Georgia Performance Standards SS7G1 The student will locate selected features of Africa. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rain forest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mountains, and Kalahari Desert. b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.
African Geography Africa is a land of many contrasts: deserts, lakes, mountains, grasslands, and rainforests. With diversity in its people, culture and languages, it is unique yet still
African Geography The Sahara is the world’s largest hot desert, covering most of Northern Africa. About 3000 miles wide and 1200 miles long, it stretches from the Red Sea to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean and meets the sahel.
African Geography The Sahara's topographical features include shallow basins, large oasis depressions, serirs or regs (gravel-covered plains), plateaus, mountains, sand sheets, dunes and sand seas (ergs). The highest part of the desert is at the summit of Mount Koussi, which is 11,204 feet (3,415 m) high. The lowest point of the Sahara is 436 feet (133 m) below sea level: in the Qattera Depression in Egypt.
African Geography The Ituri Forest is a dense tropical rain forest in the northern part of the Congo River Basin in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). It covers a over 24,300 square miles (62,900 sq km) of land in central Africa. The geographic boundaries of the Ituri Forest are difficult to define as the forest blends in with other forests and swamp regions.
African Features The Congo is the largest river in Western Central Africa. Its overall length of (2,720 mi) makes it the second longest in Africa. The Congo River flows primarily through the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the People's Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, and partially through Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, and Tanzania Surrounded by the rain forest It is the fifth longest in the world
African Geography The Nile, at 4,132 miles (6,650 km.), is the longest river in the world. Begins in Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward through northeastern Africa, flowing through Egypt and draining into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile receives its name from the Greek “Neilos”, which means a valley or river valley. The river flowed northward and flooded the lands in Egypt, leaving behind black sediment.
African Geography The Niger River - 3 rd longest on the continent, it rises in Guinea near the Sierra Leone border and flows into Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean. It is a major river in West Africa It is 2,600 mi (4,183 sq km) long, and its middle course is navigable for about 1,000 mi (1,600 km).
African Geography The Atlas Mountains lie in northwestern Africa between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara desert. Located in Northern Algeria,Tunisia and Morocco, the Atlas Mountains extend approximately 1,500 miles. The highest range in the chain is to be found in southern Morocco.
Kalahari Desert Kalahari, semi- arid plateau region is located in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. The Kalahari, a 1200 mile semi-arid sandy area is covered largely by reddish sand dunes that reach as high as 200 feet and be 50 miles long.
African Geography Lake Taganyika is the longest lake at 420 miles as well as the 2 nd deepest lake in the world (4710 feet) after Lake Victoria. It is bordered on the east of central Africa by Tanzania, on the north by Burundi, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), and on the south by Zambia.
African Geography Lake Victoria is the headwaters for the Nile River and the largest lake in Africa. The 2 nd largest freshwater lake in the world and is shallow. Tanzania and Congo in the Great Rift Valley. Lake Victoria is bordered by Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania
Location and Characteristics of Africa b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.
Africa Covers 11,630,772 square miles (it could fit the U.S. and China and leave room for all of Europe) Place where Pangaea (super continent that existed more than 250 million years ago) and life on Earth began Called the “plateau continent” because the elevation of most of the land is high
Africa The birthplace of all mankind The 2 nd largest continent 53 independent countries Traditional huts to great pyramids Deserts cover 22% of the continent- Sahara, Kalahari, Namid
6 Regions North Africa-rocky mountains the world’s largest desert West Africa- continent’s most populated region consist mostly of grasslands. East Africa- many mountains, plateaus, grasslands, and hills Central - thick rain forest, mountains, and swamps South Africa- flat or rolling grassland with mountains and plateaus Indian Ocean Islands – part of Africa that may have been connected to the continent
North Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Several major cities: Alexandria, Algiers, Cairo, Rabat, Tripoli and Tunis near the coast Mostly inhabited by Arabs, Berbers and others Cultures dominated by Islam
West Africa –Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra-Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivore, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon along Atlantic Coast –Known as “slave coast” –Landlocked Countries – Burkino Faso, Mali and Niger, Cape Verde Islands –African, Caucasoid peoples: (Berbers, Tuaregs) –Practice Islam, Christianity, Islam and traditional religions
Central Africa Located on the Congo River Basin Equitorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (fmr Zaire) Landlocked Chad, Sao Tome, Principe (island states) Tropical rain forests, grassland Christianity, traditional religions, Muslim (Chad)
East Africa Set away from the rest of Africa by highlands and Great Rift Valley Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi Arabs and other Muslims (N Sudan), African, Christianity, Islam, traditional religion
South Africa Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland African, Khoisan, European and Asian Large mineral wealth Christianity and indigenous religions
Indian Ocean Island Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritus, Seychelles Multicultural in ethnicity, religion, culture Madagascar is the largest island.
SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa. a.Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rain forest affect where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.
Climate, Work, Travel Where do people live? What do they do? Georgia Experience Reading Pp 21-22
What is Africa’s Climate? The climate of Africa, more than that of any other continent, is generally uniform. This results from the position of the continent in the Tropical Zone, the impact of cool ocean currents, and the absence of mountain chains serving as climatic barriers. African climatic zones can be distinguished.
HOW DOES CLIMATE INFLUENCE OTHER ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT? Vegetation is the most visible expression of climate Animal life adapts to both climate and vegetation Soils develop in response to climate and vegetation Landforms Water resources – determined by rainfall or shortage of rainfall
WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE UPON PEOPLE'S LIVES? Regions of extreme climatic changes have few people. Ex: Deserts, rainforests Climate influences agriculture - the choice of crops grown and animals raised People are affected to decide how to travel Water resources – population increases Disease is the effect climate changes
African Population http://na.unep.net/glob alpop/africa/Appendix _6e.htmlhttp://na.unep.net/glob alpop/africa/Appendix _6e.html Populations tend to live where resources are abundant for survival
Climate Zones of Africa Climate ZonesDescription Sahara – Sahel – Savanna – Coast & Forest –
Climate Zones of Africa Climate ZonesDescription Sahara – located in the northern most part of West Africa Largest Desert Less than 10 inches of rain per year Temperatures up to 120+ Sahel – located south of the SaharaDry grasslands with steppe climate Receives 4-8 inches of rain per year (May to Sept) Savanna – located south of the SahelGood soil, thick grass, scattered trees 30 to 50 inches of rain per year. Wet and Dry seasons Coast & Forest – located along the Atlantic and Gulf of Guinea coasts Wet humid tropical climate, rain forests More than 90 inches of rain per year Warm humid temperatures
Review: Jeopardy What is the desert? Nomads travel in this climate zone and it receives less than 10 inches of rain per year.
Review: Jeopardy Subsistence farming, oil, and public transportation is part of this climate zone. What is the rainforest?
Questions? The End!!!! Next Lesson – Environmental Issues of Africa