Presentation on theme: "Economic Impact Political Impact Social Impact. Source One Source Two Source Three Source Four The declaration of war saw a massive influx of women into."— Presentation transcript:
Source One Source Two Source Three Source Four The declaration of war saw a massive influx of women into the workforce, as the men left the country to fight in the war. Authorities initially believed that women were not capable of contributing to the workforce. The first form of employment women became involved in was voluntary. Nursing was seen as the most acceptable form of war work for middle and upper class women. As food shortages became more apparent the Womens Land Army formed to assist farmers to maintain agricultural production, this was not a popular form of employment. Womens branches of the armed services formed these were; the Womens Army Auxiliary Corps, Womens Royal Air Force and Womens Royal Navy Service. Women also became part of the police force. Working- class women found work in munitions factories, conditions in these factories were tough. During the war women gained higher wages, more equal pay and greater access to work which allowed them higher disposable income. After the war women were disappointed as they were forced to return domestic service.
Source One Source Two Source Three Source Four Prior to the war, women were devoting their time to campaign for the right to vote in parliamentary elections. However, when war was declared main suffragette movements were postponed as women devoted themself to be of assistance to war efforts. Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughter Christobel were key figures in the Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) whom during the war redirected their campaigning efforts towards encouraging men to enlist in the war and to encouraging women to join the workforce. Some believe that the granting of the vote to women under the Representation of the People Act 1918 was a reward for their war efforts. However this recognition was only for women that were over thirty and a householder or married to a householder, in effect it failed to enfranchise five million mainly working class women of the total population of eleven million.
Source One Source Two Source Three Source Four The war improved the position of women in society, particularly during the war. However, differences in age, class and geographical location affected the impact of the war on women. Most women who were employed during the war were from the working class, who already had jobs in other areas. The war was revolutionary for middle-class women as it freed them from the restraints of the home and allowed them to attain the liberty of gaining employment. Middle –class women were for more literate than those of the working class therefore it is mainly their accounts of the war experience which have been recorded. The end of the war disappointed women as they wanted to continue the increased freedom and pay which they had become accustomed too.
July 1914July 1918 Self-employed and employees430 000470 000 Industry2 178 6002 970 600 Domestic Service1 658 0001 248 000 Commerce505 000934 000 National and Local Government262 600460 200 Agriculture190 000228 000 Hotels, public houses and theatre181 000220 000 Transport18 000117 000 Others542 500652 00 Total employed5 966 0007 310 500 Number of Women in Britain in paid employment in 1914 and 1918 This source is useful for studying the overall increase of women in the workforce in Britain as a result of the war demonstrated in the difference in total employment between 1914 and 1918. It also demonstrates which industries women were involved in and the rate of change from the beginning to the end of the war. Title: Employment of Women in Britain During the War Perspective: Based on the Report of the War Cabinet Committee on Women in Industry, 1919. A British Committee. Location: Evidence of War Textbook
However, the war did not inflate women's wages. Employers circumvented wartime equal pay regulations by employing several women to replace one man, or by dividing skilled tasks into several less skilled stages. In these ways, women could be employed at a lower wage and not said to be 'replacing' a man directly. Professor Joanna Bourke Title: extract from Working Conditions: Unionism and Pay Perspective: of British Professor Joanna Bourke, post war. Location: www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain This source is useful for studying the impact of the war on women's wages during the war as well as their role in replacing men, while also comparing pay conditions women were experiencing to the previous conditions of men. It also shows how factory owners viewed women by replacing several women to replace one man.
The Song of the Sock Stitch, stitch, stitch! The women are there in a flock, Youll do the leg and Ill do the foot Lets all be useful, though we cant shoot. And they sang the song of the sock. For when by war their countrys hit English ladies will always knit. Title: The Song of the Sock Perspective: women working in textiles factories in Britain during WWI Location: http://www.firstworldwar.com/ This source is useful for a historian studying the attitudes of women towards the tasks involved in their wartime jobs. It is also useful for studying their commitment to war time efforts as portrayed in the last two lines of the source. It was a well known chant created by women at the time, therefore it reflects the opinion of a multitude of women.
Title: On Her their Lives Depend Perspective: British Government during World War One. Location: World War One Textbook This source is useful for studying propaganda used by the government to encourage women to work in munitions factories during the war. It also demonstrates how the government viewed the role of women in war efforts.
Finally, some historians believe that the war was a key element in the granting of the franchise to women over the age of 30 years who held property in 1918. However, gratitude for women's war work cannot explain why only women over the age of 30 got the vote while it was the younger women who had done the work. Rather, it is more convincing to argue that the lobbying of the feminist movement and the commitment of the Labour Party to a wider franchise were crucial factors. In addition, it was a case of the suffragists being around at the right time. Professor Joanna Bourke Title: extract from The Vote Perspective: British Professor Joanna Bourke, post war. Location: www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain This source is useful for studying the impact of the war and women's wartime contributions on their struggle for the vote, as well its impact on the decision to grant the and other reasons which contributed to the enfranchisement of women in Britain.
Title: The War Workers Perspective: Punch, or the London Charivari in 1916, the public of London Location: Excel HSC Modern History This source is useful for study the public opinion of the impact of the war on female suffrage. The impact of distraction from campaigning is pertinent in the women's response. Also through the males phrasing of the question using the word cackle portrays men's demeaning view of female suffrage.
During the war years, the principle energies of the Women Police Service were naturally directed towards assisting in keeping England fit for the struggle, we of the executive had another and even bigger aim. We had not forgotten our wider suffragette ideals; we looked forward, far beyond that shadowy time Apres la guerre finit! to an era when women should receive the fruits of their labours… Mary S. Allen Title: extract from Lady In Blue Perspective: Mary S. Allen, militant suffragette and member of WSPU, British Feminist during World War One Location: Lady In Blue, Google books This source is useful for studying the consistency of the suffragette movement throughout the war and how executive women such as Mary Allen used their positions gained through war efforts to achieve suffragette ideals.
Title: Votes for Heroines as well as Heroes Perspective: the Paper For Women, paper written and viewed by female suffragettes in 1915 Location: Textbook, Key Features of Modern History This source is useful for studying the opinions of female suffragists regarding the vote during the war. It shows how women used their contributions of the war to justify their demands for enfranchisement. As well as their beliefs in equality as a result of the increased freedom which the war granted women.
I think many women did find the war a genuinely liberating experience… They knew that their friends, relations, husbands, sons were abroad. They were dying. There was a shell shortage. And they felt they really could do something to support the war effort. It was very exciting for a lot of them. Gail Braybon Title: Perspective: Gail Braybon, pioneering British feminist of WWI Location: http://www.pbs.prg/greatwar/historian /hist_braybon_01_women.html This source is useful for studying a secondary researched opinion on the general attitudes of women towards the war and the social impact which the war had on women. It specifically mentions the munitions factory through referring to the shell shortage.
Title: In a League of Their Own – Book Cover Perspective: Nettie Honeyball, pioneer of womens Football League, during WWI Location: www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Fhone yball.htm This source is useful for studying the liberation and emergence of feminism during WWI, particularly through undertaking football as a hobby, which demonstrates feminist beliefs in equality. The book which this picture is promoting follows the process of the uprising of feminism involved with womens football during the war.
The outward signs of their freedom were flaunted gaily. Many used language that would have shocked their mothers; many started to wear cosmetics; smoking became widespread; and women bought drinks in public houses. Before the war short skirts and brassieres had come in. During the war they completely ousted long dresses and camisoles. Well-meaning committees tried to discourage Land Girls who, like most women doing heavy work or working outside, wore trousers from wearing them off-duty, but without success. In defiance of the ever present casualty figures, England was gripped by a feverish gaiety. Give boys on leave a good time was the universal sentiment. As one woman remembered it, If these young women who, as they read the casualty lists, felt fear in their hearts, did not seize experience at once, they knew that for many of them it would elude them forever. Sex became both precious and unimportant; precious as a personal experience; unimportant as something without implications. Young girls were gripped by khaki fever and hovered around army camps. By the end of war the illegitimacy rate had increased 30 percent. The marriage rate also increased sharply. Many marriages swiftly contracted, swiftly broke up. There were three times as many divorces in 1920 as in 1910. Black, L, Women at War and Work Title: extract from Women at War and Work Perspective: L. Black, published by Purnell in London, popular British audience, common opinion Location: Textbook, World War One This source is useful for studying the ways in which life changed for women in Britain during WWI. It makes specific reference to the change in clothing by women as a result of increased freedom as well as the change in perception of sex and the impact of the war on divorce and marriage.
Of all the changes wrought by war, none has been greater than the change in the status and position of women, but it is not so much that the woman herself has changed but that mans perception of her has changed. I. Cawood and D. McKinnon-Bell Title: extract from The First World War Perspective: I. Cawood and D. Mckinnon-Bell, British Historians, published by Routledge in London, well known publisher, common opinion. Location: Textbook World War One This source is useful as it analyses and makes a judgement on the most important impact of the war on women. Not only does it state the most important impact on women but it also refers to changing attitudes of men towards women as a result of the war.