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Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID IN EMERGENCY V.V.L.N.S.N.Gupta."— Presentation transcript:


2 To prevent the severity of
AIM To prevent the severity of Any injury Poisoning

3 By simple & prompt application of
Proper First Aid measures According to the circumsatances

4 BASICS OF FIRST AID Look for Smoke, flames Electrical wires
Recognize source of disaster Look for Smoke, flames Electrical wires Risk of explosion Roadside dangers Potential violence

5 BASICS OF FIRST AID Do not endanger yourself Use PPEs as available
Improvise Wash hand before handling wounds Avoid contact with blood and all body fluids

6 BASICS OF FIRST AID Keep calm – remember First aid training
Assess victim for Responsiveness ABC of resuscitation Take history Physical examination Monitor for changes If unresponsive victim, tongue may fall back Extend neck by elevating chin

7 BASICS OF FIRST AID Call for Medical help

8 Under Self protection:
GENERAL MEASURES Under Self protection: Remove the victim from the site of accident Bring him in bright light & fresh air

9 Loosen his clothes Remove the irritant & toxic gases Remove Blood dirty material from his eyes, mouth, nasal cavity etc., by thoroughly washing with large quantity of Normal saline

10 Take care of any bleeding point.
Quickly assess the condition of victim Help of the physician should be sought for, in case of serious injury

11 Oral & Pharyngeal Cavity
UNCONSCIOUS VICTIM Clean Nose Oral & Pharyngeal Cavity Remove all the discharge(Blood & Vomitous)

12 Place the victim in ¾ th prone position
With head slightly downward & tiled to one side so that any vomiting, discharge and blood coming in the mouth or Pharynx should tickly down from the mouth or nose

13 VICTIM UNDER SHOCK What is shock? Difficulty in breathing
When breathing is shallow and fast or may be slow Blood Pressure will be low or may not be recordable

14 Pulse will be rapid and feeble
Artificial respiration is required in difficulty of breathing and shallow respiration

15 Best method is mouth to mouth to respiration that is kiss to life and by By Ambu’s bag

16 Technique for mouth to mouth respiration
Clean any discharge, blood or vomitous in the mouth & nose With one hand lift the lower jaw forward & with the fingers of the other hand pinch the nostril together

17 Take deep breath. Place your mouth over the victim’s mouth & blow out strongly the air present in your mouth See the victim’s chest wall with the corners of the eyes, it should rise as his lungs are inflated

18 When there is stoppage of Heart
Pulse is not recordable Heart beats are not present If the blood supply is not restored within three minutes, brain will be damaged extensively and victim may die.

19 Following steps should be taken immediately
Shout for the help and if available for Oxygen Lay the victim flat on hard smooth surface Thump the middle of the chest firmly once and note the time.

20 If the heart do not starts beating effectively then resuscitate the victim by
External Cardiac massage Mouth to Mouth artificial respiration as follows:

21 Place the patient flat on hard smooth surface
Raise his legs Knee down on the right side of the victim Clear the victim’s air way by fingers, clean cloth, cotton or gauge

22 Extend the neck and hold chin up.
Inflate the lungs of the victim once by mouth to mouth respiration

23 Do the external cardiac massage as follows:
Place the palm of your right hand on lower 1/3rd of the sternum of the victim (middle chest). Rest other hand on top of other hand. Keep the arm straight

24 Press the lower sternum vertically backwards once/second with a jerky movement. Lift the hand off the chest momentarily between two compressions. The sternumn should move 1.5 – 2 inch backward with each compression.

25 Inflate the lungs after every eight sternal compression
This whole process of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration is called as resuscitation. Artificial respiration can be given by Ambu’s bag also.

26 Continue the resuscitation till ambulance and other medical facilities are available.
Transfer the patient to nearest medical center or hospital at the earliest.

27 DROWNING: ACTION:        Get victim on to dry land with least danger to yourself. Pull him out while staying on land When bringing victim out of water, his head should be lower than chest to avoid vomiting leading to inhalation Treat for drowning and effects of cold Prevent and treat low Oxygen - Open airway, check respiration and pulse, resuscitate, if required. Send him to hospital

28 CHOKING Swallowed foreign body: Eg., food, boiled sweets, may cause :-
a)   Mechanical obstruction b)   Muscle spasm

29 CHOKING Diagnosed by: * Difficulty in breathing and speaking
* Bluing of skin, signs from casualty – grasping neck, pointing to throat

30 CHOKING AIM: Remove obstruction

31 CHOKING Bend victim forward, give 5 sharp thrusts between shoulder blades if fails, try abdominal thrusts Alternate 1 and 2 If conscious, lay victim face up on floor, kneel astride & give abdominal thrusts If breathing recovers, place victim in recovery position. If not, resuscitate

32 INHALATION OF FUMES Smoke inhalation as in fires
CO inhalation as in angeethi in closed room - may cause poisoning

33 INHALATION OF FUMES AIMS: Restore adequate breathing
Obtain urgent Medical help Remove victim from danger and into fresh air Extinguish Fire or burning on clothes

Do not enter smoke filled room without safety equipment If unconscious, check breathing and pulse, resuscitate if required. Give Oxygen Treat burns/injuries

35  FOR FUMES & GASES Aims as for Smoke

36  BURNS & SCALDS BURNS Due to dry heat, corrosive substances, friction, extreme cold, radiation eg., Sun’s rays and X-rays.

37 SCALDS Due to wet heat eg;, Hot liquids, vapours.
Establish your own safety before attempting to rescue/treat casualty To stop burning by means of rapid cooling to prevent further damage to tissues, reduce swelling, minimize shock and reduce pain.

38 SCALDS Cover the injury to prevent infection Resuscitate if required.
Obtain Medical aid

39 SEVERE BURNS Lay victim down with burnt area away from ground
Douse the burn with large amounts of water Do not over cool – Hypothermia may occur

40 SEVERE BURNS Do not remove anything sticking to the burn – may bleed get infected Check airway, breathing, pulse, resuscitate if required Gently remove rings, watch, belt, shoes or burning clothing from burning area before it swells.

41 SEVERE BURNS Do not remove anything sticking to the burn – may bleed get infected Check airway, breathing, pulse, resuscitate if required Gently remove rings, watch, belt, shoes or burning clothing from burning area before it swells.

42 SEVERE BURNS Cover burns with sterile covering Do not burst blisters
Do not apply lotion, ointment etc.,

Obtain Medical help immediately No first aid

Stop burning, Relieve pain Minimize risk of infection

45 ELECTRICAL BURNS Due to lightning, low or high voltage current
may cause cardiac arrest If unconscious, resuscitate

46 ELECTRICAL BURNS Treat burns and shock Hospitalize
Approach victim only when current has been switch off Open airway, check breathing & pulse, resuscitate

47 ELECTRICAL BURNS Wash with cold water Cover with sterile sheet

48 CHEMICAL BURNS Identify and note name of chemical
Remove contact with chemical Wash with water Remove contact with clothing Hospitalize

49 CHEMICAL BURNS TO EYES Hold eye under gently running cold water for 10 minutes If eye is shut due to spasm, gently retract eye lids and wash Cover eye with sterile eye pad Hospitalize

50 SUN BURNS Remove from Sun into cool place
Cool skin by sponging or soaking in cold bath Frequent sips of cold water

51 SNAKE BITE Only 2% of world snakes are poisonous Death due to fright

52 SNAKE BITE AIMS Reassure Prevent spread of venom to body Hospitalize

53 SNAKE BITE Lay victim down Reassure Ask him to stay still & calm
Wash wound thoroughly with soap & water Secure & support injured patient. Hospitalize Do not apply tourniquet, cut with knife or attempt to remove venom

If patient has any sores or open wounds keep them covered with water proof adhesive dressing.Use disposable gloves/wash your hand with soap and water before & after treatment. Control bleeding Prevent shock Minimize rise of infection Hospitalize

Remove or cut clothing to expose wound Pressure packing Raise & support an injured limb above level of heart. Handle gently if suspecting fracture. Lay victim down to minimize shock Bandage over packing Support injured part as for broken bone Hospitalize

56 SCALP WOUNDS Very vascular – profuse bleeding
Disposable gloves – replace skin flap Firm direct pressure over sterile dressing or clean pad Secure dressing If conscious – lay him down with head & shoulders slightly raised. If unconscious,- lay him in recovery position Hospitalize

57 PALM WOUNDS Cotton pad over wound & fold finger, pack& bandage from above

58 INTERNAL BLEEDING  - H/O injury /signs of shock without much blood loss. Bruise at site of injury/Bleed from body orifices.

59 INTERNAL BLEEDING Treatment: Foot end elevation Hospitalize
Treatment: Foot end elevation Hospitalize If unconscious, recovery position Note: Amount of bleed, type of bleed, source of blood loss

60 BLEEDING FROM EAR Mostly due to rupture of eardrum, due to foreign body, blow to side of head, explosion Sometimes midbrain injury – CSF otorrhoea.  - sharp pain – earache & deafness

Half-sitting position with face towards side of injury to allow drainage Light sterile packing Hospitalize

62 Due to blow to nose, sneezing, nose pick,
NOSE BLEED Due to blow to nose, sneezing, nose pick, High B.P, Forceful blowing of nose

63 NOSE BLEED Victim made to sit with head forward
 TREATMENT Victim made to sit with head forward Ask victim to breathe through mouth & to pinch nose below the bridge. Ask him not to exert, cough, speak, swallow, spit or sniff – may disturb clot. Release pressure after 20 minutes. If still bleeding, reapply pressure. Once bleeding stops, clean nose & mouth with warm water while victim leans forward

64 ORAL BLEED Due to cut tongue, lips, oral mucosa.
Victim made to sit, leaning forward & inclined towards the injured side, to allow drainage Pressure with sterile gauze pad Avoid hot liquids for 12 hrs.

65 EYE WOUND Diagnosis Pain with spasm in affected eye
Visible wound with bleeding Red eye

66 EYE WOUND TREATMENT: Lay victim on back, holding head straight
Lay victim on back, holding head straight Ask victim not to move eyes Cover injured eye with sterile pad Hospitalize Do not attempt to remove embedded foreign body

Minimize infection Wash your hand with soap & water Clean dirty wound by rinsing in water Sterile swab used to dry Sterile gauge used to cover

Steady & support injured part with hand Find more permanent support for injured part Soft tissue injury benefits from padding and firm bandaging Fracture needs splinting. Uninjured part of victim acts as support If a broken bone lies within a large bulk of tissue eg., thigh, treat for shock Hospitalize

69 INJURIES Fracture Dislocation Soft tissue injuries
Sprain – Partial tearing of muscle at musculo-tendinous junction Rupture Deep bruising

70 INJURIES DIAGNOSIS: H/O Trauma H/O snapping sound at time of injury
DIAGNOSIS: H/O Trauma H/O snapping sound at time of injury Sharp pain of muscle tear Difficulty in moving a limb normally or at all Pain at or near site of injury Distortion, swelling or bruising Sign of shock

71 INJURIES MANAGEMENT:- Prevent movement, Hospitalize
MANAGEMENT:- Prevent movement, Hospitalize Do not move casualty until injured part is secured & supported, unless he is in danger Do not give anything to eat or drink Tell victim to be still until injured part has been immobilized

72 INJURIES Secure injured part to sound part of body
Upper limb against trunk with sling and bandaging Lower limb against sound limb  Hospitalize

Get help to support limb while you work on wound Cover wound with sterile dressing Pressure to stop bleeding Cover wound with cotton pad If bone is projecting, build up pads of cotton & bandage it up Immobilize Dial for ambulance

74  SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Reduce swelling & pain Medical attendance

75  SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Rest, steady & support injured part in most comfortable position If recent injury, ice pack Gentle pressure with cotton pad – secure with bandage Raise & support limb Hospitalize

Immobilize upper limb on injured side Hospitalize

Sit victim down – place arm on injured side across chest Elevation sling Secure with bandage over sling Hospitalize Support injured limb

78 Soft padding between limb and body
INJURY AROUND ELBOW Immobilize Lay him down Soft padding between limb and body Bandage injured limb to trunk at wrist and Hip and above and below elbow

Sit victim down, Support fore arm across chest Treat wound Surround and cradle fore arm in padding Support in arm sling Hospitalize Arrange removal to Hospital

Support and elevate hand Padding Bandaging Sling Arrange removal to Hospital

81 FRACTURE RIB CAGE Support Chest wall Cover & seal chest wound Lay victim down on injured side with elevation sling Hospitalize

82 KNEE JOINT Protect knees
Victim lying down, support knee in more comfortable position Wrap with soft padding around joint Hospitalize Do not forcefully straighten knee Do not give anything to drink Do not let him walk

83 INJURY TO LEG Immobilize Padding between legs Strapping both knees together Hospitalize

84 When only spinal column is damaged
SPINAL INJURY When only spinal column is damaged Pain in neck or back at level of injury Twist or step in normal curvature of spine Tenderness in spine

85 SPINAL INJURY When spinal cord is also injured
Weak or absent limb movement Loss of sensation Abnormal sensation Difficult breathing

86 AIM SPINAL INJURY -Prevent further injury
Do not move victim unless he is in danger or is unconscious Reassure Keep head in neutral position Hospitalize

87 Immobilize from chest to toes, using splint from armpit to toe
INJURIES TO THIGH & HIP Immobilize from chest to toes, using splint from armpit to toe

88 POISONING Removal of unabsorbed toxic substance from the body
PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT Removal of unabsorbed toxic substance from the body Use of antidotes Eliminatory of toxic substance absorbed into systems Treatment of General symptoms

89 POISONING Remove patient into fresh air
REMEOVAL OF UNABSORBED TOXIC SUBSTANCE : Remove patient into fresh air Artificial respiration, if required O2 inhalation @ 6-8 l/min. Mask Nasal catheter

90 POISONING Remove clothing Wash skin
IF CONTRACT OF TOXIC SUBSTANCE WITH SKIN/EYES & IF CLOTHING IS CONTAMINATED: Remove clothing Wash skin Acid Burns washed with water & Alkali for 20 minutes

Stomach lavage within 2-5 hrs. of ingestion

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