Presentation on theme: "Group Think A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override."— Presentation transcript:
1Group ThinkA mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group,when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action (Janis 1972: 9)When the desire for unanimity overcomes a group’s ability to make rational assessments on all available informationCan include an unquestioned belief in your moral correctness – religious (give your life to God) or political (Nazi Germany)Reduces team effectiveness because it can remove the ability/need to question or validate
2Group behaviour Group Behaviour - Positive and provides for trust, belonging, reliance,Resulting in being happy at work - better more efficient serviceLike minded people with similar ideas expectationsDid not join public service to make a fortuneJoined toserve –make a differencebelongget self esteem (Maslow 1987)Develop identityFitting-in (Baigent 2001)Surface acting that develops into deep acting (Hochschild 1983)Culture can inclusiveRealise needs (Maslow 1987)Avoid alienation (Marx)Resisting deskilling (Braverman 1974)Culture can be negativeRacism (Macpherson 1999)Sexism (Baigent 2008)Resist modernisation (Baigent 2007)Outsiders seen as theother (civvies)naive (what do they know about doing the job)deviant stereotyping (sanctions taken against groups)What are the stereotypes associated with being black? How might these affect a black male who wants to join the police?What are the stereotypes associated with women – how will this effect women who want to join the fire and rescue service?
3Formal Public Service Culture Weberian BureaucracyWritten rules (orders) for everythingA clear chain of commandNo room for entrepreneursRationality rulesAn iron cage (Weber)
4CAMBRIDGESHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE - CFRS STRUCTURE CHIEF FIRE OFFICERTOM CARROLLCOMMUNITY SAFETY DIRECTORATELawrie BoothMANAGEMENT SERVICES DIRECTORATECheryl RolphDISTRICT COMMUNITY SAFETYCAMBRIDGE CITY DISTRICT HUNTINGDON DISTRICTDave Warren Peter SharpeEAST CAMBS DISTRICT PETERBOROUGH DISTRICTDave Robertson Paul MalinowskiFENLAND DISTRICT SOUTH CAMBS DISTRICTPaul Fredericks Pat KilbyFIRE CONTROLElaine WakerleyPERSONAL & ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENTGROUPMaurice MooreCORPORATE & DEMOCRATIC SERVICESGROUPFiona FowlerHUMAN RESOURCESTracy Bennett-Tighe/Marissa ReynoldsTECHNICAL SERVICES DIRECTORATEPeter WarnerRESOURCES DIRECTORATEJohn HummersoneFLEET & EQUIPMENT SERVICES GROUPFrank LaskaCOMMUNITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUPGerry DaceyFINANCE & CONTRACT MANGEMENTGROUPMatthew WarrenINFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY GROUPMartin ScottNEW DIMENSIONS OFFICERAndy DunlopAUDIT OFFICERMark Bennett-TighePAYROLL TEAMDaphne BakerPROPERTY & ESTATES GROUPDanny Rust
5consistent demonstration consistent demonstration CPDRequiredtraininginputsCrewManagementDevelopmentProgrammeCREWMANAGEMENTSpecialistRoleAppointment intoCrew Management uponconsistent demonstrationof competence.Eligible to accessan NVQ award.Decision about progression toWatch Management basedupon information gatheredfrom the SupervisoryManagement ADC andworkplace assessment .SupervisoryAssessmentCentreCPDRequiredtraininginputsWatchManagementDevelopmentProgrammeWATCHMANAGEMENTMiddleAssessmentCentreDecision about progression toStation Management basedupon information gatheredfrom the SupervisoryManagement ADC andworkplace assessment.Test ofPotentialAppointment intoWatch Management uponconsistent demonstrationof competence.Eligible to accessan NVQ award.SpecialistRoleFIREFIGHTERFIREFIGHTINGCPDFF Competence confirmed through consistent performance. Eligible to access an NVQ award.Potential todevelop beyondrole identified throughcontinuous workplaceassessment and a snapshotof PQAs.Point of EntryAssessmentFirefightingDevelopmentProgrammePhase IIIAttractionPhase IPhase IITest ofPotential
6Forming a societyJones (1994) suggests that Durkheim has an orthodox consensus view of social structures made up of norms, values and rules.Durkheim argues we learn about norms, values and rules through socialisationNorms values and rules serve the function of making social life possibleEach generation of people pass on these norms, values and rules to the next (tradition)Functionalists believe in a society formed by social structuresStructures that become real in their consequences (W I Thomas)The argument of functionalist is that any social process exists because they serve a functionFor example we have laws because they lay down the boundaries of what is acceptable in a societyDurkheim uses the term ‘social solidarity’ to describe how people achieve social orderSocial solidarity was achieved by collective standards and rules of behaviour that make the ‘social glue’ that holds society togetherSocial solidarity/order flows from consensus - the existence of shared norms, values and rulesWhen individuals do not feel they belong in a society – share the same norms and values they feel alienated a situation that Durkheim saw as ‘anomie’Mayo, recognise that workers at Hawthorn suffered from anomie – they did not feel as is they belonged – during his experiment he made them feel important – that they belonged and therefore they were happier and worked harder.
7Durkheim A collective way of living/being can be termed a ‘culture’ Cultures can be macro – gender, ethnicity, classCultures can be micro – family, work, teenagersEach generation has the ability to change their culturePeople have a choice if they comply or notIn Public Services there are two culturesFormalInformal
8These arguments almost make as if culture has a life of its own As a result, it is often the culture rather than individuals that is seen as responsible for how cultural values get put into practiceFormal police culture may appear to have strength, power and authority, but this is due to a combination of group ownership, tradition and history, not because it actually exists.Police culture is a structure – accepted/constructed by the individuals who operate within itBecause the culture has to be put into action by individuals, there is space for those individuals to act differently
9It is sometimes possible to forget that: People in the fire and police services have minds of their ownFrequently group behaviour acts like a snowball – almost forcing people to put their own values on hold as they to give up some free will to join in with the groupPeople in the fire or police services make a choice when they join in on cultural practicesSometimes choice is not made under circumstances that the individual would choose
10There can be a number of views about public service culture. values that one cohort of public servants pass down to the nexta common form of behaviour amongst public servantsa public service ethos to serve and protectvalues that officers, managers, constables, firefighters, soldiers etc. have in commonsomething people sign up to because it provides for your needs, a sense of belonging, identity, purpose
11Alienation – not here Public Servants love their jobs Teamwork can prevent alienation from the work processInformal culture gives individuals some control over what they doThe process of deskillingWhat do the workers feel
12Identifying the task and how to accomplish it. Tuckman, B. (1965) 'Developmental sequence in small groups', Psychological Bulletin 63(6): FormingIdentifying the task and how to accomplish it.Deciding what is acceptable group behaviour and how to handle group conflictDeciding what information needs to be gathered to tackle the taskAbstract conceptual discussions or some members' impatience with these discussionsNo clear focus on task or problem as evidenced by irrelevant discussionsComplaining about organisational problems and barriers to accomplishing the task instead of focusing on the task
13Storming Arguing among group members, even if they agree on the issues Choosing sides within the group, bids for power, drawing divisional linesTension, jealousy, lack of unity, and a perceived hierarchyEstablishing unobtainable goals, increased concerns about too much work to be done.
14Norming Conflict avoidance in an attempt to promote harmony Friendlier discussions on a more personal level, more discussions about the dynamics of the group, begin to confide in one anotherMore of a sense of group cohesion and esprit, more commonality of goalsEstablishing and maintaining realistic group parameters for behaviour and performanceOrganising how team will sanction transgressors
15PerformingConstructively changing one's self--actually changing for the betterment of the group.Ability to avoid group conflict and, should conflict arise, being able to work through it.Much closer identity with the group, understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses.
17members who protect the group Maintain/police behaviour Self-appointed peer group leadersmembers who protect the groupMaintain/police behaviourProtect the current culture – holding the accepted norms, values and rules in trust for the next generation An illusion of invulnerability,We know bestOptimistic about your powerPrepared to challenge managers covertlyIgnore modernisationCollectivelyRationalise your argumentsDiscount warningsAvoid reconsidering your assumptionsJustify what you thinkStick with past views (traditions)An unquestioned belief that the group is rightBelief in the group's inherent moralityIgnoring the real, ethical or moral consequences of your actionsStereotyped views of politicians – managers – publicToo weakToo stupidDon’t know whats going onOvercome any efforts to changeWithout solidarity we shall loose our way of knowing the job – link this to a view about serving the publicMake it clear that loyalty is key to solidaritySnowball and confront anyone who challenges the groups viewTeach lessons about what it means to be marginalisedSelf-censorshipDon’t even consider the consequences of action or lack of reflectionDistort incoming argumentsMinimise/discount any thoughts that you might be wrongShared illusionWe are all togetherSink or swimSilence is consent – we permit what we allow/ignore
18‘Norming’ and Action theories Impression management (Goffman)Labelling theory (Becker)Deviancy amplification (Cohen)What if you are black how might the police service label youWhat do the public services think of modernisationHow does the label ‘female’ affect you if you are applying for a job the fire service
19Macpherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, London: HMSO. 6.44 We heed this warning, but upon all the facts we assert that the conclusion that racism played its part in this case is fully justified. Mere incompetence cannot of itself account for the whole catalogue of failures, mistakes, misjudgements, and lack of direction and control which bedevilled the Stephen6.3 In this Inquiry we have not heard evidence of overt racism or discrimination, unless it can be said that the use of inappropriate expressions such as "coloured" or "negro" fall into that category. The use of such words, which are now well known to be offensive, displays at least insensitivity and lack of training. A number of officers used such terms, and some did not even during their evidence seem to understand that the terms were offensive and should not be used.11.36 The main conclusion that we reach is that the inadequacy of the steps taken was as the result of the failure of direction by supervisory officers. The standard of command and co-ordination during the first two hours after this murder was in the opinion of the Inquiry abysmal.The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people.
20Bain, G. (2002) The Future of the fire service: reducing risk, saving lives, London: ODPM 10. Personnel policy, procedures and practices in the Fire Service give cause for concern. Despite clear policies from management and the FBU in favour of diversity, in practice only lip-service is paid to it. Harassment and bullying are still too prevalent.The leadership must recognise that urgent action is required. An improved programme of HR management must be put in place as a matter of priority. The work on the introduction of the new Integrated Personal Development System (IPDS) gives a framework for this improvement programme. But the programme itself will not be a substitute for real effort by management at all levels to tackle the problems. (Bain 2002: V).6.28 We have been told by many – including some politicians – that the leadership and general input from local politicians to fire authorities is poor. This is disappointing. If only because of the spotlight that has now been shone on the Service, it must be clear to all that good leadership and management have been lacking in many respects.
21Positive Action another view DB: So if there's a positive action day for ethnic minorities only, do you think, is that a good or a bad thing?Ff: I think that’s racist.DB: You think it’s racist?LF: Yes, absolutely. It’s out and out discrimination against the white, well, every other. It basically says it doesn’t matter if you apply or not, they’re not interested in you as a person or interested in this group or this group at this time.
22FireWorks for equality in the fire service Barriers of Ethnic Minority RecruitmentPerceived BarriersCultural sensitivities prohibited some BEM groups from applyingReligious restrictions prevented other ethnic groups from applyingAsians saw the firefighting profession as a low-status careerProblem of recruitment rested with BEM groups