Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass1 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem Environmental Science Chapter 4 Mr. Bass
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass2 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem w 4.1 Roles of Living Things 4.1 Roles of Living Things w 4.2 Ecosystem Structure 4.2 Ecosystem Structure w 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem w 4.4 Cycles of Matter 4.4 Cycles of Matter
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass3 4.1 Roles of Living Things w Objectives Objectives w Energy in the Ecosystem Energy in the Ecosystem w Food Consumption Food Consumption w Feeding Levels of Organisms Feeding Levels of Organisms w 4.1 Section Review 4.1 Section Review
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass4 Objectives: SWBAT w describe the process of photosynthesis in terms of a chemical reaction. w identify the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers. w explain the concept of the trophic level.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass5 A. Energy in the ecosystem. w We will describe this in section 4.3section 4.3 w Almost all energy comes from the sun. w Only the energy converted to glucose is available for use. w There is a limit to the amount of energy that can be absorbed and transferred to an ecosystem.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass6 B. Food Consumption w Producers Producers w Consumers Consumers Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Scavengers w Decomposers Decomposers Consumers Primary Secondary Tertiary Autotrophs Heterotrophs Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass7 Producers w Producers: Organisms that make their own food from inorganic molecules and energy. Plants and diatoms (plankton) are the most important producers. All producers form energy through the Photosynthesis Reaction. w Photosynthesis: the production of energy from light, water and carbon dioxide. w Chlorophyll: Green chemical that captures energy from the sun.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass8 Photosynthesis Reaction Reactants: Light + Water + Carbon Dioxide --> Products: Glucose + Water + Oxygen 12 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 H 2 O + 6 O 2
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass9 Respiration w The opposite of photosynthesis Plants and animals both use respiration. Photosynthesis: Light + 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O --> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O Respiration: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O --> 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + energy Respiration is how plants and animals use the energy stored in glucose. In a cell this occurs in the mitochondria.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass10 Photosynthesis and Respiration: Energy Cycle
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass11 Consumers w Consumers: Organisms that cannot make their own food. Primary Consumer: Eats producers. Secondary Consumer: Eats Primary Consumer (may also eat producers). Tertiary Consumer: Eats secondary consumer (may also eat primary consumers and/or producers).
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass13 Consumers w Herbivores: only eat plants. Primary Consumers Examples: Elk, Cow, Insects, Birds, Buffalo, Antelope w Carnivores: only eat meat (Insects are treated as meat). Can be secondary, or tertiary consumers depending on what they eat. Examples: Lions, snakes, hawks, spiders.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass14 Consumers Omnivores: eat either plants or meat. Can be Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary Consumers depending on what they eat. Examples: Humans, Bears, Chimpanzees Scavengers: do not hunt live prey, instead they eat bodies of dead organisms. Can be Secondary, or Tertiary Consumers Examples: Vultures, hyenas, many insects.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass15 Decomposers w Decomposers: Bacteria and fungi that consume the bodies of dead organisms. Includes the breakdown of plants as well as bodies of animals. Decompose the organic matter in animal waste. Decomposers take complex organic material and return them to simple inorganic materials. inorganic materials are returned to the soil. As plants use the nutrients to grow, the cycle of matter through the ecosystem begins again.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass16 Feeding Levels of Organisms. Trophic Level w Troph: to feed or nourish. w Trophic Level: A layer in the structure of feeding relationships in an ecosystem. Different ecosystems have different numbers of tropic levels. Usually there are 3-5 tropic levels. 321321 43214321 5432154321
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass17 Basic feeding levels Autotrophs: Make their own food. All of these are producers. This is always in the first trophic level. Heterotrophs: Obtain their energy by eating other organisms. These are always above the first trophic level. 5432154321 Heterotrophs Autotrophs
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass20 4.1 Section Review w Give an example of a (tiger, bear, vulture) being primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. w What is the relationship between the largest trophic level and the levels below it? w Another name for consumer? w What are the two types of organisms that consume the bodies of dead organisms? w What is another name for producer?
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass21 4.1 Section Review w What chemical process do all producers have in common? w Decomposers not only eat dead organisms, but also ____________. w What is the opposite of photosynthesis? w What role do decomposers fill in the recycling of matter in nature?
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass22 4.2 Ecosystem Structure w Objectives Objectives w Food Chain Food Chain w Food Web Food Web w Diversity and Stability Diversity and Stability w Biological Magnification Biological Magnification
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass23 Objectives SWBAT w describe food chains and food webs. w examine how ecosystem structure is related to population changes and the transfer of pollutants.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass25 Food Chain w Food Chain: a series of different organisms that transfer food between the trophic levels of an ecosystem. Is viewed as cyclical. All food chains begin with producers. The next level is usually herbivores. The upper levels are usually carnivores and omnivores. Decomposers operate at all the levels of the food chain. The food chain is a simplistic look at the food relationships in an ecosystem.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass26 Food Chain Example
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass27 Food Chain Example
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass28 Food Web w Food Web: a network of food chains representing the feeding relationships among the organisms. Includes all the food chains in an ecosystem. Shows the interaction between various organisms in an ecosystem. Demonstrates how a change in one population can effect many other populations. Especially true when a consumer is removed. Krill and Baleen whales in Antarctica (Figure 4.6, pg 58)
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass29 Food Web Example
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass30 Interrelationships
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass31 Connections to Consumers
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass32 Food Chain and Web Review w Which is the most complex? w Which is the least realistic? w Which is an accurate predictor of the effects of the extinction of a species? w Which is cyclical in nature? Next Screen
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass33 Biological Magnification w Biological Magnification: increasing concentration of a pollutant in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food web. Example of eagles and DDT (Dateline 1972, pg 59) Many pollutants (toxins) can be concentrated in this way, especially heavy metals Show how pollutants taken in by a few organisms can affect the whole food web.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass34 Biological Magnification
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass35 Concentration of DDT in A Long Island Marsh sprayed for Mosquito Control 1967ppm Water.00005 Plankton.04 Silverside Minnow.23 Sheephead Minnow.94 Pickerel1.23 Needlefish2.07 Heron3.57 Tern3.91 Osprey13.8 Merganser22.8 Cormorant26.4
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass36 Biological Magnification DDT Concentrations.025 %.125 %.625 % 3.125 % This is an example of a 5X multiplier! Next Screen
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass37 Biological Magnification
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass38 Diversity and Stability w Stability: the ability of an ecosystem to withstand dramatic changes. w Two Major Factors of Stability: Biodiversity: the variety of species that lives in an ecosystem. The greater the biodiversity the greater the stability. Number of Trophic Levels. The more trophic levels the more stable the ecosystem.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass39 Stability w A food web with more diversity in species (biodiversity) is more stable. The greater the number of species the greater the interconnections between species. The greater the number of connections between species, the more avenues that individual species have to find alternative ways of finding food. w A food web with more trophic levels is more stable.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass40 Relative Stability Low Stability High Stability Trophic Levels
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass41 Stability w Stability can help an ecosystem recover faster from natural or human-caused disasters. Deciduous forest is an example of a stable ecosystem. Forests tend to recover quickly from disasters. A tundra food web is an example of a fragile ecosystem. A small disturbance can have long-lasting effects.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass42 4.2 Section Review w What is the most accurate way of portraying feeding relationships in an ecosystem? w What type of organisms is always contained in the beginning portion of the food chain? w What are the two major factors of stability? w As biodiversity increases what happens to the amount of interconnection between species?
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass43 4.2 Section Review w Which system will have the greatest stability? Rainforest Dessert w What does biodiversity mean? w When comparing two systems, one with three trophic levels and one with five trophic levels, which is the most stable? w What does stability mean in an ecosystem?
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass44 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem w Objectives Objectives w Energy and Food Energy and Food w Ecological Pyramids Ecological Pyramids w 4.3 Section Review 4.3 Section Review
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass45 Objectives SWBAT w investigate the movement of energy through an ecosystem. w define ecological pyramid. w explain the relationship between the ecological pyramid and energy in an ecosystem.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass46 Energy in Ecosystems w Source of all energy is the sun. w Source of biological energy is glucose formed through photosynthesis Sun <.001 % of Suns Energy (Electromagnetic Spectrum) Earth Of the energy that reaches the Earth, < 1% is absorbed by plants Sun
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass47 Energy in Ecosystems w The theme of this section is that energy is lost at every level of an ecosystem. Of the energy the plant receives only 30% is converted to glucose Glucose Producers: 100% of energy captured from the sun. Portion not eaten: 50% Portion eaten: 50% Not Digested: 20% Decomposers Digested by Consumer: 30 % Energy Lost: 20 % Growth: 10 % Glucose Next Screen
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass48 Energy in Ecosystems w Biomass: The total mass of all organisms in a trophic level. This was first created when satellites were first used. w Ecological Pyramids: Shows the relative amounts in different trophic levels. w Rule of 10: Each level of a trophic system is 1/10th of the preceding level.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass49 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 Next Screen Ecological Pyramid: Biomass
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass50 Ecological Pyramid: Biomass
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass52 Ecological Pyramid: Numbers
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass53 Ecological Pyramid 10,000 1,000 100 Energy lost in an ecosystem Next Screen
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass54 Ecological Pyramid: Energy
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass55 Practical Application: ***** World Hunger ****** 15,000 lbs Chicken Feed 1,500 lbs Chicken Man 150 lbs 1,500 lbs Chicken Feed Secondary Consumer Primary Consumer The impact?? 13,500 lbs additional food available Next Screen
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass56 4.3 Section Review
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass57 4.4 Cycles of Matter w Objectives Objectives w Body Composition Body Composition w Water Cycle Water Cycle w Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle w Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle w Phosphorous Cycle Phosphorous Cycle w Section 4.4 Review Section 4.4 Review
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass58 Objectives w describe the chemical composition of the human body. w explain the water cycle, the carbon cycle, phosphorous cycle and the nitrogen cycle.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass59 Chemical Composition of Body w About 96% of the human body is made of four elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. In order for the body to use the elements, they must be in the proper form. Nitrogen is a great example. about 80% of the atmosphere is nitrogen. However, the nitrogen in the air is not suitable for most living organisms. A limit of suitable nitrogen limits growth in an ecosystem.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass60 Water Cycle: Surface Water w Evaporation: the movement of water into the atmosphere as it changes from a liquid to a gas. w Precipitation: the formation of rain.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass61 Surface Water Cycle
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass62 Water Cycle: Surface Evaporation Precipitation Water Transport
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass63 Water Cycle: Ground Water w Aquifer: a porous layer of the earth that contains water. w Spring: when an aquifer leaks water to the surface.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass64 Aquifer Spring Water
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass65 Ground Water Artesian Well: when an aquifer has pressure placed on it and water is forced out of the aquifer. w Geyser: water descends deep into the earth, boils, then is forced to the surface.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass66 Water Cycle: Ground w Seepage: water slowly goes through the layers of the earth until it trapped by a non- porous layer of earth.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass67 Ground Water Cycle Geyser Seepage Artesian Well Spring: When an aquifer comes to the surface.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass68 Water Cycle: Plants w Transpiration: the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants. w Capillary Action: the transport of a liquid due to the attraction between the liquid and the sides of the tube.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass69 Water Cycle: Plants Capillary Action Transpiration
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass70 Carbon Cycle: Miscellaneous w Photosynthesis & Respiration: An important part of the Carbon Cycle. w Anhydrous Acid: A compound which becomes an acid in the presence of water. CO 2 becomes a mild acid in the presence of water. w Methane: the simplest organic compound (CH 4 ). A product of decomposition. w Volcanoes: produce huge amounts of CO 2 while erupting.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass71 Carbon Cycle: Fossil Fuels w Fossil Fuels: Fuels composed of decomposed living matter (organic). Coal Oil Natural Gas w When burned fossil fuels form water (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Fossil Fuels + O 2 H 2 O + CO 2
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass72 Carbon Cycle: From Minerals w Certain Minerals produce Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) naturally. Limestone Dolomite w Plants need certain materials to grow, the element most often missing is nitrogen. Plants can not use nitrogen from the air. Nitrates are manufactured as fertilizers.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass73 Carbon Cycle Diagram
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass74 Animals in the Carbon Cycle Ingestion: Urination Respiration Plants: Photosynthesis
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass75 Carbon Cycle: Handout Methane Decomposers
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass77 Nitrogen Cycle w All nitrogen originally came from the air. 78% of air is N 2 (pure nitrogen). w Most nitrogen is stored in organic materials. Stored as proteins. w Plants cannot use the nitrogen in the air (N 2 ) Plants can only use nitrogen (generally) when it is in the form of: Nitrates (NO 3 -1 ) Nitrites (NO 2 -1 )
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass78 Nitrogen Cycle: Nitrogen Fixing w Nitrogen Fixing: To combine nitrogen. Lightning: Whenever there is lightning nitrates (NO 3 -1 ) are formed. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: A type of bacteria that forms ammonia (NH 3 ) from pure nitrogen (N 2 ). 3 H 2 + 2 N 2 ---> 2 NH 3 Legumes: A type of plant that has colonies of nitrogen fixing bacteria in their roots. Most beans and peas are legumes along with some woody plants. w Decomposers: a by-product of decomposition is ammonia (NH 3 ).
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass80 Nitrogen Cycle: Denitrifying w Denitrifying: to change ammonia (NH 3 ) to nitrogen (N 2 ). Denitrifying Bacteria: changes ammonia in the ground to nitrogen gas. w Nitrification Bacteria: changes ammonia (NH 3 ) to nitrates (NO 3 -1 ) and nitrites (NO 2 -1 ). Plants use nitrates and nitrites to form proteins. Animals eat proteins and urinate ammonia (NH 3 ).
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass81 Nitrogen Cycle: Atmosphere Lightning Fixes Nitrogen to form ammonia NH 3 Denitrifying Bacteria Denitrifying Bacteria changes ammonia to Nitrogen (N 2 ) N2N2 Next Slide
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass82 Nitrogen Cycle: Plants and Mammals w Assimilation: plant roots and algae absorb nitrate and ammonia incorporate the nitrogen into proteins and nucleic acids. w Ammonification: conversion of biological nitrogen compounds into ammonia. Sources include: waste products urea (in urine) uric acid (from birds) ammonia from decomposing organisms
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass84 Nitrogen Cycle: Animal-Plant Cycle Nitrification Bacteria Nitrates (NO 3 -1 ) Nitrites (NO 2 -1 ) Plants use nitrates to form proteins Animals eat proteins and urinate ammonia NH 3 Nitrification Bacteria takes ammonia and produce nitrates and nitrites Decomposers Next Slide
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass85 Nitrogen Cycle Diagram
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass87 Phosphorous Cycle w Phosphorous is necessary for all life. Phosphorous is another element that plants need to grow. Phosphorous is the typically the second most needed mineral for plants (after nitrates and nitrites). w Unlike nitrogen, phosphorous is not found in the atmosphere. Herbivores get phosphorous by eating plants. Carnivores get phosphorous by eating herbivores.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass88 Forms of Phosphorous w Phosphorous: Three Forms: Element: P Inorganic Phosphate: PO 4 -3 Organic Phosphorous: Water soluble
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass89 Sources of Phosphorous Guano (fecal material) Phosphate detergents Human waste Fertilizer Industrial wastes Phosphate mining
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass90 Sources of Phosphorous
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass91 Phosphorous Cycle: Handout Guano
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass92 Phosphorous Cycle w Most phosphorous is stored in the bottom of lakes and oceans. w Marine protozoa's are the main source of phosphate in rocks. w Soils can only contain a limited amount of phosphates. w Shown to be an important factor for Eutrophication. Eutrophication: The filling in of bodies of water with sediment and mud over time.
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass93 Phosphorous Cycle: Diagram
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass94 Phosphorous Cycle: Diagram2
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass95 Phosphorous Cycle: Diagram 3
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass97 Phosphorous Cycle: Handout Dissolved Phosphates Algae Marine Sediments Excretion and Decomposition
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass98 Phosphorous Cycle Handout
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass99 Chemical Riddle Cycle me, cycle me, you know where Into the oceans and through the air And if you don't cycle me in the right place I'll weed up your rivers and eutroph your lakes What element am I?
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass100 Sulfur Cycle w Major Components Assimilative reduction Release of -SH Oxidation of H 2 S Dissimilative reduction Anerobic oxidation
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass102 Section 4.4 Review
Updated 10-29-01(c) Tim Bass103 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem w 4.1 Roles of Living Things 4.1 Roles of Living Things w 4.2 Ecosystem Structure 4.2 Ecosystem Structure w 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem w 4.4 Cycles of Matter 4.4 Cycles of Matter