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PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005) Bill Hill Kennesaw State University.

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Presentation on theme: "PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005) Bill Hill Kennesaw State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYC 2201 Personality Chapter 11 Outline for Weiten (2005) Bill Hill Kennesaw State University

2 Defining Personality An individual’s unique combination of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Personality is generally assumed to be  Consistent  Distinctive

3 Trait Approaches Characteristic behavior patterns (and ways of thinking) that are relatively consistent across similar situational contexts Traits are often described using common adjectives such as friendly, outgoing, moody, trustwothy, etc.

4 Trait Approaches The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits (McCrae & Costa)  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Openness to experience  Extraversion  Neuroticism

5 Trait Approaches Contemporary Research on Traits  Sensation-Seeking  Self-Monitoring

6 Evaluating Trait Approaches Primarily descriptive model that does not adequately either explain why a behavior occurs or predict behavior Questions as to whether the Big Five Traits are too many or not enough

7 Theories of Personality The major theories that we will discuss are primarily focused on identifying the origins of personality, not the relationship between personality and behavior. Personality theories are also key to understanding both the origins of abnormal behavior and the approaches to the treatment of abnormal behavior.

8 Theories of Personality The four basic theories of personality Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Biological

9 Psychodynamic Theories All of these approaches originate from Freud and emphasize unconscious processes that influence traits and behaviors The basic element in common is conflict. The resolution of these conflicts between the individual and either unconscious or societal pressures, determines personality.

10 Psychodynamic Theories The Big Four  Freud  Jung  Adler  Erikson

11 Freud Basic assumptions underlying Freud’s approach to personality:  Behavior (personality) is determined and controlled by unconscious factors  Foundations for adult personality laid during childhood  Primary role of sexual urges

12 Freud Structures of Personality  Id  Ego  Superego It is the dynamic interaction between these three structures that results in observed behavior

13 Freud Levels of Consciousness  Conscious  Preconscious  Unconscious

14 Freud Stages of Personality Development  Oral (mouth)  Anal (anus)  Phallic  Oedipal Complex  Penis Envy  Latency  Genital

15 Freud Defense Mechanisms  Repression  Projection  Displacement  Reaction Formation  Regression  Rationalization  Identification

16 What is the Defense Mechanism? John thought that almost everyone but himself was cheating on the psychology exam. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

17 What is the Defense Mechanism? Lisa was embarrassed when she kept forgetting her appointment with the dentist. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

18 What is the Defense Mechanism? Although Joan had not been close to her mother during her childhood she was now so oversolicitous of her mother’s health that her marriage was being threatened. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

19 What is the Defense Mechanism? Curt began assuming many of the behaviors and characteristics of the professor he most feared. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

20 What is the Defense Mechanism? After her new baby brother came home from the hospital the parents discovered Cheryl had dismembered her favorite doll. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

21 What is the Defense Mechanism? A student attributed his flunking out of the university to the poor quality of teaching there. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

22 What is the Defense Mechanism? Tommy began wetting his pants again after the birth of his baby brother. a.Repression b.Projection c.Displacement d.Reaction Formation e.Regression f.Rationalization g.Identification

23 Jung Although also emphasizing the unconscious like Freud, he proposed different layers:  Personal Unconscious  Collective Unconscious

24 Adler’s Individual Psychology De-emphasizing the sexual focus of Freud, Adler believed the energy driving personality development is a striving for superiority  Compensation  Inferiority Complex  Emphasis on social context (e.g., birth order)

25 Evaluating Psychodynamic Approaches Vague and untestable Lack of objective supporting evidence Claims of sexism in Freud’s theory

26 Behavioral Approaches Premise from behaviorism that behaviors that constitute one’s consistent traits and actions are learned through behavioral principles of conditioning (operant and classical) and observational learning

27 Radical Behaviorism & Personality (Skinner) Internal processes omitted Focus is solely on environmental factors that shape and determine observed behaviors Personality (as defined by response tendencies) can easily change across one’s life

28 Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Although out of the behavioral tradition, Bandura incorporates cognitive influences Reciprocal Determinism Perspective that behavior tendencies are the result of an interaction between cognition, environment and observed behavior

29 Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Observational Learning  Ability to imitate  Role of the model oConsequences of model’s behavior (Vicarious conditioning) oAttention to model (higher when model liked or respected and seen as similar to observer)  Self-Efficacy

30 Social Learning Theory (Mischel) Emphasized role of situational factors, thus raising questions as to whether behavior is consistent (person emphasis) or varies with one’s perception of the situational context Response choices are a function then of the person’s perception of the consequences associated with a response and consequence likelihood for the same behavior varies across situations

31 Evaluating Behavioral Approaches Question of application of fundamental principles developed through animal research to humans De-emphasis of role of cognitive factors and free will by radical behaviorists Lack of unifying structure of personality—it is simply characterized as set of acquired behaviors

32 Humanistic Approaches Key Elements:  Emphasis on human uniqueness and potential for personal growth.  As counterpoint to both Psychodynamic and Behavioral approaches, also includes strong emphasis on human free will  Adopts phenomenological approach to understanding human behavior

33 Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) Key personality construct is the self or Self-Concept, which is one’s collection of beliefs about  who he or she is (often described using traits)  typical behavior patterns

34 Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) Personality (self-concept) is largely developed as a function of childhood and adolescent experiences that are related to the interplay between an individual’s need for affection and acceptance and parenting practices.  Conditional love  Unconditional love

35 Person-Centered Theory (Rogers) Subjectively we try to maintain a match between our self-concept and our behavioral experiences. The degree of congruence (match) or incongruence (mismatch) between self- concept and experience that determines one’s mental health.

36 Self-Actualization Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs (Human Motivations)  Physiological  Safety & Security  Belongingness & Love  Esteem  Cognitive  Aesthetic  Self-Actualization

37 Evaluating Humanistic Approaches Vague and untestable Lacks strong research base to support claims Idealized view of human nature that may be overly optimistic (e.g., Maslow’s self-actualized person)

38 Biological Approaches Basic premise is that personality tendencies (traits) may be genetically influenced

39 Biological Approaches (Eysenck) Eysenck’s theory combines elements from trait and behavioral approaches to personality Although basically a trait approach, his premise is that trait tendencies are genetically determined. Actual observed traits are then shaped through conditioning.

40 Biological Approaches (Eysenck) Eysenck’s Fundamental Traits  Extraversion-Introversion  Neuroticism  Psychoticism

41 Behavioral Genetics Evidence that suggests personality traits are inherited:  Twin studies  Variability in personality traits despite shared family environment  Possibility of detecting specific genes related to traits

42 Evolutionary Perspectives Traits, such as the Big Five, have emerged through natural selection. Supporting evidence includes:  Cross-cultural consistency in the Big Five  Adaptive viability of the Big Five for survival

43 Evaluating Biological Approaches Limitations on accuracy of heritability ratios Fails to adequately address the interaction between nature and nurture No unifying theory

44 Culture & Personality Cultural and sociohistorical factors have influenced many of the major theories discussed, particularly the Psychodynamic and Humanistic approaches. What may be characterized as a personality ideal in one culture is not necessarily to same in another.

45 Culture & Personality Variations in Self-Concept  Western Ideal: independent self  Asian Ideal: interdependent self

46 Imagine that several psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. Which type of psychologist is MOST likely to have made each of these comments? Aggression is a human instinct. Although society may control it somewhat, we can never eliminate it. a.Humanistic b.Biological/evolutionary c.Psychoanalytic d.Behavioral

47 Imagine that several psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. Which type of psychologist is MOST likely to have made each of these comments? Your student may be under a lot of pressure, but that is no excuse for cheating. We are personally responsible for what we do. a.Humanistic b.Biological/evolutionary c.Psychoanalytic d.Behavioral

48 Imagine that several psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. Which type of psychologist is MOST likely to have made each of these comments? There are not any values inherent in human nature. Values are acquired in the same way we learn to say “please” and “thank you.” a.Humanistic b.Biological/evolutionary c.Psychoanalytic d.Behavioral

49 Imagine that several psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. Which type of psychologist is MOST likely to have made each of these comments? People just don’t want to believe that infants get sexual pleasure from sucking and exploring anything they get in their hands with their mouth. a.Humanistic b.Biological/evolutionary c.Psychoanalytic d.Behavioral


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