Presentation on theme: "After the death of King Henry II in 1559, the sons of Henry II were unable to provide stability to France. His wife, Catherine de Medicis attempted to."— Presentation transcript:
After the death of King Henry II in 1559, the sons of Henry II were unable to provide stability to France. His wife, Catherine de Medicis attempted to maintain royal authority. It would not work. Between 1562 and 1598, Huguenots and Catholics would fight eight religious wars. Catherine de Medicis
1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris: Huguenots were attending the marriage of Catherines daughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre. Most of the nobles attending were killedbeginning six weeks of slaughter. Henry of Navarre (IV)
When the last of the King Henry IIs sons died, it made Henry of Navarre the next in line to the thrown. He was the son of a popular medieval kingLouis IX His name became Henry IVthe first Bourbon king Because he was opposed by many, he decided to give up Protestantism and become Catholic. In 1598, he declared the Huguenots could live in peace in France. This was called the Edict of Nantes.
Not everyone liked the compromises Henry IV made in regards to religion. He did restore the power of the French monarchybut he was stabbed to death in 1610 when an opponent attacked his carriage.
The next in line to the throne was Henrys sonLouis XIII Louis was a weak king, but had a strong minister Cardinal Richelieu Because Louis was only 9 when he became king, Richelieu was basically in control. Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII
Richelieu: 1) Attacked Huguenotsthey could still worship, but lost protections such as walls to their cities 2) Nobles lost power through loss of their castles; Richelieu will use the new middle class as sources of power (taxes) 3) He promoted involvement in the Thirty Years War
Many writers were horrified by the wars they had experienced. This lead to skepticism the idea that nothing can be known for certain. They doubted church doctrine that was absolute.
Michel de Montaigne -creator of the essay -he observed the continuing replacing of old ideas with new ideas; he felt as a result, people would never have absolute knowledge of what is true
Rene Descartes -wrote the Mediations on First Philosophy -he wanted to see if you could be certain of anything; as a result, he helped contribute to the modern scientific method (Enlightenment concept)
Louis XIV was the most powerful monarch in French history. He came to power when he was 4 or 5 years old. He was known for saying Letat cest moi-I am the state
Since Louis XIV was so young, the real ruler of France was Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin was hated by many, especially the nobles. Because of the years of anti-Mazarin riots, Louis decided when he took control he would never be weak.
At 22, Louis took over. (the Sun King) He weakens the power of nobles He increased the power of government agents called intendants (tax collectors/judges) Along with his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, they attempted to make France self- sufficient (mercantilism)they used tax breaks, tariffs and encouraged colony development (e.g. fur trading)
1865: The Treaty of Nantes was cancelled by Louismany Huguenots left the country, hurting Frances economic position. This will eventually make a significant impact because Louis led a very luxurious life. Nobles were expected to meet his every need. It was a convenient way to keep power over the nobleskeeping them away from home.
The life of luxury: Versailles Support of the arts -Moliere and plays -ballet and opera -the purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote values that supported absolute rule
France was the worlds most powerful nation in 1660: -20 million people (England 5 m, Dutch 2 m) -better technology, weapons, training
1667: Invaded the Spanish Netherlands- French gained 12 towns Based on this success Louis personally led an army into the Netherlands in 1672the Dutch responded by opening the dikes and flooding their lands. 1678: Treaty of Nijmegen-France gains several towns and a region called Franche- Comte
In the 1680s, France was facing a European wide alliance of countries who were determined to stop the aggression. (Balance of Power) In 1689, the Dutch prince William of Orange became king of England. He joined the League of AugsburgAustrian Hapsburg emperor, kings of Sweden and Spain, and several smaller countries
The French people were tiring of war. The country was facing poor harvests and Louis had increased taxation. In 1700, the childless king of Spain, Charles II died after promising his throne to Louis XIVs 16 year old grandson, Philip of Anjous. In short, the two great powers were both now ruled by the French Bourbons In 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and several German and Italian areas joined togetherWar of Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession lasted until The end came in the Treaty of Utrecht: Terms-Louis grandson remained king of Spain; the thrones of France and Spain could not be the same person however; Britain, received Gibraltar (fortress) from Spain and asiento, permission to send African slaves to American colonies
Treaty Terms (continued) France gave Britain the territories of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and agreed to give up claims in the Hudson Bay region The Austrians received the Spanish Netherlands and lands in Italy Prussia and Savoy were recognized as kingdoms
Louis died in France was a power + France ranked above others in art, literature, and statesmanship; military leaders + strong empire and colonies; trade, materials - staggering debt (Versailles, war debt) - French people were resentful the tax burden, and abuse of power