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Genetics in the Cell cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics in the Cell cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics in the Cell cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm

2 In the nucleus of a cell: chromosomes – made of many different genes genes – hold the genetic information for each trait All the body cells of humans have 46 chromosomes

3 meiosis is the process used to make gametes (sex cells) gametes have ½ the # of chromosomes in the body cells Human gametes have 23 chromosomes

4 organism chromosomes in body cells chromosomes in gametes human chicken goldfish ant corn Horsetail fern butterfly chimpanzee 46 78 104 2 20 210 380 48 23 39 52 1 10 105 190 24

5 chromosomes are made of supercoiled DNA

6 DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) structure discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in 1962

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9 DNA is shaped like a double helix (a twisted ladder) sides – alternating molecules of sugar and phosphate (deoxyribose)

10 rungs – four types of nitrogen bases: Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) always bond A T A G C T T G A C G T A T C G A A C T G C

11 nitrogen bases attach to sugars (deoxyriboses) not phosphates nitrogen bases are attached with hydrogen bonds A -- T

12 DNA is made of units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base. (deoxyribose) and so on…


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