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Postgraduate Certificate in Education (International) PGCEiValencia November 2010 Anne Convery.

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Presentation on theme: "Postgraduate Certificate in Education (International) PGCEiValencia November 2010 Anne Convery."— Presentation transcript:

1 Postgraduate Certificate in Education (International) PGCEiValencia November 2010 Anne Convery

2 Approaches to Teaching An introduction to Module 3

3 Aim To develop understanding of key ideas in Module 3 To review understanding of the lesson planning process To understand the nature and purpose of lesson aims, objectives and learning outcomes To examine the importance of questioning To identify the purposes of assessment Objectives

4 Module 3: Approaches to teaching Planning for learning Collaborative learning Issues in assessment Managing classroom behaviour Learners as individuals

5 Effective teaching “Our lesson observations revealed that in classes run by effective teachers, pupils are clear about what they are doing and why they are doing it. They can see links with their earlier learning and have some ideas about how it could be developed further” Hay McBer, 2000: para 1.2.4

6 What makes a good lesson?

7 Lesson planning should… be based on evaluations of previous lessons with the group locate lessons in their wider context be focused on pupils’ learning identify learning outcomes for pupils be divided into episodes (phases) plan for pupils’ experience of the lesson and their role in it consider teaching strategies/ organisation consider how to assess outcomes

8 Planning teaching for learning Context for lesson sequence schemes of work learners’ prior knowledge teachers’ knowledge of pupils Define the aims, objectives and outcomes in terms of knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes, values

9 Planning teaching for learning Structure the lesson phases select teaching and learning strategies organise each lesson phase Plan for the lesson ending plenary and review of learning (AfL) homework


11 Aims, objectives and learning outcomes What are the differences?

12 AIMS… Long term Difficult to quantify Expressed in general terms Global in scope Tend not to be differentiated Cover a whole unit of work

13 OBJECTIVES…. Short term More easily quantifiable Expressed in precise terms Lead to precise learning outcomes Differentiated according to learner need Normally shared with learners

14 LEARNING OUTCOMES… Expressed as what you want the students to have achieved by the end of the lesson: By the end of the lesson All students must........ In addition, most students should........ Some students might......... These outcomes are differentiated

15 Examples of aims To prepare students for life in a changing world To develop skills in creative writing To understand feeding relationships in an ecosystem To present the topic of food and drink in French-speaking countries Your own examples?

16 Examples of objectives To consider the advantages and disadvantages of social networking sites To examine how two writers evoke childhood in a short story To consider two links in the food chain: insect - bird - fox To compare meals in France with those in Algeria Your own examples?

17 Examples of student learning outcomes By the end of the lesson ….. All students must........ (understand the differences between meals in France and Algeria) In addition, most students should....... (be able to say in French the names of the main meals and some dishes) Some students might......... (devise a menu in French for a restaurant in France or Algeria)

18 Bloom’s taxonomy- The cognitive domain 'Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain' (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, Krathwohl, 1956)

19 Defining objectives in the cognitive domain Taxonomic Category Useful action verbs KNOWLEDGE Identify, name, list, describe… COMPREHENSION Classify, explain, convert, predict… APPLICATION Demonstrate, arrange, solve, relate… ANALYSISOrder, separate, estimate,… SYNTHESIS Combine, create, design, compose, make… EVALUATION Compare, judge, conclude, justify, support…

20 “It is crucial for people to have skills in questioning, analysing, comparing, contrasting and evaluating so that they will not become addicted to being told what to think and do….” (Freseman, 1990)

21 Evaluation “Whether or not you learn is down to me. If you don’t learn, I’ll go home and revise what I am doing and try to teach you differently” [Jonathan Solity, (Educational Psychologist), Guardian 02.09.08]

22 Evaluation How will you know whether your learning objectives have been met? How will you know whether your pupils have achieved the learning outcomes? What assessment strategies can you plan for?

23 Some Facts about Questions Teachers ask a lot of questions They are mainly ‘low level’ questions Average response time allowed is less than 1 second Only a limited number of pupils respond Teachers do not use pupils’ responses well

24 Why do teachers ask questions? warm up activity organise and manage pupils and resources review prior learning recall facts and collect observations check understanding elicit feelings or emotions or opinions develop pupils’ thinking skills

25 Types of Questions Organisation and management questions Open and closed questions Questions to elicit emotions and feelings Questions to make pupils think

26 Types of questions: One classification - Bloom’s Knowledge (Remembering) Comprehension (Understanding) Application (Solving) Analysis (Reasoning) Synthesis (Creating) Evaluation (Judging)

27 Use Bloom’s taxonomy to classify these questions Given all the conflicting arguments, where would you build the refinery? Which words do you already know in this sentence? What repeating pattern can you see in this sequence? How many different ways can you find to draw a triangle? What does each of these symbols represent? What do you think is the main point the writer is making in the second paragraph?

28 Which words do you already know in this sentence? What does each of these symbols represent? How many different ways can you find to draw a triangle? What repeating pattern can you see in this sequence? What do you think is the main point the writer is making in the second paragraph? Given all the conflicting arguments, where would you build the refinery?

29 Questioning Skills and Strategies  Ground rules for speaking  Planned sequence of key questions  Distribute questions round the group  Phrase the question, WAIT, place with the named pupil

30 Identify the key questions in relation to the learning intentions for the lesson Decide on the level, order and timing of questions Extend the questioning - thinking of subsidiary questions to ask Analyse anticipated answers and responses you might give Planning for Questioning (Adapted from E C Wragg)

31 Questioning Skills and Strategies Use appropriate language: rephrase, prompt, reinforce Keep pace going: praise, encourage Use body language, eye contact, visual aids to motivate Develop a supportive environment Use differentiated questions for different pupils Encourage pupils to frame their own questions

32 Questioning Skills and Strategies Think, pair, share Numbered heads No hands up rule Pupils asking each other

33 Points to ponder!  Fewer Questions  Better Questions  Time to Think

34 To conceive an educative question requires thought; To formulate it requires labour; To pose it, tact. None of this is mysterious And all of it is within our reach. (Dillon, 1983:8)

35 Assessment Question: Assessment of learning or assessment for learning? What is the difference?


37 Assessment for learning “Fundamental to AfL is that pupils have a clear understanding of what they are trying to learn (learning objectives), how they can recognise achievement (learning outcomes), what ‘good’ looks like (success criteria) and why they are learning this in the first place (that is, the big picture, sometimes linked to personal curricular targets). “ AfL, Secondary National Strategies (2007)

38 Assessment for learning Shares learning goals Uses effective questioning techniques Uses marking and feedback strategies Makes use of peer and self-assessment

39 10 Principles of Formative assessment is part of effective planning focuses on how students learn is central to classroom practice is a key professional skill is sensitive and constructive fosters motivation promotes understanding of goals and criteria helps learners know how to improve develops the capacity for self assessment recognises all educational achievement after Black and Wiliam (1998)

40 Module 3 assignment: reviewing a lesson sequence Think critically about the relationship between planning and teaching: 1. proposed lesson sequence; 2. critical evaluation of your lesson sequence; 3. developing the lesson sequence; 4. reflective commentary.

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