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Using Technology in the Classroom

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1 Using Technology in the Classroom
Gary G. Bitter & Jane M. Legacy Chapter 7 Lesson Plans This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • Any rental, lease, or lending of the program Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Essential Elements Objectives What students will be able to do as a result of the lesson Procedures What the teacher will do to get the students there Evaluation What the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

3 Madeline Hunter Lesson Plan Format
Anticipatory Set Statement of Objectives Instructional Input Modeling Check for Understanding Guided Practice Independent Practice Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Anticipatory Set Setting the Stage Pearl Harbor Show some pictures of Pearl Harbor Show a movie Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

5 Statement of Objectives
Tell students what they’ll be able to do as a result of the lesson. The student will summarize reasons for U.S. entrance into WWII The student will evaluate the pros and cons of these reasons Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Instructional Input Discuss Background from homework reading Construct Timeline of WWII Show Anti-Japan and anti-German posters and news clips May be lecture, demonstration, explanation, instructions, etc. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Modeling Discuss Background from homework reading Construct Timeline of WWII Show Anti-Japan and anti-German posters and news clips Demonstrate Show them what you just told them. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

8 Check for Understanding
Ask questions Watch faces Perform during each activity. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Guided Practice Help students start practicing new skills, applying new knowledge Construct Timeline of WWII events Groups Pose legitimate reasons for a country to go to war Refer to textbook and previous class notes Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Independent Practice Turn them loose to work on their own Journal What role did emotions play in U.S. entrance into WWII? Defend or critique the reasons for going to war. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Discovery Lesson Plan Equipment Set the stage Don’t state objectives yet Give instructions Check for understanding Guided practice (lab) Discussion, regrouping Statement of objectives Independent practice (lab journal) Assessment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Group Work Equipment Set the stage State objectives Give instructions Check for understanding Group work Guided practice Discussion Regrouping Summary Assessment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

13 Instructional Plan for a Single Lesson
Briefly describe the students in the class, including those with special needs. Briefly provide an overview of the concept(s) being taught. What are your goals for the lesson? What do you want them to learn? This was an extremely beneficial exercise I had to complete for my Masters degree at SNHU. Here are some of the questions I had to answer before I prepared my lesson. I want to share them with you to illustrate how much thought goes into a lesson plan even when you don’t even realize it. MBE610 S.N.H.U. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

14 Instructional Plan (Cont.)
What are your specific behavior objectives for this lesson? How do these goals relate to broader curriculum goals in the discipline as a whole or in other disciplines? Why are those goals suitable for this group of students? MBE610 S.N.H.U. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

15 Instructional Plan (Conc.)
How do you plan to engage students in the content? Include time estimates. What difficulties do you anticipate students may have and how will you address them? What instructional materials will you use? How do you plan to assess students? MBE610 S.N.H.U. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Bloom’s Taxonomy Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Blooms Taxonomy Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Illustration from: Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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The Assumptions: Our abilities can be measured from plain and simple to rather complex As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" category 80% to 90% of the time. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Knowledge observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas Question Cues: Who? What? When? Where? How? Describe? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Comprehension Understanding information Ability to translate knowledge Compare and contrast Question Cues: Summarize Contrast Predict Distinguish Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Application Use methods, concepts, theories in new situations Solve problems using required skills or knowledge Question Cues: How is … an example of …? How is … related to …? Why is … significant? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Analysis See patterns Organize parts Recognize hidden meanings Identify components Question Cues: Outline/Diagram … What are the parts or features of …? Classify … according to … Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Synthesis Use old ideas to create new ones Relate knowledge from several areas Predict, draw conclusions Question Cues: How would you create/design a …? Combine Rearrange Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Evaluation Discriminate between ideas Decide based on reasoned argument Recognize subjectivity Question Cues: Rank Discriminate Convince Question Cues assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize From Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of educational objectives. Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 1984 by Pearson Education. Adapted by permission of the publisher Do you agree...? What do you think about...? What is the most important...? Place the following in order of priority... How would you decide about...? What criteria would you use to assess...? Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

25 Instructional Scaffolding
The ultimate academic goal is for students to become independent lifetime learners, so that they can continue to learn on their own or with limited support. When most of us hear the word “scaffolding” we think of new office buildings going up, or aging skyscrapers needing repair. Scaffolding is what gets erected outside a tall building so that workers can climb up and hammer away. From the ground below scaffolding sometimes looks like an external skeleton, yet any long gaze will reveal it has nothing to do with supporting the actual weight of the building it surrounds. Instead, what is evident is the short-lived nature of its framework, individual pieces of which are designed to disassemble quickly. Frequent passersby spot regular changes in vertical and lateral movement. One day the scaffolding spreads north or retreats east; the next, it stretches higher or drops lower. Scaffolding in construction is a means to an end; as soon as it’s no longer needed, it disappears. Instructional scaffolding is similarly transient. Scaffolding in an educational context is a process by which a teacher provides students with a temporary framework for learning. Done correctly, such structuring encourages a student to develop his or her own initiative, motivation and resourcefulness. Once students build knowledge and develop skills on their own, elements of the framework are dismantled. Eventually, the initial scaffolding is removed altogether; students no longer need it. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Today’s Learners Are challenged to: (a) know how to learn, (b) access changing information, (c) apply what is learned, and (d) address complex real-world problems in order to be successful Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

27 What is Scaffold Instruction?
Scaffolding is a process in which teachers assist students until they can perform new tasks independently. As students require less support, teachers allow students to assume more responsibility for their learning thus removing some of the “scaffolding”. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Essential Elements Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum Establish a shared goal Actively diagnose student needs and understandings Provide tailored assistance Note that these elements do not have to occur in the sequence listed. Pre-engagement with the student and the curriculum - The teacher considers curriculum goals and the students' needs to select appropriate tasks. Establish a shared goal - The students may become more motivated and invested in the learning process when the teacher works with each student to plan instructional goals. Actively diagnose student needs and understandings - The teacher must be knowledgeable of content and sensitive to the students (e.g., aware of the students' background knowledge and misconceptions) to determine if they are making progress. Provide tailored assistance - This may include cueing or prompting, questioning, modeling, telling, or discussing. The teacher uses these as needed and adjusts them to meet the students' needs. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

29 Essential Elements (Cont.)
Maintain pursuit of the goal Give feedback Control for frustration and risk Assist internalization, independence, and generalization to other contexts Maintain pursuit of the goal - The teacher can ask questions and request clarification as well as offer praise and encouragement to help students remain focused on their goals. Give feedback - To help students learn to monitor their own progress, the teacher can summarize current progress and explicitly note behaviors that contributed to each student's success. Control for frustration and risk - The teacher can create an environment in which the students feel free to take risks with learning by encouraging them to try alternatives. Assist internalization, independence, and generalization to other contexts - This means that the teacher helps the students to be less dependent on the teacher's extrinsic signals to begin or complete a task and also provides the opportunity to practice the task in a variety of contexts Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Guidelines Determine student capabilities Try to have everyone one the “same page” Know when the students have had enough Know when to let the student work independently Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

31 Applebee & Langer’s Features of Scaffolding
Ownership Wish to learn Appropriateness Right level Support Structured guidance Collaboration Coaching Internalization Independent practice Applebee and Langer (1983 identify these five features as: Intentionality: The task has a clear overall purpose driving any separate activity that may contribute to the whole. Appropriateness: Instructional tasks pose problems that can be solved with help but which students could not successfully complete on their own. Structure: Modeling and questioning activities are structured around a model of appropriate approaches to the task and lead to a natural sequence of thought and language. Collaboration: The teacher’s response to student work recasts and expands upon the students’ efforts without rejecting what they have accomplished on their own. The teacher’s primary role is collaborative rather than evaluative. Internalization: External scaffolding for the activity is gradually withdrawn as the patterns are internalized by the students Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

32 Scaffolding Throughout the Lesson
The teacher does it Teacher models The class does it Teacher and students work together to perform the task The group does it Students work with a partner The individual does it Independent practice stage Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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Challenges & Cautions Use scaffolding only when appropriate Practice many different approaches to obtain the correct response from students Be positive, patient, and caring Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008

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