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Matter Property and Changes g ____ Properties of Matter ____ Changes in Matter ____ Classification of Matter Mixtures Compounds and Elements ____ Law.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter Property and Changes g ____ Properties of Matter ____ Changes in Matter ____ Classification of Matter Mixtures Compounds and Elements ____ Law."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Matter Property and Changes

3 g ____ Properties of Matter ____ Changes in Matter ____ Classification of Matter Mixtures Compounds and Elements ____ Law of Conservation of Mass ____ Law of Definite Proportions ____ Law of Multiple Proportions

4 Define the bold face words. Be sure you know table 3-17 on page 71. Read Section 3-1 Properties of Matter Take notes on the following terms: substance, solids, liquids, gases, physical properties, chemical properties, intensive properties, and extensive properties. Know the Law of Conservation of Mass. It is a good idea to leave space between each concept so that you can add any additional information in class. Read Section 3-2 – Read this and takes notes on the following ideas: physical and chemical changes and the signs of a chemical reaction (fig3-8 and 3-9) Read Section 3-3. Read this and take notes on the following ideas: mixtures, heterogeneous, homogeneous. Separating mixtures. Having definitions and examples would be good. How are compounds different from mixtures? Read Section 3-4 Elements and compounds. Know the difference between a compound and a mixture. Become familiar with the Periodic Table of the Elements. Know The Law of Definite Proportions.

5 Substance – matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition. Also known as a pure substance E.g. Table Salt NaCl, Water H 2 O;

6 Physical Property A physical property is observed with the senses and can be determined without destroying the object. For example, color, shape, mass, length, and odor are all examples of physical properties

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8 chemical property A chemical property indicates how a substance reacts with something else. The original substance is fundamentally changed in observing a chemical property. For example, the ability of iron to rust is a chemical property. The iron has reacted with oxygen, and the original iron metal is changed. It now exists as iron oxide, a completely different substance.

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10 Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of substance (for example, alcohol is flammable, also density, hardness, temperature). What about color?

11 Extensive properties do depend on the amount (for example, the mass of the alcohol, volume, and length). What about the number of atoms in a substance?

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15 Phases of Matter Solid- Liquid- Gas- Plasma-BEC

16 Phases of Matter Solid- Liquid- Gas- Plasma-BEC

17 Phases of Matter Solid- form of matter that has a definite shape and volume

18 Phases of Matter Liquid- a form of matter that has a constant volume and takes the shape of its container

19 Phases of Matter Gas a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of the container. watch?v=IVc9Uz6zE1Ahttp://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=IVc9Uz6zE1A

20 Phases of Matter Solid- form of matter that has a definite shape and volume Liquid- a form of matter that has a constant volume and takes the shape of its container Gas a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container and fills the entire volume of the container. 6zE1Ahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVc9Uz 6zE1A

21 Physical vs. Chemical Changes In a physical change, the original substance still exists; it has only changed in form.

22 Physical vs. Chemical Changes In a chemical change, a new substance is produced. Energy changes always accompany chemical changes.

23 Physical vs. Chemical Changes In a chemical change, a new substance is produced. Energy changes always accompany chemical changes.

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25 Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. Hydrochloric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce salt, water, and heat. A pellet of sodium is sliced in two. Water is heated and changed to steam. Potassium chlorate decomposes into potassium chloride and oxygen gas. Iron rusts. When placed in water, a sodium pellet catches on fire as hydrogen gas is liberated and sodium hydroxide forms. Evaporation. Ice melting. Milk sours. Sugar dissolves in water. Wood rotting. Pancakes cooking on a griddle. Grass growing in a lawn. A tire is inflated with air. Food is digested in the stomach. Water is absorbed by a paper towel.

26 Can it be separated by ordinary physical means?YesClassification of matterAll MatterNo________________________Is its composition uniform?Can it be broken down by ordinary chemical means?YesYesNoNo________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

27 Categories of Matter Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

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29 Basic Assessment Questions Identify each of the following as an example of a chemical change or a physical change. A. Moisture in the air forms beads of water on a cold windowpane. B. An electric current changes water into hydrogen and oxygen. C. Yeast cells in bread dough make carbon dioxide an ethanol from sugar. Warm-Up

30 Basic Assessment Questions A. Moisture in the air forms beads of water on a cold windowpane. B. An electric current changes water into hydrogen and oxygen. C. Moisture in the air forms beads of water on a cold windowpane. Physical Chemical Answers Topic 4 Topic 4

31 Categories of Matter Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

32 Mixtures A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. The composition of mixtures is variable, and the number of mixtures that can be created by combining substances is infinite.

33 Mixtures Although much of the focus of chemistry is the behavior of substances, it is important to remember that most everyday matter occurs as mixtures. Substances tend naturally to mix; it is difficult to keep things pure. Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

34 Mixtures Two mixtures, sand and water, and table salt and water, are shown. You know water to be a colorless liquid Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

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36 Types of Mixtures Mixtures themselves are classified as either heterogeneous or homogeneous. A heterogeneous mixture is one that does not blend smoothly throughout and in which the individual substances remain distinct. The sand and water mixture is an example of a heterogeneous mixture. Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

37 A homogeneous mixture has constant composition throughout

38 Mixtures can be separated by physical means.

39 Mixtures can be different phases

40 Chromotography- The separation occurs because the various components of the ink spread through the paper ant different rates.

41 Other means of physical separation centrifuges/centrifuging * centrifuges/centrifuging chromatography (paper/thin layer) * * crystallisation * chromatography (paper/thin layer)crystallisation decanting/decantation *decanting/decantation distillation (simple/fractional) * * evaporation * filtrati on * * magnet * mixture * molecule * * * precipitation * * * purification * * distillationsimple/fractionalevaporationfiltrati onmagnetmixturemoleculeprecipitationpurification sand/salt separation * sand/salt separation separating funnel * separating mixtures * * separating funnelseparating mixtures

42 . filtration 2. mechanical separation 3. flotation 4. centrifugation 5. distillation 6. crystallization 7. chromatography 8.boiling 9. freezing 10. decantation 11. sublimation 12. evaporation 13. magnetic separation 14. scooping 15. sedimentation

43 Compounds A compound is a combination of two or more different elements that are combined chemically. Compounds have a unique composition and formula. Water H 2 0, table salt NaCl, table sugar C 12 H 22 O 11, and aspirin C 9 H 8 O 4 are examples of common compounds. C H O Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

44 Compounds Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. To separate a compound into its elements often requires external energy such as heat or electricity. Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

45 The properties of a compound are different from those of its component elements. The example of water illustrates this fact. Water is a stable compound that is liquid at room temperature.

46 When water is broken down into its components, it is obvious that hydrogen and oxygen are dramatically different than the liquid they form when combined. Q-2w

47 An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. Elements All matter can be broken down into a relatively small number of basic building blocks called elements. Matter—Properties and Change

48 Periodic Table Matter—Properties and Change

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50 Categories of Matter Matter—Properties and Change: Additional Concepts

51 Mixtures vs Compounds Mixtures 1.Variable composition 2.Can be separated by physical means 3.Components keep their properties Compounds 1.Unique composition 2.Can be separated only by chemical means 3.Has properties different from its component elements

52 Evidence of a chemical reaction

53 The law of Conservation of Mass- mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction; it is conserved Mass Reactants = Mass Products

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55 ECSL8http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dExpJA ECSL8

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63 The Law of Definite Proportions- The Law of Definite Proportions- a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions. Percent by mass (%) = mass of element ÷ mass of compound X 100

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68 ehW8&NR=1&feature=endscreenhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ithQj7X ehW8&NR=1&feature=endscreen


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