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Genetics in the Cell cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm
In the nucleus of a cell: chromosomes – made of many different genes genes – hold the genetic information for each trait All the body cells of humans have 46 chromosomes
meiosis is the process used to make gametes (sex cells) gametes have ½ the # of chromosomes in the body cells Human gametes have 23 chromosomes
organism chromosomes in body cells chromosomes in gametes human chicken goldfish ant corn Horsetail fern butterfly chimpanzee
chromosomes are made of supercoiled DNA
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) structure discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins won the Nobel Prize in 1962
DNA is shaped like a double helix (a twisted ladder) sides – alternating molecules of sugar and phosphate (deoxyribose)
rungs – four types of nitrogen bases: Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) always bond A T A G C T T G A C G T A T C G A A C T G C
nitrogen bases attach to sugars (deoxyriboses) not phosphates nitrogen bases are attached with hydrogen bonds A -- T
DNA is made of units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base. (deoxyribose) and so on…
1 2 DNA DNA.DNA is often called the blueprint of life. In simple terms, DNA contains the instructions for making proteins within the cell.
Aim: What is a chromosome? Human Chromosomes Text p
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