Presentation on theme: "Group Think A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override."— Presentation transcript:
Group Think A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action (Janis 1972: 9) When the desire for unanimity overcomes a groups ability to make rational assessments on all available information Can include an unquestioned belief in your moral correctness – religious (give your life to God) or political (Nazi Germany) Reduces team effectiveness because it can remove the ability/need to question or validate
Group behaviour Group Behaviour - –Positive and provides for trust, belonging, reliance, –Resulting in being happy at work - better more efficient service –Like minded people with similar ideas expectations –Did not join public service to make a fortune –Joined to serve – make a difference belong get self esteem (Maslow 1987) –Develop identity Fitting-in (Baigent 2001) Surface acting that develops into deep acting (Hochschild 1983) –Culture can inclusive Realise needs (Maslow 1987) Avoid alienation (Marx) Resisting deskilling (Braverman 1974) –Culture can be negative Racism (Macpherson 1999) Sexism (Baigent 2008) Resist modernisation (Baigent 2007) –Outsiders seen as the other (civvies) naive (what do they know about doing the job) deviant stereotyping (sanctions taken against groups) What are the stereotypes associated with being black? How might these affect a black male who wants to join the police? What are the stereotypes associated with women – how will this effect women who want to join the fire and rescue service?
Formal Public Service Culture Weberian Bureaucracy –Written rules (orders) for everything –A clear chain of command –No room for entrepreneurs –Rationality rules –An iron cage (Weber)
CHIEF FIRE OFFICER TOM CARROLL COMMUNITY SAFETY DIRECTORATE Lawrie Booth MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIRECTORATE Cheryl Rolph TECHNICAL SERVICES DIRECTORATE Peter Warner DISTRICT COMMUNITY SAFETY CAMBRIDGE CITY DISTRICTHUNTINGDON DISTRICT Dave WarrenPeter Sharpe EAST CAMBS DISTRICTPETERBOROUGH DISTRICT Dave RobertsonPaul Malinowski FENLAND DISTRICTSOUTH CAMBS DISTRICT Paul FredericksPat Kilby FIRE CONTROL Elaine Wakerley PERSONAL & ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GROUP Maurice Moore CORPORATE & DEMOCRATIC SERVICES GROUP Fiona Fowler HUMAN RESOURCES Tracy Bennett- Tighe/ Marissa Reynolds RESOURCES DIRECTORATE John Hummersone FLEET & EQUIPMENT SERVICES GROUP Frank Laska COMMUNITY RISK MANAGEMENT GROUP Gerry Dacey NEW DIMENSIONS OFFICER Andy Dunlop AUDIT OFFICER Mark Bennett-Tighe FINANCE & CONTRACT MANGEMENTGROUP Matthew Warren INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY GROUP Martin Scott PAYROLL TEAM Daphne Baker PROPERTY & ESTATES GROUP Danny Rust CAMBRIDGESHIRE FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE - CFRS STRUCTURE
CPD Required training inputs Watch Management Development Programme WATCH MANAGEMENT WATCH MANAGEMENT Middle Management Assessment Centre Decision about progression to Station Management based upon information gathered from the Supervisory Management ADC and workplace assessment. Test of Potential Appointment into Watch Management upon consistent demonstration of competence. Eligible to access an NVQ award. Specialist Role Test of Potential FIREFIGHTER FIREFIGHTING CPD FF Competence confirmed through consistent performance. Eligible to access an NVQ award. Potential todevelop beyond role identified through continuous workplace assessment and a snapshot of PQAs. Point of Entry Assessment Firefighting Development Programme Phase III Attraction Firefighting Development Phase I Development Firefighting Programme Phase II CPD Required training inputs Crew Management Development Programme CREW MANAGEMENT CREW MANAGEMENT Specialist Role Appointment into Crew Management upon consistent demonstration of competence. Eligible to access an NVQ award. Decision about progression to Watch Management based upon information gathered from the Supervisory Management ADC and workplace assessment. Supervisory Management Assessment Centre
Forming a society Jones (1994) suggests that Durkheim has an orthodox consensus view of social structures made up of norms, values and rules. Durkheim argues we learn about norms, values and rules through socialisation Norms values and rules serve the function of making social life possible Each generation of people pass on these norms, values and rules to the next (tradition) Functionalists believe in a society formed by social structures Structures that become real in their consequences (W I Thomas) The argument of functionalist is that any social process exists because they serve a function For example we have laws because they lay down the boundaries of what is acceptable in a society Durkheim uses the term social solidarity to describe how people achieve social order Social solidarity was achieved by collective standards and rules of behaviour that make the social glue that holds society together Social solidarity/order flows from consensus - the existence of shared norms, values and rules When individuals do not feel they belong in a society – share the same norms and values they feel alienated a situation that Durkheim saw as anomie Mayo, recognise that workers at Hawthorn suffered from anomie – they did not feel as is they belonged – during his experiment he made them feel important – that they belonged and therefore they were happier and worked harder.
Durkheim A collective way of living/being can be termed a culture Cultures can be macro – gender, ethnicity, class Cultures can be micro – family, work, teenagers Each generation has the ability to change their culture People have a choice if they comply or not In Public Services there are two cultures –Formal –Informal
These arguments almost make as if culture has a life of its own As a result, it is often the culture rather than individuals that is seen as responsible for how cultural values get put into practice Formal police culture may appear to have strength, power and authority, but this is due to a combination of group ownership, tradition and history, not because it actually exists. Police culture is a structure – accepted/constructed by the individuals who operate within it Because the culture has to be put into action by individuals, there is space for those individuals to act differently
It is sometimes possible to forget that: People in the fire and police services have minds of their own Frequently group behaviour acts like a snowball – almost forcing people to put their own values on hold as they to give up some free will to join in with the group People in the fire or police services make a choice when they join in on cultural practices Sometimes choice is not made under circumstances that the individual would choose
There can be a number of views about public service culture. values that one cohort of public servants pass down to the next a common form of behaviour amongst public servants a public service ethos to serve and protect values that officers, managers, constables, firefighters, soldiers etc. have in common something people sign up to because it provides for your needs, a sense of belonging, identity, purpose
Alienation – not here –Public Servants love their jobs –Teamwork can prevent alienation from the work process –Informal culture gives individuals some control over what they do –The process of deskilling –What do the workers feel
Tuckman, B. (1965) 'Developmental sequence in small groups', Psychological Bulletin 63(6): Forming Identifying the task and how to accomplish it. Deciding what is acceptable group behaviour and how to handle group conflict Deciding what information needs to be gathered to tackle the task Abstract conceptual discussions or some members' impatience with these discussions No clear focus on task or problem as evidenced by irrelevant discussions Complaining about organisational problems and barriers to accomplishing the task instead of focusing on the task
Storming Arguing among group members, even if they agree on the issues Choosing sides within the group, bids for power, drawing divisional lines Tension, jealousy, lack of unity, and a perceived hierarchy Establishing unobtainable goals, increased concerns about too much work to be done.
Norming Conflict avoidance in an attempt to promote harmony Friendlier discussions on a more personal level, more discussions about the dynamics of the group, begin to confide in one another More of a sense of group cohesion and esprit, more commonality of goals Establishing and maintaining realistic group parameters for behaviour and performance Organising how team will sanction transgressors
Performing Constructively changing one's self-- actually changing for the betterment of the group. Ability to avoid group conflict and, should conflict arise, being able to work through it. Much closer identity with the group, understanding each other's strengths and weaknesses.
Self-appointed peer group leaders –members who protect the group –Maintain/police behaviour –Protect the current culture – holding the accepted norms, values and rules in trust for the next generation An illusion of invulnerability, –We know best –Optimistic about your power –Prepared to challenge managers covertly –Ignore modernisation Collectively –Rationalise your arguments –Discount warnings –Avoid reconsidering your assumptions –Justify what you think –Stick with past views (traditions) An unquestioned belief that the group is right –Belief in the group's inherent morality –Ignoring the real, ethical or moral consequences of your actions Stereotyped views of politicians – managers – public –Too weak –Too stupid –Dont know whats going on Overcome any efforts to change –Without solidarity we shall loose our way of knowing the job – link this to a view about serving the public –Make it clear that loyalty is key to solidarity –Snowball and confront anyone who challenges the groups view –Teach lessons about what it means to be marginalised Self-censorship –Dont even consider the consequences of action or lack of reflection –Distort incoming arguments –Minimise/discount any thoughts that you might be wrong Shared illusion –We are all together –Sink or swim –Silence is consent – we permit what we allow/ignore
Norming and Action theories Impression management (Goffman) Labelling theory (Becker) Deviancy amplification (Cohen) What if you are black how might the police service label you What do the public services think of modernisation How does the label female affect you if you are applying for a job the fire service
Macpherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, London: HMSO We heed this warning, but upon all the facts we assert that the conclusion that racism played its part in this case is fully justified. Mere incompetence cannot of itself account for the whole catalogue of failures, mistakes, misjudgements, and lack of direction and control which bedevilled the Stephen 6.3 In this Inquiry we have not heard evidence of overt racism or discrimination, unless it can be said that the use of inappropriate expressions such as "coloured" or "negro" fall into that category. The use of such words, which are now well known to be offensive, displays at least insensitivity and lack of training. A number of officers used such terms, and some did not even during their evidence seem to understand that the terms were offensive and should not be used The main conclusion that we reach is that the inadequacy of the steps taken was as the result of the failure of direction by supervisory officers. The standard of command and co-ordination during the first two hours after this murder was in the opinion of the Inquiry abysmal. The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people.
Bain, G. (2002) The Future of the fire service: reducing risk, saving lives, London: ODPM 10. Personnel policy, procedures and practices in the Fire Service give cause for concern. Despite clear policies from management and the FBU in favour of diversity, in practice only lip-service is paid to it. Harassment and bullying are still too prevalent. The leadership must recognise that urgent action is required. An improved programme of HR management must be put in place as a matter of priority. The work on the introduction of the new Integrated Personal Development System (IPDS) gives a framework for this improvement programme. But the programme itself will not be a substitute for real effort by management at all levels to tackle the problems. (Bain 2002: V) We have been told by many – including some politicians – that the leadership and general input from local politicians to fire authorities is poor. This is disappointing. If only because of the spotlight that has now been shone on the Service, it must be clear to all that good leadership and management have been lacking in many respects.
DB:So if there's a positive action day for ethnic minorities only, do you think, is that a good or a bad thing? Ff:I think thats racist. DB: You think its racist? LF: Yes, absolutely. Its out and out discrimination against the white, well, every other. It basically says it doesnt matter if you apply or not, theyre not interested in you as a person or interested in this group or this group at this time. Positive Action another view
FireWorks for equality in the fire service Barriers of Ethnic Minority Recruitment Perceived Barriers Cultural sensitivities prohibited some BEM groups from applying Religious restrictions prevented other ethnic groups from applying Asians saw the firefighting profession as a low-status career Problem of recruitment rested with BEM groups