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Literary Movements in American Literature. Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D. 1620 2000-1000 B.C.-Native Americans in Southwest cultivate maize,

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Movements in American Literature. Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D. 1620 2000-1000 B.C.-Native Americans in Southwest cultivate maize,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Movements in American Literature

2 Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D B.C.-Native Americans in Southwest cultivate maize, a forerunner of corn. A.D. 500-Native American tribes in Eastern woodlands establish agricultural economy and trade. A.D. 800-Mound Builder culture develops along Mississippi River. A.D Anaszi build elaborate, multistory cliff dwellings in Southwest canyons.

3 Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D Miamisburg Mound, the largest conical mound in Ohio, is attributed to the Adena archaeological culture.

4 Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D Cliff Palace – Mesa Verde National Park, CO

5 Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D Mythology-a system of hereditary stories of ancient origin which were by a particular cultural group, and which served to explain that culture. The World on the Turtles Back-Iroquois Tribe The Song of the Sky Loom-Tewe Tribe Native American Myths Hunting Song-Navajo Tribe Coyote and Buffalo-Okanogan Tribe

6 Origins and Encounters 2000 B.C. – A.D Accounts of Exploration and Exploitation 1502-First enslaved Africans taken to America First permanent English colony set up in Jamestown, Virginia. La Relacion-(report) Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca The Travels of Marco Polo-(travelogue) Marco Polo The Interesting Narrative of the Life Olaudah Equiano-(slave narrative) Olaudah Equiano

7 From Colony to Country Age of Reason is the literary movement that adheres to strict Puritan doctrine. 1,000 Puritans settle in Plymouth, Massachusetts A Modell of Christian Charity by John Winthrop For we must consider that we shall be like a City upon a Hill Winthrop envisioned a city of God as the Utopian foundation for the new society that the Puritans would be building.

8 From Colony to Country Upon the Burning of Our House by Anne Bradstreetthe first famous colonial poet.

9 From Colony to Country – The Examination of Sarah Good – Salem witch trials. What evil spirit have you familiarity with? None. Have you made no contract with the devil? No. Why do you hurt these children? I do not hurt them. I scorn it. Who do you imploy then to do it? I imploy no body. What creature do you imploy then? No creature. I am falsely accused. Dialogue based on the examination of Sarah Good by Judges Hathorne and Corwin, from The Salem Witchcraft Papers, Book II, p.355

10 From Colony to Country Poor Richards Almanack- by Benjamin Franklin Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy wealthy and wise.

11 From Colony to Country Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God- a sermon delivered by Jonathan Edwards. The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you…his wrath toward you burns like fire; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire.

12 From Colony to Country Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson. We hold these truths to be self-evident:--That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness What Is an American? by Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crevecoeur. He is an American who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds.

13 Colonial Period Artwork Artist: The Freake-Gibbs Painter Place and period: Worked in Boston in 1670 Title of work: The Mason Children: David, Joanna, and Abigail Date of completion: 1670

14 The Spirit of Individualism Romanticism – At the beginning of the 19 th century, this movement took place as a reaction to Neoclassicism. The Romantics realized the limitations of reason; as a result, they focused on the individual spirit, the emotions, the imagination, and the supernatural Emerson, Thoreau, and others organized the Transcendental Club. Transcendentalism is based on the idea that truth exists beyond reason and experience.

15 Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, Spain, This Romantic painting by Goya serves as a social satire about the oppressive Napoleonic forces in Spain at the time. This painting exemplifies Romanticism as it explores a new subject matter as well as color effects, and places an extreme importance on the power of emotion.

16 The Spirit of Individualism Longfellow, a famous romantic writer, wrote A Psalm of Life Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time;

17 The Spirit of Individualism Thoreau begins to live on Walden Pond Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau That government is best which governs least;

18 The Spirit of Individualism Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string.

19 The Spirit of Individualism Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman Song of Myself Or I guess the grass is itself a child….the produced babe of the vegetation.

20 The Spirit of Individualism American Gothic- the setting is usually in the middle ages, often with a gloomy castle furnished with dungeons, underground passages and ghosts. American Gothic relates to romanticism where the imagination leads to the dark regions of the unknown The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe

21 Conflict and Expansion A House Divided Moby Dick by Herman Melville Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Abraham Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Autobiography

22 Conflict and Expansion Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain Life on the Mississippi by Mark Twain

23 Conflict and Expansion Realism became the dominant literary style after the Civil War. The focus was on ordinary people. Local-color realism- the detailed representation in a literary work of the setting, dialect, customs, dress, and ways of thinking and feeling which are distinctive to a particular region. Mark Twain and Willa Cather used local-color realism.

24 Conflict and Expansion Childe Hassam Improvisation Edith Wharton – Age of Innocence The Gilded Age is an era that characterizes economic growth that widens the gap between rich and poor, and breeds corruption through affluence in politics, business, and society.

25 Impressionism Impressionist artists were concerned with the affects and quality of light, and knew how colors could complement or alter one another. The spontaneity of their painting was a great contrast to academic paintings of the past, and leisure time activities were a favorite subject. While the name impressionism derives from realism, the movement was deemed as such because of Monets Impression Sunrise.

26 Expressionism Van Gogh was influenced by the 20th century. Van Gogh's inner state of mind certainly played a large role in his subject matter and painting as a whole. Characterized by his extreme uses of color and fragmentary brush marks, his own feelings are fairly evident in his works. Vincent Van Gogh, Boulevard de Clichy, 1887

27 The Changing Face of America Emily Dickinson writes 366 poems in a year. Because I could not stop for Death- He kindly stopped for me- The Carriage held but just Ourselves- And Immortality.

28 The Changing Face of America The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman illustrates the emotional and intellectual oppression of a young woman during the Victorian Era.

29 The Changing Face of America The American Dream / Illusion or reality? 1890s- We Wear The Mask by Paul Laurence Dunbar describes the pain of racism. We wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,-

30 The Changing Face of America Winter Dreams by F. Scott Fitzgerald- Often he reached out for the best without knowing why he wanted it…

31 The Modern Age The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot.-Alienation of the Individual I should have been a pair of ragged claws Scuttling across the floors of silent seas.

32 Modern Art Edvard Munch ( ): "Disease and Insanity were the black angels on guard at my cradle". An early life full of death and struggle traumatized Munch and left him "a human isolate in constant fear of death". Themes of illness and death "dominate his paintings" as he was so utterly scared of these issues. He also had a deep hatred of women and of hands. His works really reflect his own personal issues.

33 The Modern Age Mending Wall by Robert Frost Good fences make good neighbors.

34 The Modern Age s- Harlem Renaissance originated in Harlem, New York. Langston Hughes was a leading voice for the Harlem Renaissance. Harlem Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

35 Harlem Renaissance Art William H. Johnson arrived in Harlem in 1918.

36 The Modern Age s-Harlem Renaissance Writers: Zora Neal Hurston Countee Cullen Claude McKay Langston Hughes After 1960s-Reaffirming Black Cultural Identity: James Baldwin Gwendolyn Brooks Toni Morrison Nikki Giovanni Alice Walker

37 Reaffirming the Harlem Renaissance Romare Bearden can best be described as a "descendent" of the Harlem Renaissance, for the majority of his works were created a couple of decades after the movement had ended. His paintings, collages and prints celebrate black history, black music (jazz primarily an invention of black musicians), and black lifestyles. Bright colors, unusual spatial compositions, and a jubilant attitude frequently occupy his works. Soul History

38 The Modern Age Southern Gothic- The 19 th century setting of a medieval castle shifted to a decaying plantation, with a family isolated in time and place A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner.

39 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present Remembering the Wars (World War II) Armistice by Bernard Malamud- a story set in World War II before the U.S. entered the conflict. Anti-Semitism, prejudice against Jews, plays a major role in the story.

40 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell. Jarrell served in the U.S. Army Air Force, teaching flight navigation in Arizona. He gained firsthand knowledge of fighter planes and gunners.

41 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present Traditions Across Time: War in Vietnam Ambush by Tim OBrien presents a soldiers response to the fear and confusion in Vietnam and the memories that haunt him after the war.

42 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present Integration and Disintegration Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King Jr.(1963)- …My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and non-violent pressure.

43 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present Integration and Disintegration Legal Alien by Pat Mora sliding back and forth between two worlds

44 War Abroad and Conflict at Home 1940-Present Integration and Disintegration Mother Tongue by Amy Tan I dont see myself writing about culture and the immigrant experience. Thats just part of the tapestry. What I believe my books are about is relationships and family.

45 Contemporary Art Pop Art began in England in the 1950s and emerged in a different way in the United States in the 1960s. Pop is short for popular, as pop art reflected and expressed popular culture of the time. American Pop Art was a unified movement that "insisted on a direct relationship between its use of the imagery of mass production and its adoption of modern technological procedures". Each artist established their own style and identity which we can see clearly through the works of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.

46 Works Cited Images Miamisburg Mound, Cliff Palace - John Winthrop - Anne Bradstreet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, F. Scott Fitzgerald - Benjamin Franklin - Jonathan Edwards - The Mason Children - The Third of May – Francisco Goya - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Henry David Thoreau - Edgar Allan Poe - Herman Melville - Frederick Douglass -

47 Works Cited Mark Twain - Improvisation-Childe Hassam - Impression Sunrise-Claude Monet Boulevard de Clichy –Vincent Van Gogh - Emily Dickinson - Charlotte Perkins Gilman - Paul Laurence Dunbar - T.S. Eliot - Scream – Edvard Munch - Robert Frost - Langston Hughes - William H. Johnson - Chain Gang – William H. Johnson - Soul History – Romare Bearden

48 Works Cited William Faulkner - Bernard Malamud - Randall Jarrell, Pat Mora - Tim OBrien Martin Luther King Jr. - Amy Tan - Pop Art - Information Contemporary Art - Quotations, Literary terms, Backgrounds on writers Anderson R., Brinnin J., Leggett J., Burroway, J., and Cisneros, S., Elements of Literature. Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc

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