2Describe conflicts in Europe After the death of King Henry II in 1559, the sons of Henry II were unable to provide stability to France. His wife, Catherine de Medicis attempted to maintain royal authority. It would not work.Between 1562 and 1598, Huguenots and Catholics would fight eight religious wars.Catherine de Medicis
3Describe conflicts in Europe 1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in Paris: Huguenots were attending the marriage of Catherine’s daughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre.Most of the nobles attending were killed—beginning six weeks of slaughter.Henry of Navarre (IV)
4Describe conflicts in Europe When the last of the King Henry II’s sons died, it made Henry of Navarre the next in line to the thrown. He was the son of a popular medieval king—Louis IXHis name became Henry IV—the first Bourbon kingBecause he was opposed by many, he decided to give up Protestantism and become Catholic.In 1598, he declared the Huguenots could live in peace in France. This was called the Edict of Nantes.
5Describe conflicts in Europe Not everyone liked the compromises Henry IV made in regards to religion. He did restore the power of the French monarchy—but he was stabbed to death in 1610 when an opponent attacked his carriage.
6Describe conflicts in Europe The next in line to the throne was Henry’s son—Louis XIIILouis was a weak king, but had a strong minister— Cardinal RichelieuBecause Louis was only 9 when he became king, Richelieu was basically in control.Cardinal RichelieuLouis XIII
7Describe conflicts in Europe Richelieu:Attacked Huguenots—they could still worship, but lost protections such as walls to their citiesNobles lost power through loss of their castles; Richelieu will use the new middle class as sources of power (taxes)He promoted involvement in the Thirty Years War
8Analyze ideas of important French thinkers Many writers were horrified by the wars they had experienced. This lead to skepticism— the idea that nothing can be known for certain.They doubted church doctrine that was absolute.
9Analyze ideas of important French thinkers Michel de Montaigne -creator of the essay -he observed the continuing replacing of old ideas with new ideas; he felt as a result, people would never have absolute knowledge of what is true
10Analyze ideas of important French thinkers Rene Descartes -wrote the Mediations on First Philosophy -he wanted to see if you could be certain of anything; as a result, he helped contribute to the modern scientific method (Enlightenment concept)i
11Explain Louis XIV’s policies and characterize the style of his court Louis XIV was the most powerful monarch in French history.He came to power when he was 4 or 5 years old.He was known for saying “L’etat c’est moi”-I am the state
12Explain Louis XIV’s policies and characterize the style of his court Since Louis XIV was so young, the real ruler of France was Cardinal Mazarin.Mazarin was hated by many, especially the nobles.Because of the years of anti-Mazarin riots, Louis decided when he took control he would never be weak.
13Explain Louis XIV’s policies and characterize the style of his court At 22, Louis took over. (the Sun King)He weakens the power of noblesHe increased the power of government agents called intendants (tax collectors/judges)Along with his minister of finance, Jean Baptiste Colbert, they attempted to make France self- sufficient (mercantilism)—they used tax breaks, tariffs and encouraged colony development (e.g. fur trading)
14Explain Louis XIV’s policies and characterize the style of his court 1865: The Treaty of Nantes was cancelled by Louis—many Huguenots left the country, hurting France’s economic position.This will eventually make a significant impact because Louis led a very luxurious life. Nobles were expected to meet his every need. It was a convenient way to keep power over the nobles—keeping them away from home.
15Explain Louis XIV’s policies and characterize the style of his court The life of luxury:VersaillesSupport of the arts-Moliere and plays-ballet and opera-the purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote values that supported absolute rule
17Describe France’s disastrous wars France was the world’s most powerful nation in 1660:-20 million people (England 5 m, Dutch 2 m)-better technology, weapons, training
18Describe France’s disastrous wars 1667: Invaded the Spanish Netherlands- French gained 12 townsBased on this success Louis personally led an army into the Netherlands in 1672—the Dutch responded by opening the dikes and flooding their lands.1678: Treaty of Nijmegen-France gains several towns and a region called Franche- Comte
19Describe France’s disastrous wars In the 1680s, France was facing a European wide alliance of countries who were determined to stop the aggression. (Balance of Power)In 1689, the Dutch prince William of Orange became king of England. He joined the League of Augsburg—Austrian Hapsburg emperor, kings of Sweden and Spain, and several smaller countries
20Describe France’s disastrous wars The French people were tiring of war. The country was facing poor harvests and Louis had increased taxation.In 1700, the childless king of Spain, Charles II died after promising his throne to Louis XIV’s 16 year old grandson, Philip of Anjous. In short, the two great powers were both now ruled by the French BourbonsIn 1701, England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal and several German and Italian areas joined together—War of Spanish Succession
21Describe France’s disastrous wars The War of the Spanish Succession lasted until 1714.The end came in the Treaty of Utrecht:Terms-Louis’ grandson remained king of Spain;the thrones of France and Spain could not be the same person however; Britain, received Gibraltar (fortress) from Spain and asiento, permission to send African slaves to American colonies
22Describe France’s disastrous wars Treaty Terms (continued)France gave Britain the territories of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, and agreed to give up claims in the Hudson Bay regionThe Austrians received the Spanish Netherlands and lands in ItalyPrussia and Savoy were recognized as kingdoms
23Legacy of Louis XIV Louis died in 1715 + France was a power + France ranked above others in art, literature, and statesmanship; military leaders+ strong empire and colonies; trade, materials- staggering debt (Versailles, war debt)- French people were resentful the tax burden, and abuse of power