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December 4, 2011 Systems Biology in Allergy and Asthma Lanny J. Rosenwasser, M.D. Dee Lyons/Missouri Endowed Chair in Immunology Research Professor of.

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Presentation on theme: "December 4, 2011 Systems Biology in Allergy and Asthma Lanny J. Rosenwasser, M.D. Dee Lyons/Missouri Endowed Chair in Immunology Research Professor of."— Presentation transcript:

1 December 4, 2011 Systems Biology in Allergy and Asthma Lanny J. Rosenwasser, M.D. Dee Lyons/Missouri Endowed Chair in Immunology Research Professor of Pediatrics Allergy-Immunology Division Childrens Mercy Hospital Kansas City, Missouri Professor of Pediatrics, Medicine and Basic Science University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine

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3 Disclosure Statement Lanny J. Rosenwasser, MD RESEARCH STUDIES Alcon, A-Z, GlaxoSmithKline, Genentech, Novartis MBBH/MacArthur Foundation, National Institutes of Health CONSULTANT Alcon,, A-Z, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Regeneron, Sanofi-Aventis SPEAKERS BUREAU Alcon, A-Z, Genentech, Novartis

4 Learning Objectives Understand the nature of Systems Biology Examine the complex nature of Immune Response in Allergy and Asthma Understand the applications of Systems Biology to Allergic Responses

5 Definitions Systems Biology – Integrated basis for functionality of an Organism Immune Responses – Symphonies of Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms with each component generating a coordinated effective response Analogies - Multiple

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10 Analogies of Complex Disease Process Symphony Airplane Junkyard Radio

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13 Modeling and Simulation at Molecular Scale Informatics – Software driven Modeling of Signaling and Receptor Activity Modeling of Cellular Behavior and Interactions

14 Large Scale Data Acquisition Technologies Cell and Molecular Biology Proteomics, Genomics Immunology Wet Lab

15 Molecular Biological Tools Gene and MiRNA Expression Transcript Profiling Next Generation Sequencing RNA; Screening Assay Design Applications

16 Interactional Measures Network Models 2 Hybrid Screens Mass Spec Proteomics Array Protein Assays Flow Cytometry

17 Characteristics of Asthma Narrowing of the airways Airway obstruction Airway inflammation Increased airway responsiveness NHLBI, NAEPP, 1997.

18 DRAFT Neutrophil Mast cell IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, IL-9 Eosinophil IL-3, IL-5 GM-CSF Dendritic cell IgE Inflammation (myo) fibroblasts Blood vessels Environmental factors and Inflammatory products mucus Smooth muscle Airway microenvironment Proinflammatory mediators Th-2/Th-1 cytokines – eg IL-13, TNF Initiation Amplification Propagation TNF B lymphocyteT lymphocyte Acute Inflammation Persistent inflammation and development of remodeling Environmental factors Airway Effects Bronchospam Acute Inflammation Persistent Inflammation Remodeling

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21 Complexity of Asthma Several orders of magnitude more complex Microbiome, Proteome, Transcriptome, Genome Tissues, Organs, Whole Body, Brain Third and Fourth Dimensions

22 Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Patients Aged 12 Years ICS = inhaled corticosteroids; LABA = long-acting β 2 -agonist; LTRA = leukotriene receptor antagonist. Adapted from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (EPR ). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: Accessed August 29, Step 1 Preferred: SABA PRN Step 2 Preferred: Low-dose ICS (A) Alternative: Cromolyn (A), LTRA (A), Nedocromil (A), or Theophylline (B) Step 3 Preferred: Low-dose ICS + LABA (A) OR Medium-dose ICS (A) Alternative: Low-dose ICS + either LTRA (A), Theophylline (B), or Zileuton (D) Step 5 Preferred: High-dose ICS + LABA (B) AND Consider Omalizumab for Patients Who Have Allergies (B) Step 4 Preferred: Medium-dose ICS + LABA (B) Alternative: Medium-dose ICS + either LTRA (B), Theophylline (B), or Zileuton (D) Step 6 Preferred: High-dose ICS + LABA + Oral Corticosteroid AND Consider Omalizumab for Patients Who Have Allergies Intermittent Asthma Persistent Asthma: Daily Medication Consult with asthma specialist if Step 4 care or higher is required. Consider consultation at Step 3. Step Up If Needed (first, check adherence, environmental control, and comorbid conditions) Step Down If Possible (and asthma is well controlled at least 3 months) Assess Control Quick-Relief Medication for All Patients SABA as needed for symptoms. Intensity of treatment depends on severity of symptoms: up to 3 treatments at 20-minute intervals as needed. Short course of systemic oral corticosteroids may be neededSABA as needed for symptoms. Intensity of treatment depends on severity of symptoms: up to 3 treatments at 20-minute intervals as needed. Short course of systemic oral corticosteroids may be needed Use of SABA >2 days a week for symptom relief (not prevention of EIB) generally indicates inadequate control and the need to step up treatmentUse of SABA >2 days a week for symptom relief (not prevention of EIB) generally indicates inadequate control and the need to step up treatment Each Step: Patient education, environmental control, and management of comorbidities Steps 2-4: Consider subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy for patients who have allergic asthma

23 Anti IgE Targets IgE, FCeRI Rhu Mab - E25 - Omalizumab, Xolair Reduces Free IgE (allergen specific) Reduces Eos (sputum, BAL, blood) Reduces FCeRI and FCeRII expression Efficacy - Asthma, AR

24 Biotherapeutic Targets in Immune Allergic Disorders, Anti-IgE Innate Immunity Targets IL-1, TNF, IL-6 TLR, Adhesion Molecules IFN Modulation Chemokines Acquired ImmunityTargets Th 2, Th 17 CytokinesIL-2, 4,5,9,13,17,25,33 CellularDC, T, B Other Targets TSLP Adipokines Growth and Differentiation Factors

25 IL-1 family members – Chr. 2q13 New NameOther NameProperty IL-1F1IL-1αAgonist IL-1F2IL-1βAgonist IL-1F3IL-1Ra Receptor antagonist IL-1F4IL-18Agonist IL-1F5FIL1δ Anti-inflammatory IL-1F6FIL-1εAgonist IL-1F7IL-37Anti-inflammatory IL-1F8IL-1H2Agonist IL-1F9IL-1εAgonist IL-1F10IL1HУ2Receptor antagonist IL-1F11IL-33Agonist

26 Extended IL-1 Family (Caspase 1 Dependent) IL-18 – shared receptor and genetics (IL-18bp) IL-32 – TNF inducer IL-33 – Ligand for ST2 Induces TH2 Cytokines IL-37 – Downregulation of IL-1 family activities

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29 IL-17 Family кd IL-17A, IL-17F – profibrotic activate chemokines (IL-8) and IL-6 IL-17E – IL-25 IL-25 associated with eosinophilia, airways hyperresponsiveness Genetics of IL-17 family linked to asthma

30 Key Central Role of IL-5 in Asthma

31 J ALLERGY IMMUNOL 2010 APR

32 Anti-IL-5 in Human Asthma: Reduction in Exacerbations Haldar P et al. New Engl J Med 2009;360:973 Nair P et al. New Engl J Med 2009;360:985 Severe (CCS-dependent) asthma Sputum eosinophilia required for enrollment No improvement in FEV1, control, symptoms

33 Anti-IL-5 in Human Asthma: Haldar P et al. New Engl J Med 2009;360:973 Nair P et al. New Engl J Med 2009;360:985

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36 Comparison of High Affinity vs. Low Affinity IgE Receptor (Modified from Novak, et at. JACI 2003) Effector Cells of Allergy/Asthma -Mast Cells -Basophils Antigen Presenting Cells CD23a -B cells CD23b -Antigen Presenting Cells (One log difference in binding)

37 CD 23 as a Target for Therapy FCe RII 45 KD C-type Lectin Type 2 Protein Expressed - B-cells, APC, DC Airway Smooth Muscle

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39 FCER2 – Pleiotropic Effects

40 FCER2– GCTTA Haplotype % with Haplotype HospitalizationsER Visits p = (Hosp) and 0.01 (ER) Yes No

41 CD23 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AA seqNucleotide Allele position Variant FrequencyAA Change 62 C to TC 0.75Arginine to T 0.25Tryptophan

42 3771 Nci I | aagagagggctgcc c ggaacggtatgaagg ttctctcccgacgg g ccttgccatacttcc Agr 3771 | aagagagggctgcc t ggaacggtatgaagg Ttctctcccgacgg a ccttgccatacttcc trp Genotype of CD23 R62W in Genomic DNA (NT_011145) HomoWild typeHetero 393bp 183bp 210bp Kijimoto-Ochiai S., 2002 R W

43 Tantisera et al JACI,120,1285,2007

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48 Allergy Systems Biology Approach to Allergic Cascades Biotherapeutics Pharmacogenetic Profiling Early Intervention

49 Systems Medicine Predictive Preventive Pharmacologically Effective Personalized

50 Challenges for the Future in Complex Genetic Disease Translational Research Robust Biomarkers Phenotype Analysis Phenotype/Genotype Association Diagnostic/Pathologic Visualization (Nanomedicine) Informatics Modeling

51 References Ronald N. Germain et al. Systems Biology in Immunology – A Computational Modeling Perspective. Annu Rev Immunol : David J. Weatherall. Systems Biology and Red Cells, N ENGL J MED ; Sydney Brenner. Sequence and consequences. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B ,

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54 Childrens Mercy Hospital & Clinics Jianfeng Meng Marcia A. Chan Brianna May Nicole Gigliotti Sharrion Russell Acknowledgments

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