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ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES AND PHRASES Nonessential Clauses  Adds information that is not necessary to the main idea in a sentence.  Use a.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES AND PHRASES Nonessential Clauses  Adds information that is not necessary to the main idea in a sentence.  Use a."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ESSENTIAL AND NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES AND PHRASES

3 Nonessential Clauses  Adds information that is not necessary to the main idea in a sentence.  Use a COMMA  Examples,  Bob Smith, who stood at the top of his class, wants to go to medical school.  They words in bold are not necessary in the sentence.  It could just read, Bob Smith wants to go to medical school.  So the detail that he is at the top of his class is not necessary in the sentence, notice that the detail has a comma at the beginning and end of the clause  That makes that detail a nonessential clause.

4 Nonessential Phrases  Like the nonessential clauses the nonessential phrases also adds information that is not necessary to the main idea in a sentence.  Use a COMMA  Examples,  Jill White, hoping to make the swim team, practiced every day.  The words in bold are the detail in the phrase that are unnecessary in the sentence.  This sentence could just read, Jill White practiced every day.  So the detail that she was hoping to make the swim team was not necessary in this sentence. Notice there is a comma at the beginning and end of the phrase.  That makes that detail a nonessential phrase.

5 Essential Clauses  This is when a detail is necessary to the meaning of a sentence.  Do not use a comma  Examples,  All the students whose names are on that list must report to Ms. Washington this afternoon.  The detail in bold must be in this clause for the sentence to make sense.  The sentence could not just read, all the students must report to Ms. Washington this afternoon.  If this is just written then all the students will go and the only students that are suppose to go are the ones on the list.  So the detail that only the students on the list are to report to Ms. Washington this afternoon must be in the sentence. Notice there is no comma at the beginning and end of the clause.  That makes the detail an essential clause.

6 Essential Phrases  Like the essential clause an essential phrase is when a detail is necessary to the meaning of a sentence.  Do not use a comma  Examples,  A rare vase displayed in the museum was once owned by the king of Spain.  The words in bold are essential to the sentence.  It could not just read a rare vase was once owned by the king of Spain.  Because then it could be any rare vase the was once owned by the king of Spain.  The detail that it displayed in the museum is essential to the sentence so we know which vase was once owned by him. Notice there is no comma at the beginning and end of the detail.  So that makes the detail an essential phrase.

7 Including or Omitting Commas When Participial Clauses or Phrases are being used  Participial Clause or Phrase: : a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective; especially : an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object.  Example: Surprised at my reaction, she tried to console me  Depending on the writers' meaning, a participial phrases or clause may either be essential or nonessential. Including or omitting commas tells the reader how the phrase or clause relates to the main idea of the sentence.  Non- Essential, Include Commas Sarah’s brother, who is a senior, works part time at the mall.  Nonessential, Include Commas Sarah’s brother who is a senior works part time at the mall. Omitting Commas Sarah has more than one brother. The one who is a senior works at the mall.

8 Review Essential Clauses and Phrases : When a clause or phrase in a sentence is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. NO COMMAS Essential Clauses and Phrases : When a clause or phrase in a sentence is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. NO COMMAS Nonessential Clauses and Phrases: When a clause or phrase in a sentence is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. USE COMMAS Nonessential Clauses and Phrases: When a clause or phrase in a sentence is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. USE COMMAS

9 JEOPARDY

10 ESSENTIAL CLAUSES AND PHRASES NONESSENTIAL CLAUSES AND PHRASES , Done

11 Texas, which has the most farms of any state in this country, produces one fourth of our oil. Answer, Non-essential Home Is the part in white below, an essential or non-essential phrase or clause?

12 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the nonessential clause or phrase. My dog, who is a golden retriever, is very obedient. Answer: who is a golden retriever Home

13 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the nonessential clause or phrase. My lunch, which was a hamburger and fries, was delicious. Answer: which was a hamburger and fries Home

14 What does non- essential mean?. Answer: not necessary to the meaning of the sentence Home

15 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the essential clause or phrase. What does essential mean? Answer: Necessary to the meaning of the sentence? Home

16 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the essential clause or phrase. The elephant is the heaviest animal that lives on the ground. Answer: that lives on the ground Home

17 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the essential clause or phrase. The present with the red bow is yours. Answer: with the red bow Home

18 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the essential clause or phrase. This Monday at 8:00pm you are to go to the doctor. Answer: At 8:00pm Home

19 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the essential clause or phrase. All the dogs that pass the obedience test get an award. Answer: that pass the obedience test Home

20 What word often indicates that the phrase or clause is necessary? Answer: that Home

21 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the nonessential clause or phrase. The pets in the pet store, especially the dogs, are cute. Answer: especially the dogs Home

22 Identify the detail in the sentence that is the nonessential clause or phrase. There are a lot of trees, especially maple trees, in the forest. Answer: especially maple trees Home


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