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Product Title:Communicating with your child in sign:American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six Age of Intended Audience: Parents/Guardians/Caregivers.

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Presentation on theme: "Product Title:Communicating with your child in sign:American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six Age of Intended Audience: Parents/Guardians/Caregivers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Product Title:Communicating with your child in sign:American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six Age of Intended Audience: Parents/Guardians/Caregivers of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children (Ages will vary) Product Goals/Objectives: - To provide information to parents/caregivers who are curious or interested in American Sign Language as a language option for their child and family To discuss language development of children who have consistent models of American Sign Language Abstract: This tool was developed in a flip-book format, one side being the English version, and the other side being the Spanish version. The tool was developed with a family centered focus; the intention of an early support specialist sitting with a parent/caregiver and discussing/modeling the information in the tool. It discusses developmental milestones of ASL development for ages birth through six, parent-infant interactions, creating a visual environment, and tools and resources for learning ASL.

2 Communicating with your child in sign:
American Sign Language Development from Birth to Six

3 Table of Contents Page Introduction 1
Expressive/Receptive ASL Milestones: 2 Ages Birth to Six Parent Infant Interactions: Motherese/Fatherese Creating a Visual Environment 18 Learning American Sign Language: Tools and resources 19 Bibliography

4 Introduction Language development is influenced by many factors. Among them are access to language, and parent-child interactions. You are instrumental in your child’s language development. Many deaf children are visually oriented, and may learn language more effectively through visual means. American Sign Language is one mode through which deaf children learn language. Exposure to consistent, proficient language users facilitates language development in deaf children. We will look at the developmental milestones of deaf children who have consistent, proficient models for language, the importance of parent-child interactions in the development of language, strategies to make the environment more visually accessible to your child, and available resources for beginning your American Sign Language journey.

5 Between birth and one year, your child may:
Developmental Milestones: Ages Birth-One Receptive Language: Between birth and one year, your child may: Understand single signs/words Recognize facial expressions when expressions match behavior Example: Lowered eyebrows and head shaking plus the sign for NO Respond to simple commands and questions Example: COME HERE Display responsive behaviors – eye contact, visual searching of the environment Can you think of examples of these with your child? brochure.htm

6 Developmental Milestones: Ages Birth-One
Expressive Language: Crying Cooing Pointing Chuckling, gasping, grunting Gesturing (for emotional needs, to stimulate your response) Uses repetition – to learn about his/her environment through communication As you can see, both deaf and hearing children display these behaviors. Deaf and Hearing are more alike than different in their language development Between birth and one year, your child may display the following: LCID/sld013.htm

7 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Birth-One Expressive Language: Babbling Vocal- (birth-6 months)-past 6 months, lack of auditory stimulation will cause vocalizations to fade Manual-(7-10 months)-syllabic stage: Sequences of gestures that resemble signing/words, but have no meaning Will babble manually in “neutral space” in front of the body First handshapes- “5” and “S” First Signs/Words (8-12 months) typically nouns will be approximations – different formations than signs used by adults Example: Mama parentLinks.php signs.html eesASL4.html pages-signs/momdad.htm

8 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages One-Two Receptive Language: Between ages one and two, your child may: Understand multi-word phrases Recognize frequently fingerspelled words Understand basic meanings of facial expressions Example: Frown and Lowered eyebrows means SAD, ANGRY Respond to NO Understand simple questions Example: Do you want milk? (MILK WANT) Understand names of objects in the environment Develop an attention span up to five minutes

9 Between ages one and two, your child may display:
American Sign Language Developmental Milestones: Ages One-Two Expressive Language: Between ages one and two, your child may display: Manual Jargon Babbling (12-14 months) babble sequences that look like ASL but have no meaning Attempts to use 2 sign combinations, but will still rely on single signs with simple handshapes (13-22 months) Additions to handshape repertoire: A, B, C, O, and 1 Sign NO or use headshake to express no Begin to name objects instead of just pointing Begin using facial expression in signing Example – Raised eyebrows plus sign for a Yes/No question Attempts at fingerspelling (when vocabulary reaches approximately 100 words) faq.htm

10 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages One-Two Expressive Language: “Vocabulary Explosion” – Expansion of vocabulary from 5 to 250 words Use WHERE and WHAT signs for questions ( months) Use signs that denote physical states (15-24 months) Examples: TIRED, THIRSTY, HUNGRY Use emotional signs (18-20 months) Examples: SAD, HAPPY, SCARED Begin to use simple verbs WANT and LIKE ( months) Use many words to mean NO – DON’T WANT and NONE (18-24 months) Begin to use handshapes for familiar objects Example: TREE, CAR onlinestore.html

11 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Two - Three Receptive Language: Between ages two and three, your child may: Understand and carry out more complex commands and requests Example: Bring me your shoes (SHOES+BRING) Show interest in explanations of how and why Increase attention span up to 20 minutes Gain eye contact before conversation begins

12 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Two - Three Expressive Language: Between ages two and three, your child may: Name and describe scribbled creations Sign continually during waking hours Sign to himself/herself during play Ask simple questions Converse about here and now Attempt more complex signs, but still rely on simple handshapes Use directional verbs Example: GIVE Express possession Example: MY+SHOE Use action + object form Example: DRINK+WATER hi/hearing_impaired.html

13 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Three - Four Receptive Language: Between ages three and four, your child may: Understand language related to basic concepts of number, color, and time Understand and carry out commands that include more than one action or object Example: When you are done playing, put your toys in the box (PLAY+FINISH, BOX+TOYS+MOVE) spectrum.gif fal00soa_h.html dic/ASLabc.html

14 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Three - Four Expressive Language: Between ages three and four, your child may: Use language easily to relate ideas, feelings, stories, and problems Tell two events in correct sequence Hold long, detailed conversations Use language to draw attention to himself/herself Acquire and more consistently attempt to use complex handshapes: L, R, V, X, Y, 3 Attempt complex sentences Expand facial grammar to include number, intensity, and time Use handshapes with movement for familiar objects Example: CAR, RAIN nlscy/mar98_e.shtml

15 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Four - Five Expressive Language: Between ages four and five, your child may: Tell long stories accurately Know and express first, middle and last name Understand and express concepts of time with accuracy Ask for clarification if he/she does not understand communication new-www.speechtx.com/

16 American Sign Language Developmental Milestones:
Ages Five - Six Expressive Language: Between ages five and six, your child may: Use complex handshapes clearly and often Fingerspell more clearly than before Use complex sentences appropriately: Topicalization – setting up a situation and then elaborating content of story (Topic-Comment word order) Use space to show location of nouns and verbs Use “Bracketing”- WH-question words used at beginning and end of question Example: WHERE+BATHROOM+WHERE fun.htm

17 Parent-Child Interactions
Motherese/Fatherese What is Motherese? Motherese is “baby talk” exhibited by all parents. It is adult language to children that is generally adapted to the language level of the child. Hearing Parents’ Baby Talk Higher pitch than adult conversation; exaggerated intonation with longer vowel production Special words (Baby talk) Talking about “here and now” Repetition of words/phrases Prolonged gazing/eye conact Use of questions Nonverbal communication signals (touch, facial expression) Long pauses between sentences/phrases Short, simple, but grammatically correct sentences Imitation and expansions Deaf Parents’ Baby Talk Exaggerated size of signs; positive facial expression Special words (Baby talk) Talking about “here and now”- object being discussed brought into conversational space Repetition of signs Prolonged gazing/eye contact Extensive use of POINT Interspersing nonverbal affective acts with language (tickling, tapping) Long pauses between periods of signing Majority of utterances are single signs Imitation expansion Hatfield, Nancy (n.d.) Promoting early communication II: The role of the family. Hearing, Speech and Deafness Center, Seattle, WA.

18 Parent-Child Interactions
html/pc/asl.htm Parent-Child Interactions Motherese/Fatherese As you can see, Baby talk is similar among Deaf and Hearing parents. Exaggeration of words/signs and facial expressions, slower, simpler forms of language are used by both Deaf and Hearing parents to facilitate language development. A Visual Environment Both Deaf and Hearing parents naturally interact and communicate effectively with their deaf children. Parenting behaviors such as playing with your child and displaying affection are universal, and extremely important to your child’s development. The main difference between parent-child interactions is the knowledge that Deaf parents have about the visual needs of their child. It is natural for them because of their own visual needs. You may or may not be accustomed the visual needs of your child. Let’s look at some strategies to make your environment more visually accessible to your child.

19 Parent-Child Interactions
Creating a Visual Environment Adjust lighting so that visual communication can take place Use distinct facial expressions Use appropriate attention getting strategies (a tap on the arm, leg, or shoulder) Sign in your child’s visual field Be sure that your child has a clear view of your face and hands If possible, get down on the floor and either across from your child, or with him/her on your lap Sign on your child’s body to model placement and form of signs- where signs occur and correct handshapes Move the object of interest between you and your child (if possible, hold it up by your face) so that signing about the object can take place in your conversational space

20 Parent-Child Interactions
Creating a Visual Environment Follow the interests of your child Notice what he/she is focused on Wait for him/her to shift focus from the object to you Respond to his/her eye contact with smiling and signing about the object of interest ***Repeat all of these interactions so your child will learn to connect these experiences with language, link objects with meaning, and continue to develop language***

21 Learning American Sign Language
Tools and Resources Sign language Videotapes/Books Sign with your baby - Includes a book, video, and quick reference guide Signs for Me: Basic Sign Vocabulary for Children, Parents and Teachers - Has picture along with sign - Has index in Spanish, Hmong, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, Tagalog, and English Random House Webster's Concise American Sign Language Dictionary American Sign Language Classes Contact your local continuing education program Contact your state school for the Deaf

22 Learning American Sign Language
Tools and Resources While you are practicing to become a proficient visual language model, interacting with Deaf people will provide opportunities for language development for both you and your child Interaction with Deaf Adults and Children Deaf Mentor Projects Deaf storytelling Playgroups with other families with deaf children Newsletter/2000Fall.htm new-www.kmm.org/

23 Learning American Sign Language
Tools and Resources American Sign Language Alphabet ling001/asl_alphabet.jpg

24 Bibliography Anderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur communicative development inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2), Bonvillian, J.D., & Folven, R.J. (1993). Sign language acquisition: Developmental aspects. In Marschark, M., & Clark, D. M. Psychological Perspectives on Deafness (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press. Carew, M.E. (ed.) (2001). Schools and programs in the United States. American Annals of the Deaf, 146, French, M.M. (1999). The toolkit: Appendices for starting with assessment. Washington, DC: Pre-College National Mission Programs. Hatfield, N. (n.d). Promoting early communication II: The role of the family. Hearing Speech and Deafness Center, Seattle, WA. Jamieson, J. R. (1995). Interactions between mothers and children who are deaf. Journal of Early Intervention, 19 (2), Marchark, M. (1993). Psychological development of deaf children. New York: Oxford University Press. Ogden, P.W. (1996). The silent garden: Raising your deaf child, new fully revised edition. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Pettito, L. A., & Marentette, P.F. (1991). Babbling in the manual mode: Evidence for the ontogeny of language. Science, 251, Spencer, P.E. (2001). A good start: Suggestions for visual conversations with deaf and hard of hearing babies and toddlers. Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Retrieved October 20, 2002 from: Spencer, P.E., Bodner-Johnson, B. A., & Gutfreund, M. K. (1992). Interacting with infants with a hearing loss: What can we learn from mothers who are deaf? Journal of Early Intervention, 16 (1),


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