2Georgia Performance Standards SS7G1 The student will locate selected features of Africa.a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rain forest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mountains, and Kalahari Desert.b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.
3African GeographyAfrica is a land of many contrasts: deserts, lakes, mountains, grasslands, and rainforests.With diversity in its people, culture and languages, it is unique yet still
4African GeographyThe Sahara is the world’s largest hot desert, covering most of Northern Africa.About 3000 miles wide and 1200 miles long, it stretches from the Red Sea to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean and meets the sahel.
5African GeographyThe Sahara's topographical features include shallow basins, large oasis depressions, serirs or regs (gravel-covered plains), plateaus, mountains, sand sheets, dunes and sand seas (ergs). The highest part of the desert is at the summit of Mount Koussi, which is 11,204 feet (3,415 m) high.The lowest point of the Sahara is 436 feet (133 m) below sea level: in the Qattera Depression in Egypt.
8African GeographyThe Sahel is the transition zone south of the Sahara and north of the equator.It is between the tropical rain forests and the Sahara desertDjenne and Timbukto are part of the sahel in Mali
15African GeographyThe Ituri Forest is a dense tropical rain forest in the northern part of the Congo River Basin in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire).It covers a over 24,300 square miles (62,900 sq km) of land in central Africa.The geographic boundaries of the Ituri Forest are difficult to define as the forest blends in with other forests and swamp regions.
17African FeaturesThe Congo is the largest river in Western Central Africa. Its overall length of (2,720 mi) makes it the second longest in Africa. The Congo River flows primarily through the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the People's Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, and partially through Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, and TanzaniaSurrounded by the rain forestIt is the fifth longest in the world
19African GeographyThe Nile, at 4,132 miles (6,650 km.), is the longest river in the world.Begins in Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward through northeastern Africa, flowing through Egypt and draining into the Mediterranean Sea.The Nile receives its name from the Greek “Neilos”, which means a valley or river valley. The river flowed northward and flooded the lands in Egypt, leaving behind black sediment.
21African GeographyThe Niger River - 3rd longest on the continent, it rises in Guinea near the Sierra Leone border and flows into Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean.It is a major river in West AfricaIt is 2,600 mi (4,183 sq km) long, and its middle course is navigable for about 1,000 mi (1,600 km).
24African GeographyThe Atlas Mountains lie in northwestern Africa between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara desert.Located in Northern Algeria,Tunisia and Morocco, the Atlas Mountains extend approximately 1,500 miles.The highest range in the chain is to be found in southern Morocco.
27Kalahari DesertKalahari, semi- arid plateau region is located in Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa.The Kalahari, a 1200 mile semi-arid sandy area is covered largely by reddish sand dunes that reach as high as 200 feet and be 50 miles long.
30African GeographyLake Taganyika is the longest lake at 420 miles as well as the 2nd deepest lake in the world (4710 feet) after Lake Victoria.It is bordered on the east of central Africa by Tanzania, on the north by Burundi, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), and on the south by Zambia.
32African GeographyLake Victoria is the headwaters for the Nile River and the largest lake in Africa.The 2nd largest freshwater lake in the world and is shallow.Tanzania and Congo in the Great Rift Valley.Lake Victoria is bordered by Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania
39Location and Characteristics of Africa b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.
40AfricaCovers 11,630,772 square miles (it could fit the U.S. and China and leave room for all of Europe)Place where Pangaea (super continent that existed more than 250 million years ago) and life on Earth beganCalled the “plateau continent” because the elevation of most of the land is high
41Africa The birthplace of all mankind The 2nd largest continent 53 independent countriesTraditional huts to great pyramidsDeserts cover 22% of the continent- Sahara, Kalahari, Namid
426 Regions North Africa-rocky mountains the world’s largest desert West Africa- continent’s most populated region consist mostly of grasslands.East Africa- many mountains, plateaus, grasslands, and hillsCentral - thick rain forest, mountains, and swampsSouth Africa- flat or rolling grassland with mountains and plateausIndian Ocean Islands – part of Africa that may have been connected to the continent
44North Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Several major cities: Alexandria, Algiers, Cairo, Rabat, Tripoli and Tunis near the coastMostly inhabited by Arabs, Berbers and othersCultures dominated by Islam
45West AfricaMauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra-Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivore, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon along Atlantic CoastKnown as “slave coast”Landlocked Countries – Burkino Faso, Mali and Niger, Cape Verde IslandsAfrican, Caucasoid peoples: (Berbers, Tuaregs)Practice Islam, Christianity, Islam and traditional religions
46Central Africa Located on the Congo River Basin Equitorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (fmr Zaire)Landlocked Chad, Sao Tome, Principe (island states)Tropical rain forests, grasslandChristianity, traditional religions, Muslim (Chad)
47East AfricaSet away from the rest of Africa by highlands and Great Rift ValleySudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, BurundiArabs and other Muslims (N Sudan), African,Christianity, Islam, traditional religion
48South AfricaAngola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, SwazilandAfrican, Khoisan, European and AsianLarge mineral wealthChristianity and indigenous religions
49Indian Ocean Island Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritus, Seychelles Multicultural in ethnicity, religion, cultureMadagascar is the largest island.
50SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa.Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rain forest affect where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.
52Climate, Work, Travel Where do people live? What do they do? Georgia Experience Reading Pp 21-22
53What is Africa’s Climate? The climate of Africa, more than that of any other continent, is generally uniform.This results from the position of the continent in the Tropical Zone, the impact of cool ocean currents, and the absence of mountain chains serving as climatic barriers.African climatic zones can be distinguished.
55HOW DOES CLIMATE INFLUENCE OTHER ASPECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT? Vegetation is the most visible expression of climateAnimal life adapts to both climate and vegetationSoils develop in response to climate and vegetationLandformsWater resources – determined by rainfall or shortage of rainfall
56WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE UPON PEOPLE'S LIVES? Regions of extreme climatic changes have few people.Ex: Deserts, rainforestsClimate influences agriculture - the choice of crops grown and animals raisedPeople are affected to decide how to travelWater resources – population increasesDisease is the effect climate changes
57African PopulationPopulations tend to live where resources are abundant for survival
59Climate Zones of Africa DescriptionSahara –Sahel –Savanna –Coast & Forest –
60Climate Zones of Africa DescriptionSahara – located in the northern most part of West AfricaLargest DesertLess than 10 inches of rain per yearTemperatures up to 120+Sahel – located south of the SaharaDry grasslands with steppe climateReceives 4-8 inches of rain per year (May to Sept)Savanna – located south of the SahelGood soil, thick grass, scattered trees30 to 50 inches of rain per year. Wet and Dry seasonsCoast & Forest – located along the Atlantic and Gulf of Guinea coastsWet humid tropical climate, rain forestsMore than 90 inches of rain per yearWarm humid temperatures
61Review: JeopardyWhat is the desert?Nomads travel in this climate zone and it receives less than 10 inches of rain per year.
62Review: Jeopardy What is the rainforest? Subsistence farming, oil, and public transportation is part of this climate zone.What is the rainforest?
63Questions?The End!!!!Next Lesson – Environmental Issues of Africa