2To prevent the severity of AIMTo prevent the severity ofAny injuryPoisoning
3By simple & prompt application of Proper First Aid measuresAccording to the circumsatances
4BASICS OF FIRST AID Look for Smoke, flames Electrical wires Recognize source of disasterLook forSmoke, flamesElectrical wiresRisk of explosionRoadside dangersPotential violence
5BASICS OF FIRST AID Do not endanger yourself Use PPEs as available ImproviseWash hand before handling woundsAvoid contact with blood and all body fluids
6BASICS OF FIRST AID Keep calm – remember First aid training Assess victim forResponsivenessABC of resuscitationTake historyPhysical examinationMonitor for changesIf unresponsive victim, tongue may fall backExtend neck by elevating chin
8Under Self protection: GENERAL MEASURESUnder Self protection:Remove the victim from the site of accidentBring him in bright light & fresh air
9Loosen his clothesRemove the irritant & toxic gasesRemove Blood dirty material from his eyes, mouth, nasal cavity etc.,by thoroughly washing with large quantity of Normal saline
10Take care of any bleeding point. Quickly assess the condition of victimHelp of the physician should be sought for,in case of serious injury
11Oral & Pharyngeal Cavity UNCONSCIOUS VICTIMCleanNoseOral & Pharyngeal CavityRemove all the discharge(Blood & Vomitous)
12Place the victim in ¾ th prone position With head slightly downward & tiled to one side so that any vomiting, discharge and blood coming in the mouth or Pharynx should tickly down from the mouth or nose
13VICTIM UNDER SHOCK What is shock? Difficulty in breathing When breathing is shallow and fast or may be slowBlood Pressure will be low or may not be recordable
14Pulse will be rapid and feeble Artificial respiration is required in difficulty of breathing and shallow respiration
15Best method is mouth to mouth to respiration that is kiss to life and by By Ambu’s bag
16Technique for mouth to mouth respiration Clean any discharge, blood or vomitous in the mouth & noseWith one hand lift the lower jaw forward & with the fingers of the other hand pinch the nostril together
17Take deep breath. Place your mouth over the victim’s mouth & blow out strongly the air present in your mouthSee the victim’s chest wall with the corners of the eyes, it should rise as his lungs are inflated
18When there is stoppage of Heart Pulse is not recordableHeart beats are not presentIf the blood supply is not restored within three minutes, brain will be damaged extensively and victim may die.
19Following steps should be taken immediately Shout for the help and if available for OxygenLay the victim flat on hard smooth surfaceThump the middle of the chest firmly once and note the time.
20If the heart do not starts beating effectively then resuscitate the victim by External Cardiac massageMouth to Mouth artificial respiration as follows:
21Place the patient flat on hard smooth surface Raise his legsKnee down on the right side of the victimClear the victim’s air way by fingers, clean cloth, cotton or gauge
22Extend the neck and hold chin up. Inflate the lungs of the victim once by mouth to mouth respiration
23Do the external cardiac massage as follows: Place the palm of your right hand on lower 1/3rd of the sternum of the victim (middle chest).Rest other hand on top of other hand.Keep the arm straight
24Press the lower sternum vertically backwards once/second with a jerky movement. Lift the hand off the chest momentarily between two compressions.The sternumn should move 1.5 – 2 inch backward with each compression.
25Inflate the lungs after every eight sternal compression This whole process of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration is called as resuscitation.Artificial respiration can be given by Ambu’s bag also.
26Continue the resuscitation till ambulance and other medical facilities are available. Transfer the patient to nearest medical center or hospital at the earliest.
27DROWNING:ACTION: Get victim on to dry land with least danger to yourself.Pull him out while staying on landWhen bringing victim out of water, his head should be lower than chest to avoid vomiting leading to inhalationTreat for drowning and effects of coldPrevent and treat low Oxygen - Open airway, check respiration and pulse, resuscitate, if required.Send him to hospital
28CHOKING Swallowed foreign body: Eg., food, boiled sweets, may cause :- a) Mechanical obstructionb) Muscle spasm
29CHOKING Diagnosed by: * Difficulty in breathing and speaking * Bluing of skin, signs from casualty– grasping neck, pointing to throat
31CHOKINGBend victim forward, give 5 sharp thrusts between shoulder bladesif fails, try abdominal thrustsAlternate 1 and 2If conscious, lay victim face up on floor, kneel astride & give abdominal thrustsIf breathing recovers, place victim in recovery position. If not, resuscitate
32INHALATION OF FUMES Smoke inhalation as in fires CO inhalation as in angeethi in closed room- may cause poisoning
33INHALATION OF FUMES AIMS: Restore adequate breathing Obtain urgent Medical helpRemove victim from danger and into fresh airExtinguish Fire or burning on clothes
34INHALATION OF FUMES AIMS: Do not enter smoke filled room without safety equipmentIf unconscious, check breathing and pulse, resuscitate if required.Give OxygenTreat burns/injuries
36 BURNS & SCALDSBURNSDue to dry heat, corrosive substances, friction, extreme cold, radiationeg., Sun’s rays and X-rays.
37SCALDS Due to wet heat eg;, Hot liquids, vapours. Establish your own safety before attempting to rescue/treat casualtyTo stop burning by means of rapid cooling to prevent further damage to tissues, reduce swelling, minimize shock and reduce pain.
38SCALDS Cover the injury to prevent infection Resuscitate if required. Obtain Medical aid
39SEVERE BURNS Lay victim down with burnt area away from ground Douse the burn with large amounts of waterDo not over cool – Hypothermia may occur
40SEVERE BURNSDo not remove anything sticking to the burn – may bleed get infectedCheck airway, breathing, pulse, resuscitate if requiredGently remove rings, watch, belt, shoes or burning clothing from burning area before it swells.
41SEVERE BURNSDo not remove anything sticking to the burn – may bleed get infectedCheck airway, breathing, pulse, resuscitate if requiredGently remove rings, watch, belt, shoes or burning clothing from burning area before it swells.
42SEVERE BURNS Cover burns with sterile covering Do not burst blisters Do not apply lotion, ointment etc.,
43BURNS TO THROAT AND MOUTH Obtain Medical help immediatelyNo first aid
44BURNS TO THROAT AND MOUTH Stop burning,Relieve painMinimize risk of infection
45ELECTRICAL BURNS Due to lightning, low or high voltage current may cause cardiac arrestIf unconscious, resuscitate
46ELECTRICAL BURNS Treat burns and shock Hospitalize Approach victim only when current has been switch offOpen airway, check breathing & pulse, resuscitate
47ELECTRICAL BURNS Wash with cold water Cover with sterile sheet Hospitalize
48CHEMICAL BURNS Identify and note name of chemical Remove contact with chemicalWash with waterRemove contact with clothingHospitalize
49CHEMICAL BURNS TO EYESHold eye under gently running cold water for 10 minutesIf eye is shut due to spasm, gently retract eye lids and washCover eye with sterile eye padHospitalize
50SUN BURNS Remove from Sun into cool place Cool skin by sponging or soaking in cold bathFrequent sips of cold water
51SNAKE BITEOnly 2% of world snakes are poisonousDeath due to fright
52SNAKE BITEAIMSReassurePrevent spread of venom to bodyHospitalize
53SNAKE BITE Lay victim down Reassure Ask him to stay still & calm Wash wound thoroughly with soap & waterSecure & support injured patient.HospitalizeDo not apply tourniquet, cut with knife or attempt to remove venom
54SEVERE EXTERNAL BLEEDING If patient has any sores or open wounds keep them covered with water proof adhesive dressing.Use disposable gloves/wash your hand with soap and water before & after treatment.Control bleedingPrevent shockMinimize rise of infectionHospitalize
55SEVERE EXTERNAL BLEEDING Remove or cut clothing to expose woundPressure packingRaise & support an injured limb above level of heart. Handle gently if suspecting fracture.Lay victim down to minimize shockBandage over packingSupport injured part as for broken boneHospitalize
56SCALP WOUNDS Very vascular – profuse bleeding Disposable gloves – replace skin flapFirm direct pressure over sterile dressing or clean padSecure dressingIf conscious – lay him down with head & shoulders slightly raised. If unconscious,- lay him in recovery positionHospitalize
57PALM WOUNDSCotton pad over wound & fold finger, pack& bandage from above
58INTERNAL BLEEDING - H/O injury /signs of shock without much blood loss. Bruise at site of injury/Bleed from body orifices.
59INTERNAL BLEEDING Treatment: Foot end elevation Hospitalize Treatment:Foot end elevationHospitalizeIf unconscious, recovery positionNote: Amount of bleed, type of bleed, source of blood loss
60BLEEDING FROM EARMostly due to rupture of eardrum, due to foreign body, blow to side of head, explosionSometimes midbrain injury – CSF otorrhoea. - sharp pain – earache & deafness
61BLEEDING FROM EAR TREATMENT Do not plug ear Half-sitting position with face towards side of injury to allow drainageLight sterile packingHospitalize
62Due to blow to nose, sneezing, nose pick, NOSE BLEEDDue to blow to nose, sneezing, nose pick,High B.P, Forceful blowing of nose
63NOSE BLEED Victim made to sit with head forward TREATMENTVictim made to sit with head forwardAsk victim to breathe through mouth & to pinch nose below the bridge.Ask him not to exert, cough, speak, swallow, spit or sniff – may disturb clot.Release pressure after 20 minutes. If still bleeding, reapply pressure.Once bleeding stops, clean nose & mouth with warm water while victim leans forward
64ORAL BLEED Due to cut tongue, lips, oral mucosa. Victim made to sit, leaning forward & inclined towards the injured side, to allow drainagePressure with sterile gauze padAvoid hot liquids for 12 hrs.
65EYE WOUND Diagnosis Pain with spasm in affected eye Visible wound with bleedingRed eye
66EYE WOUND TREATMENT: Lay victim on back, holding head straight Lay victim on back, holding head straightAsk victim not to move eyesCover injured eye with sterile padHospitalizeDo not attempt to remove embedded foreign body
67MINOR EXTERNAL BLEEDING Minimize infectionWash your hand with soap & waterClean dirty wound by rinsing in waterSterile swab used to drySterile gauge used to cover
68BONE, JOINT & MUSCLE INJURIES Steady & support injured part with handFind more permanent support for injured partSoft tissue injury benefits from padding and firm bandagingFracture needs splinting. Uninjured part of victim acts as supportIf a broken bone lies within a large bulk of tissue eg., thigh, treat for shockHospitalize
69INJURIES Fracture Dislocation Soft tissue injuries Sprain – Partial tearing of muscle at musculo-tendinous junctionRuptureDeep bruising
70INJURIES DIAGNOSIS: H/O Trauma H/O snapping sound at time of injury DIAGNOSIS:H/O TraumaH/O snapping sound at time of injurySharp pain of muscle tearDifficulty in moving a limb normally or at allPain at or near site of injuryDistortion, swelling or bruisingSign of shock
71INJURIES MANAGEMENT:- Prevent movement, Hospitalize MANAGEMENT:- Prevent movement, HospitalizeDo not move casualty until injured part is secured & supported, unless he is in dangerDo not give anything to eat or drinkTell victim to be still until injured part has been immobilized
72INJURIES Secure injured part to sound part of body Upper limb against trunk with sling and bandagingLower limb against sound limb Hospitalize
73OPEN FRACTURES WITH WOUND Get help to support limb while you work on woundCover wound with sterile dressingPressure to stop bleedingCover wound with cotton padIf bone is projecting, build up pads of cotton & bandage it upImmobilizeDial for ambulance
75 SOFT TISSUE INJURIESRest, steady & support injured part in most comfortable positionIf recent injury, ice packGentle pressure with cotton pad – secure with bandageRaise & support limbHospitalize
76FRACTURE COLLAR BONE /SHOULDER DISLOCATION FRACTURE UPPER ARM Immobilize upper limb on injured sideHospitalize
77FRACTURE COLLAR BONE /SHOULDER DISLOCATION FRACTURE UPPER ARM Sit victim down – place arm on injured side across chestElevation slingSecure with bandage over slingHospitalizeSupport injured limb
78Soft padding between limb and body INJURY AROUND ELBOWImmobilizeLay him downSoft padding between limb and bodyBandage injured limb to trunk at wrist and Hip and above and below elbow
79INJURIES TO FOREARM AND WRIST Sit victim down, Support fore arm across chestTreat woundSurround and cradle fore arm in paddingSupport in arm slingHospitalizeArrange removal to Hospital
80INJURIES TO HAND AND FINGER Support and elevate handPaddingBandagingSlingArrange removal to Hospital
81FRACTURE RIB CAGESupport Chest wallCover & seal chest woundLay victim down on injured side with elevation slingHospitalize
82KNEE JOINT Protect knees Victim lying down, support knee in more comfortable positionWrap with soft padding around jointHospitalizeDo not forcefully straighten kneeDo not give anything to drinkDo not let him walk
83INJURY TO LEGImmobilizePadding between legsStrapping both knees togetherHospitalize
84When only spinal column is damaged SPINAL INJURYWhen only spinal column is damagedPain in neck or back at level of injuryTwist or step in normal curvature of spineTenderness in spine
85SPINAL INJURY When spinal cord is also injured Weak or absent limb movementLoss of sensationAbnormal sensationDifficult breathing
86AIM SPINAL INJURY -Prevent further injury Do not move victim unless he is in danger or is unconsciousReassureKeep head in neutral positionHospitalize
87Immobilize from chest to toes, using splint from armpit to toe INJURIES TO THIGH & HIPImmobilize from chest to toes, using splint from armpit to toe
88POISONING Removal of unabsorbed toxic substance from the body PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENTRemoval of unabsorbed toxic substance from the bodyUse of antidotesEliminatory of toxic substance absorbed into systemsTreatment of General symptoms
89POISONING Remove patient into fresh air REMEOVAL OF UNABSORBED TOXIC SUBSTANCE :Remove patient into fresh airArtificial respiration, if requiredO2 inhalation @ 6-8 l/min.MaskNasal catheter
90POISONING Remove clothing Wash skin IF CONTRACT OF TOXIC SUBSTANCE WITH SKIN/EYES & IF CLOTHING IS CONTAMINATED:Remove clothingWash skinAcid Burns washed with water & Alkali for 20 minutes
91POISONING IF TOXIC SUBSTANCE HAS BEEN SWALLOWED: Stomach lavage within 2-5 hrs. of ingestion