4Magnitude of SCA in the U.S. 167,366Stroke3450,000SCA claims more lives each year than these other diseases combinedSCA4Lung Cancer2157,400#1 Killer in the U.S.Breast Cancer240,600AIDS142,1561 U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2001.2 American Cancer Society, Inc., Surveillance Research, Cancer Facts and Figures 2001.Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, American Heart Association.4 Zheng Z. Circulation. 2001;104:
5Magnitude of SCA in the U.S. ~450,000 per year11,200 per day1 every 80 secondsAlthough SCA is the first presentation of cardiac disease in 20-25% of patients, most cases occur in patients with clinically recognized heart disease.21 Zheng Z. Circulation. 2001;104::2 Myerburg RJ, Heart Disease, A textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed W.B. Saunders, Co.
6SCA Different from MI SCA MI Caused by heart electrical system problem.MIOccurs when one or more of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle becomes blocked. The affected area loses blood supply (ischemia) and results in damage to the heart tissue.
7SCA and MI Symptoms MI Symptoms: SCA Symptoms: Collapse and loss of consciousnessCessation of normal breathingLoss of pulse and blood pressureMI Symptoms:Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, or pain in the center of the chest lasting more than few minutes Pain spreading to the shoulders, neck, or arms Chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, or shortness of breath Atypical chest pain, stomach or abdominal pain Nausea or dizziness Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing Unexplained anxiety, weakness, or fatigue Palpitations, cold sweat, or palenessSCA has few to no premonitory signs and death is usually rapid--within one hour.An impending MI typically has many premonitory signs that may develop over the course of hours or days.
8Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death2,3 Etiology of SCD-An estimated 13 million people had coronary heartdisease (CHD) in the U.S. in-Sudden death was the first manifestation of CHD in % of men and 63% of women. 1-CHD accounts for at least 80% of sudden cardiac deaths in Western cultures.3Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death2,380% Coronary Heart Disease15% Cardiomyopathy5% Other*1Myerburg, Robert. Sudden Death due to Cardiac Arrhythmias. NEJM, Vol. 345, No. 20; November 15, 2001.This slide reviews our best understanding of the causes of SCA. According to Dr. Myerburg, CAD is the underlying cause for 80% of SCA events. Either an acute ischemic event and/or a reentry pathway from a previous MI can cause an SCA event. According to this diagram, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy accounts for 10-15% of cases of SCA even though non-ischemics account for about 40% of CHF patients. Given that DEFINITE showed positive results in Class III patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and we do not yet know the results of the non-ischemic arm in SCD-HeFT, our understanding of the etiology of SCA could change in the next several months.* ion-channel abnormalities, valvular or congenital heart disease, other causes1 American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2003 Update. Dallas, Tex.: American Heart Association; 2002.2 Adapted from Heikki et al. N Engl J Med, Vol. 345, No. 20, 2001.3 Myerberg RJ. Heart Disease, A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 6th ed. P. 895.
9Causes of in-hospital mortality The cause of death in hospital is most often noncardiac, usually being due to anoxic encephalopathy or to respiratory complications from long-term respirator dependenceOnly about 10 percent of patients die from recurrent arrhythmia, while approximately 30 percent die from a low cardiac output or cardiogenic shock
10PROVOKING FACTORS Electrolyte disturbances Any reversible metabolic abnormalities should be identified and corrected, particularly hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia which may predispose to ventricular tachyarrhythmiasAntiarrhythmic drugsWhenever possible, antiarrhythmic drugs should be discontinued prior to any diagnostic studies
11PROVOKING FACTORSUse of an illicit drug such as cocaine can directly cause arrhythmia or produce coronary artery vasospasm and ischemiaA prolonged QT interval which may be acquired (due, for example, to a drug or electrolyte disturbance) or inherited
12Arrhythmic Cause of SCD 12% Other Cardiac Cause88% Arrhythmic CauseAlbert CM. Circulation. 2003;107:
13Underlying Arrhythmias of Sudden Cardiac Arrest Torsades de Pointes 13%Bradycardia 17%VT 62%Primary VF 8%Bayés de Luna A. Am Heart J ;117:
14SCD Rates for Males and Females 502.7407.1336.1Per 100,000 Standard US Population258.8270.5212.6130.0153.4Zheng Z. Circulation. 2001;104(18):
15Incidence of Sudden Death Increases with Age During a 38 years follow-up of subjects in the Framingham Heart Study, the annual incidence of sudden death increased with age in both men and women.However, at each age, the incidence of sudden death is higher in men than women. (Am Heart J 1998; 136:205)
19Clinical Substrates Associated with VF Arrest Congestive heart failureThe presence of CHF increases overall mortality and the incidence of SCD in both men and womenAIM ,cardiogenic shock , ICV
20CHF Predict Increased Sudden Death and Overall Mortality During a 38 years follow-up of subjects in the Framingham Heart Study, the presence of CHF significantly increased sudden death and overall mortality in both men and women. *P <0.001.
22In people diagnosed with CHF, sudden cardiac death occurs at 6-9 times the rate of the general population.11 American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Statistical –2003 Update. Dallas, Tex.: American Heart Association: 2002.
23Clinical Substrates Associated with VF Arrest Myocardial ischemia and infarctionAcute myocardial infarction is associated with an approximate 15% risk of VF within the first 24 to 48 hours, with the incidence falling to only 3 percent over the next several daysWhen VF is provoked by an AMI, symptoms of the infarction are present for minutes to hours before sudden death occurs; over 80 percent of VF episodes occur within the first 6 hours
24SCD Rates in Post-MI Patients with LV Dysfunction TRACE: Kober L, et al. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:CAPRICORN: The CAPRICORN Investigators. Lancet 2001; 357:EMIAT: Julian DG, et al. Lancet 1997; 349:MADIT: Moss AJ. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:MUSTT: 1) Buxton AE. N Engl J Med. 1999;341: ) Buxton AE, et al. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 9, , ) Buxton AE, et al. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:MADIT II: 1) Moss AJ. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:877-83, 2) Arrhythmic mortality data from: Moss AJ. Presented at ACC Latebreaking Clinical Trials, March 2002.Total Mortality ~20-30%; SCD accounts for ~50% of the total deaths.References in slide notes * MADIT-II mortality values at 20 months.
31SCA Resuscitation Success vs. Time* 102030405060708090100Chance of success reduced % each minute% Success*Non-linearThe chance of a successful resuscitation declines by about 7–10% each minute. The actual relationship between defibrillation success and time is a non-linear one, with the best chance for success probably occurring in the first 3–4 minutes.123456789Time (minutes)Cummins RO. Annals Emerg Med. 1989;18:
32SCA Chain of Survival Statistics 5% estimated SCA out-of-hospital survival2,3Even in the best EMS/early defibrillation programs it is difficult to have high survival times due to many SCA events not being witnessed and the difficulty of reaching victims within 6-8 minutes.40% SCAs not witnessed or occur in sleep180% SCAs occur at home11 Swagemakers V. J Am Cardiol. 1997;30:2 Ginsburg W. Am J Emer Med. 1998;16:3 Cobb LA. Circ. 1992;85:I
33Sudden Cardiac Death Incidence 400,000 - 500,000/year in U.S. Only 2% - 15% reach the hospitalHalf of these die before dischargeHigh recurrence rate
34Risk of Sudden Death: Data from GISSI-2 Trial 1.001.000.98p log-rank 0.0020.980.960.960.940.94SurvivalSurvival0.920.92p log-rank0.900.900.880.88AB0.860.86306090120150180306090120150180DaysDaysPatients without LV DysfunctionPatients with LV DysfunctionNo PVBs 1-10 PVBs/h > 10 PVBs/h
35People who’ve had a heart attack and have LV dysfunction (less than or equal to 40%) have a sudden death rate that’s similar to a CHF population.
36“People who’ve had a heart attack have a sudden death rate that’s 4-6 times that of the general population.”11American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2003 Update. Dallas, Tex.: American Heart Association; 2002.
37Treatments to Reduce SCD Improving Pump FunctionACE inhibitorBeta-blockerPrevention of ArrhythmiasAmiodaroneTerminating ArrhythmiasICDsAEDsPrevent Ventricular Remodeling and Collagen FormationAldosterone receptor blockadeCorrecting IschemiaRevascularizationBeta-blockerPreventing Plaque RuptureStatinACE inhibitorAspirinStabilizing Autonomic BalanceZipes DP. Circulation. 1998;98:Pitt B. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:
38Symptoms in terminal episodes Type of symptomsSumm.%MenFemetpWithout symptom93,6364,0233,030,422p < 0,05Chest pain13052,4276515441,540,547p <0,05Dyspnea104,034,0544,040,005p<0,05General failure2,4253,3511,011,113p< 0,05Nausea5,050,639Uncomfortable0,411,005Chest pressure3514,112013,421515,150,379Palpitation1,212,011,749Dessines72,822,680,159Combined symptoms3714,932416,11313,130,656Summary24810014960,089939,92
39Summary 1 Defibrillation is the only effective treatment for SCA. Few SCA victims are treated quickly enough to survive.Review summary comments.
40Summary 2High risk SCA patients can be identified: low LVEF, HF, prior MI, and prior SCA or VT/VF event.ICD and CRT-D therapies can prevent SCA.Most eligible patients are not receiving device therapy.Some healthcare organizations have developed care pathways to identify and treat patients at high risk of SCA.Review summary. Add any other summary comments that you think are relevant.
41Detailed in ESC and ACC/AHA/HRS Device Guidelines for SCD/SCA Summary 3Detailed in ESC and ACC/AHA/HRS Device Guidelines for SCD/SCAandVODIČ ZA SCD ESC UKBIH 2010The next set of slides reviews all of the ICD and CRT-D guidelines from ACC/AHA/HRS.Epstein AE, et al. Circulation. 2008;117:e