Nursing Process Nursing process is a patient centered, goaloriented method of caring that provides a framework to the nursing care based on problemsolving
Types of Investigation Background Usually simple questions that can be answered in textbooks or journals. Examples: What are the symptoms of elevated serum potassium? When do the effects of NPH Insulin peak? Foreground Questions answered about diagnosing treatment or assisting patients (students/staff) with understanding of their disease or prognosis
Getting Started Ask the clinical question in PICO(T) format
P = P opulation Who are you interested in and what setting? (i.e. elementary, high school, K-12, 3 rd graders, students in high school diagnosed with migraines, students ages 5-10)
I = Intervention of Interest (a therapy, diagnostic test, prognostic factor or risk factor. i.e. anti-depressants on school age children)
C = comparison intervention or issue of interest (optional) This is only used if there is a comparison of one or more interventions or no intervention (i.e. cold cloth and dark room vs. dark room only for migraine; resting vs. doing nothing; medication vs. placebo)
0 = outcome What are you trying to accomplish, measure or figure out?
T = time it takes for intervention to achieve outcome (optional)
Example Question In behavior modification programs for high school students what is the effect of music therapy compared with environmental changes (i.e. moving closer to the teacher, provide separate room or space, restraints, etc.) on agitation within the 1 st semester of the school year.
Question Broken Down P In behavior modification programs for high school students I what is the effect of music therapy C compared with environmental changes (i.e. moving closer to the teacher, provide a separate room or space, restraints, etc.) O on agitation T within the 1 st semester of the school year.
Poster Areas Research/Evidence-based practice -- current research that maybe useful and possibly implemented into practice Practice – innovative strategies for school nurses to replicate in their schools Leadership/Legal -- strategies and information to school nurses to build their leadership skills and/or enhance their understanding of laws and policies affecting school health Health Promotion -- promoting health in today’s fast-paced, dynamically changing environment
What Do I Include in a Poster Presentation What is the question/concern/issue What is the reason or significance of this topic How did you address the issue or problem (Strategy) What were your findings? Outcomes or conclusions Further study or usage (optional)
A Solution to Educational Time Lost Due to Abdominal Cramps Findings From a 2-Year Study by Kathleen Powell, RN, BSN, MS, NCSN School Nurse, JJ Pearce High School Richardson, Texas September 2013
Problem Identification Numerous high school girls presenting in the clinic for complaints of menstrual cramps. #2 Problem seen in clinic Missing valuable class time Against the school district policies to give over-the-counter medications Want to encourage students to try non-drug related solutions Heating pad only treatment available
Proposition ThermaCare TM Menstrual Heat Patches used at the high school for menstrual cramps in the school’s female population can significantly reduce loss of educational time over the standard electrical heating pads.
2012 -2013 Collected data to define problem Investigate ideas for solution Acquire ThermaCareHeat Pads for study Acquire ThermaCare TM Heat Pads for study Funded by PTA with donation of 30 pads for next year
Educational Time Lost Due to Cramps 2012-2013 2012-2013 School Year 125 girls seen in the clinic for cramps. Educational time loss = 5021 minutes. This averaged out to 40.2 minutes/student lost in educational time. + 18 girls went home missing an additional 3310 minutes lost in educational time. Total Lost educational time was 8331 minutes or 138.85 hours.
My Question In teenage girls with dysmenorrhea what is the effect of using thermal heating patches compared to electric heating pads on time missed out of class.
2013-2014 Information Background on Study Randomly girls were selected when they came to the clinic with complaints of menstrual cramps to receive either treatment with a heating pad or a ThermaCare TM Menstrual Heat Patch. Due to limited number of heat patches, time and amount of participants limited Approximately half were given a heating pad and half were given a heat patch Study conducted between September 1, 2013 and November 30, 2013
Study Results Time Period 9/1/13 – 11/30/13 Number of Participants Average Educational Time Lost While in School Additional Educational Time Lost with Students Going Home Total Educational Minutes Lost Heating Pads 34 68 minutes/ student 250 minutes/ Student * 4562 minutes or 76 hours Heating Patch 30 8.5 minutes/ student 0 minutes/ student 255 minutes or 4.25 hours 9 students out of the 34 using heating pads, still went home losing more educational time – 2250 minutes. 0 students using the Thermal Patch went home – no additional educational time lost * 9 students out of the 34 using heating pads, still went home losing more educational time – 2250 minutes. 0 students using the Thermal Patch went home – no additional educational time lost
Comparison of Educational Time Lost With Heating Pad VS. ThermaCare TM
Conclusions Using the ThermaCare TM Menstrual Heat Patch did save on lost educational time vs using a conventional heating pad Definitely worth further study on ThermaCare Menstrual Heat Patches Definitely worth further study on ThermaCare TM Menstrual Heat Patches Would encourage students to try non- drug related solutions Other data was collected such as grade and ethnicity, but not utilized in this research. Might be valuable in future studies
Further Study Needed Because of the short time of the study, I continued my collecting of data for the 2013-2014 school year and found that the problem was increasing – More girls seen for complaints of menstrual cramps and more missed educational time Small sample used – validate with larger sample Heat Patches Expensive