2Thermo-Chemistrythe study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes of state.
3Chemical Potential Energy: the energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance. Heat: (q) energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature difference between them.
4Heat always flowsfrom a warmer objectto a cooler object!
5Exothermic and Endothermic System: the part of the universe on which you focus your attention.Surroundings: everything else in the universe besides the “system”.
6Law of Conservation of Energy in any chemical or physical process energy is neither created nor destroyed.
7Endothermic Processone that absorbs heat from the surroundings. The system gains heat as the surroundings cool down.
8Exothermic Processone that releases heat to its surroundings. The system loses heat as the surroundings heat up.
9Heat Flow measured in two common units, the calorie and joule. calorie: the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 ̊ C.Calorie: food Calorie is equal to 1000 calories.1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories
10joule: the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 0. 239 ̊ C joule: the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of water ̊ C. The SI unit of energy.1 J = calories4.184 J = 1 calorie
11Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Heat Capacity: amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object1 ̊ C.
12Specific Heat Capacity: amount of heat needed to increase 1 gram of an object
13High Specific Heat Capacity Means an object gains or loses heat slowly due to the high capacity for heat.
14Low Specific Heat Capacity Means an object gains or loses heat rapidly due to the low capacity for heat.
15CalorimetryThe heat released by the system is equal to the heat absorbed by its surroundings. Conversely, the heat absorbed by a system is equal to the heat released by its surroundings.
16Enthalpy (H)The same as the heat content of a system at constant pressure. The heat released or gained by a system is the same as the change in enthalpy (ΔH).If pressure is constant Q= ΔH
17Heat and Changes of State ΔH fusion: the heat absorbed as a substance goes from a solid to a liquid.ΔH solidification: the heat released or lost as a substance goes from a liquid to a solid
18ΔH vaporization: the heat absorbed as a substance goes from a liquid to a vapor. ΔH condensation: the heat released or lost as a substance goes from a vapor to a liquid.