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LOGIC Art and Science of Critical Thinking PROF. SIMEON C. BERNADOS, JR. CHAIR, HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, HUMAN KINETICS CAS, CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY.

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Presentation on theme: "LOGIC Art and Science of Critical Thinking PROF. SIMEON C. BERNADOS, JR. CHAIR, HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, HUMAN KINETICS CAS, CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 LOGIC Art and Science of Critical Thinking PROF. SIMEON C. BERNADOS, JR. CHAIR, HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, HUMAN KINETICS CAS, CEBU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

2 VISION, MISSION, GOALS OF CTU Mission: Provide advanced professional and technical instruction for special purposes, industrial trade, teacher education, agriculture, fishery, forestry, engineering, aeronautics and land-based programs, arts and sciences, health sciences, information technology and other relevant fields of study. It shall undertake research, production and extension services, and provide progressive leadership across the areas of specialization for global empowerment

3 VISION The center of excellence and development in research, instruction, production, and extension services for progressive leadership transcending global technological, business and industry- driven education.

4 GOAL Produce knowledge-based and globally competent human resource who are reasonably flexible and attuned to the latest technology needs; strengthen academe and industry partnership; and spur effective and efficient technology management.

5 WHERE SHALL WE PLACE ‘LOGIC’ IN THE VMG OF THE UNIVERSITY?

6 DEFINITION A science and art of critical/analytical thinking

7 FACTORS AFFECTING ANALYTICAL THINKING Family upbringingFamily upbringing Peer pressurePeer pressure Fads and crazeFads and craze Socio-cultural influencesSocio-cultural influences –Education –Religion –Hierarchy

8 LET’S TRY.... Romantic love is a natural part of human experience, and is therefore found in all societies, in close connection with marriage.

9 In all societies, some people will be unhappy or depressed; therefore, rates of suicide will tend to be the same throughout the world LET’S TRY....

10 WHAT CAN BE SAID OF THE TWO STATEMENTS?

11 Implications Logical thinking is vital to man’s existence It is essential for the development of the human mind Without the intellect: 1.Man will be devoid of morality. 2.Man will be just be any plain animal.

12 LET’S TRY THIS... I believe that there is God because the Bible says so. Doctors say that exercise is good. Therefore, everybody must exercise. I believe that nothing is impossible with God. Therefore, God can tell a lie. Say something about the following statements below.

13 SOME MORE... Students should be allowed to open their books during examinations. After all, surgeons have X- rays to help them during operations, engineers have blueprints to guide them during construction, and teachers have books when they do prepare their lessons. Why do students are not allowed to open their books during examinations?Students should be allowed to open their books during examinations. After all, surgeons have X- rays to help them during operations, engineers have blueprints to guide them during construction, and teachers have books when they do prepare their lessons. Why do students are not allowed to open their books during examinations?

14 WHAT IS LOGIC THEN? ORGANON (Aristotle) The science of principles, laws, and methods which the mind of man in its thinking must follow for the accurate and secure attainment of truth (Bittle, 1950)

15 Hence: Logic = tool for the accurate and secure attainment of truth. Note: Therefore, the mind must be freed from all prejudices or biases.

16 What does it mean to be OBJECTIVE? Any Mental Teasers?

17 BLUE This is...

18 THIS IS... RED

19 THIS IS... YELLOW

20 THIS IS... GREEN

21 this is... WHITE

22 this is... BLACK

23 this is.... BROWN

24 This is... ORANGE

25 FORMAL & MATERIAL LOGIC: DISTINGUISHED Trustworthiness Truth, and Certainty Material LOGIC of the statements involved in thinking.

26 FOR INSTANCE: Every cat is an animal; Every tiger is an animal; Therefore, every tiger is cat.

27 BUT... Every cat is an animal; Every carabao is an animal; Therefore, every carabao is cat.

28 Material Argument can then be: CORRECT WRONG

29 LOGICALLY WRONG The carabao is flying. The birds are singing. Love is blind. The ship plows the sea.

30 FORMAL LOGIC Every animal is vertebrate; Every cabbage is animal; Ergo, every cabbage is vertebrate. Note: The argument presupposes that cabbages are animals

31 thus Formal logic does not concern itself with the things in reality, but only with the structure of the argument.

32 Formal logic is said to be: VALID INVALID

33 Example: “My son, don’t marry that woman. Her family is of ill-repute. The mother is a prostitute and the father is a drug lord. Will a tree bear fruit not of its own kind?”

34

35 THAT’S ALL FOLKS !!!

36 EXAM 1

37

38

39 Identify

40 Which of the ff is logically acceptable? Write A, if acceptable, NA, if otherwise.


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