, B. A., & Gutfreund, M. K. (1992). Interacting with infants with a hearing loss: What can we learn from mothers who are deaf? Journal of Early Intervention, 16 (1),