Presentation on theme: "Education should be focused on the potential that might be achieved rather than on achievement of certain skills It’s possible to teach people to be more."— Presentation transcript:
Education should be focused on the potential that might be achieved rather than on achievement of certain skills It’s possible to teach people to be more effective thinkers and to be more intelligent. It’s important to teach thinking skills because society has changed. to be prepared for the challenge of the future children will need: skills giving them control over their lives and their learning capacity to gain new knowledge attitude of open-mindedness to the future Foundation for thinking skills early in life as a children became adults an increasing tendency to close-mindedness where beliefs are ego-centred..INTRODUCTION
Traditional schools -->children receive rather than give information and thoughts. There were misconceptions about the nature of reasoning and intelligence: 1) “Thinking is just one of basic skills (like reading, arithmetic)” -> FALSE ! Thinking is the foundation skill of all learning, fundamental for development of all other skills. 2) “Reasoning skills are natural function (like breathing..) and improve with age and experience” -> FALSE ! The higher order skills are the same skills that we had as a children but used in more sophisticated combination. 3) “The teaching of reasoning must entail ignoring the emotional side of time” -> FALSE ! What we (teacher) need to free ourselves and our children from is not feeling or emotion but prejudice and other irrational emotions and beliefs We teach children many skills (physical, social, linguistic..) why not thinking skills?
THINKING SKILLS CREATIVE THINKING = rearranging what we know to find out what we do not know CRITICAL THINKING = thinking that evaluates reason PROBLEB- SOLVING = to provide effective way of practising skills in finding and using facts, relevant both to school and life situations INSTRUMENTAL ENRICHMENT (Feuerstein) = it’s aimed to transform children’s thinking, learning and ability to solve problems PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN ( Lipman) = adapt philosophy to the needs of children, whatever their age TEACHING FOR THINKING = quality of teaching rather than content of curriculum is the key to realising a child’s potential “It is one thing to have heard and read something, that is merely to take notice; it is another thing to understand what we have heard and read, that is to ponder” Martin Heidegger
CAP I. WHAT IS THINKING? Process of perception, memory, concept formation, language and symbolisation are the basic cognitive skills underlying the ability to reason, to learn and to solve problems. Young children may have the same cognitive processes as adult but their thinking is not as effective as that of most adults. Children are travellers in a largely unknown land and adults are their guides. To make sense of the world, children need help in responding to and processing information they have gathered about their experience. To help the child we need to try to understand what these sense-making processes are.. What is thinking? Thinking is closely associated with what goes on the brain, thoughts… PSYCHOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHICAL emotional&creative child reasoning child ASPECTS OF BIOLOGICAL THINKING SOCIOLOGICAL physical child social child
Philosophers: a universal pattern in cognitive growth and human knowing. FRANCIS GALTON intelligence = property of the brain as whole and the factor is largely inherited. ALFRED BINET devised the first mental tests ( IQ tests). Intelligence = not fixed quantity, it can improve by training What children need to do is to learn how to learn. Given a adequate motivation children could be trained to became more intelligent in their thinking. SPEARMAN intelligence = a property of the brain as a whole; from it derives our thinking.
VIGOTSKY all psychological processes are the result of the social and cultural interaction. It is through the use of language that children take control of their thinking and make meaning from the world. All children have a potential for development in collaboration with others. Philosophers: a universal pattern in cognitive growth and human knowing
Early psychologists’ general laws about mental faculties I Today psychologists interested in finding out why and how something is known or acquired. PIAGET a pioneer of such approach: not interested in simply memorised forms of knowledge but in understanding of concepts. Logical reasoning = central factor of intelligence. Learning = activity with different stages of development biologically programmed; cannot be changed. Pattern of development for each individual child is unique. The way children are taught: profound effect on their progress. Important factors in teaching children how to think are: need to look at the reasons why the child is thinking in such a way; need to remember thinking is doing and not just being told active process; need for children to explore certain key concepts unlock their potential.
STERNBERG: metacognition = ability to reflect on our own thinking processes 3 component elements involved in our capacity to process information Meta-components: higher order processes (control) f(x)->control of memory, planning, decision-making, evaluating performance components: what we do (output) f(x) -> remembering, reflecting, generating ideas, problem solving; knowledge acquisition components: learning new material (input), f(x) ->seeing, hearing, physical/sensory experience. GARDNER: intelligence has no unitary character the mind is a community of separate intelligences. In daily life, intelligences usually work in harmony their separateness and special characteristics seem invisible. In teaching children to think our task is to develop each one of many forms of a child’s intelligence. Early psychologists’ general laws about mental faculties II
FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE I LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE ability to use sounds to convey a point of view and convince others into a course of action. begins at a baby stage = the child look for meanings in the interactions with mother (or teacher). Similarly mother/ teacher will look for meaning in the cues /signals given by the child ’looking for Meaning = two-way process. A key element in the child’s linguistic and creative development. Memory = one of the key to linguistic intelligence. The meaningfulness of the pattern of words being learnt and the cultural value given to the task are important for such processing skill Written word = second stage of symbolisation begins developing between the ages of 4-6 Literacy, the ability to read and write encourages more abstract forms of thinking brings greater precision to definition of terms allow to refer back, think about our thinking, weigh arguments supplement memory, organise future activities, communicate with others learn in autonomous ways. Linguistic intelligence, like the physical body, needs daily exercising.
LOGICO- MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE Piaget logical reasoning = central factor of intelligence KEY STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT of logical intelligence in the child Early months: the child’s knowledge of objects is related to his moment to moment experience with them About 18 months: principle of object permanence (objects exist independent of our actions or perceptions). Recognition of the qualities of objects=their similarities, differences, continuities and transformations and concept of change. Logical abstraction: relates the elements of a set to number age: child can count and compare two sets of objects and begin the operations of adding the sets, then subtracting, multiplying and dividing age :Concrete operations,logico-mathematical skills begin with the handling of real objects. Numerical operations gradually became internalised age: Formal operations, child uses words or symbols to stand for objects, he can work with hypothetical statements and explore logical relationships between statements. FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE II
MATHS AND LOGIC Close link between logic and maths (ex. every correct sum is an exercise in logic). The application of logic is not the whole of maths. Mathematical thinking involves the processes of: creative thinking: creating hypotheses, using insight and inspiration critical thinking: applying logical chains of reasoning problem solving: what the child is good at is applying mathematical processes to the investigation of problems. In posing and solving problems there is a close link between the logic of maths and science. SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE human capacity to enquire about and to investigate the natural world. Successful scientific investigation requires: application of maths and logic use of many other mental processes: imagination, observation, communication and hypothesising. FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE III
SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE Comprises the capacity to perceive the visual world accurately to recreate visual experience in the mind’s eye. to fully understand (you need to ‘see’ first) Spatial imagery is the primary source of thought and it’s a key tool for problem solving. The use of visual intelligence can help the child see more, for example in these precise but paradoxical images: Duck or rabbit? Old or young woman? Children can ‘read’ pictures much earlier than they can read words. Much of the information children will need to process is of a visual kind: words, numbers, pictures, images: all visual animals living in a visual world. FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE IV
MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE 4 months: infant can match the rhythms and simple melodies of mothers’ songs. 2 age: children are investigating their own rhythm and melodies spontaneous songs. 3 age: spontaneous exploration of songs. For the rest of his life: the child’s intuitive feel for music remains part of his mental make up. !!!! But it is important to develop this intuitive understanding with systematic instruction, conceptualising the experience through a symbolic code such as the dots and squiggles of modern musical notation. Musical intelligence is susceptible to cultural training and stimulation. FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE V
BODILY – KINAESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE Between the ages 5 and 12 most children make great progress in developing physical coordination, muscular control and manipulative skill. PHYSICAL INTELLIGENCE LINKED SKILLS: MANIPULATING: cutting, holding, guiding, writing, drawing CONSTRUCTIONING: building, assembling, arranging, carrying, placing PROJECTIONING: catching, grasping, kicking, striking; AGILITY: running, jumping, balancing, swimming, gymnastics; COMMUNICATIONING: non-verbal communication, gesture, touch, voice, control. All psycho - motor skills involve some mental processing. Skills come through the gaining of ‘know-how’ and often the know-how cannot be expressed in language. It is a form of knowledge learned slowly and through repeating patterns of actions. Bodily skills may seem identical in action but they are the product of an individual intelligence, a personally distinct pattering. Child’s body = the repository of his personal and interpersonal intelligence FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE VI
INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE The growth of interpersonal intelligence is a gradual process that passes through several stages. : From birth: the infant shows signs of empathy, responding to the facial expression and behaviour of the others. 2 ages: the first evidence of self-knowledge comes, the child realises he is a separate entity ( the miracle of ‘me’) Getting older children begin to explore social roles and behaviour through play. The child gradually comes to know himself through coming to know others, personal and social intelligence grow together. Pre-adolescent ages: the child shows a growing ability to see the points of view of others, to appreciate jokes and to understand complicated social interactions. Descriptions of others became more realistic and perceptive, moving from predominantly external characteristics ( clothes..) to a growing ability to assess personal characteristics and capacities. Education of the emotions and the growth of a moral sense involve thinking processes. Several factors exist to help in the growth of understanding: prolonged period of childhood social nature of family life the urge of exploratory and problem-solving play role of language as the facilitator of interpersonal communication. All have the potential, given the right stimulation and support, to realise their particular talents. FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE VII
METACOGNITIVE INTELLIGENCE Metacognitive knowledge is knowing how you know things and the processes by which you think. Metacognitive skills help us to acquire, control and regulate our knowledge and thinking. The skills involve reflecting on our feelings of knowing or not knowing, our mental abilities and limitations. Children need to be encouraged to verbalise what they are doing to exercise their linguistic intelligence in monitoring their actions and to explain to themselves or others what they are doing why you are doing something how to set about it Being in control means knowing about your own thinking how your brain works Questions to help children gain metacognitive control: Have I thought it through ? -> Stop and think! Think before you ink! Have I made a plan? Do I know what I do? -> Re-read/ re-tell. Check-double- check. Is there anything more I need? What else do I need? What do I know that will help me? FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE VIII
AMAZING BRAIN The more stimuli a child experiences to activate his patterns of learning, the greater will be the capacity of his brain to function intelligently. stimulus (internal or external) -> connections -> patterns ->learning Parts of the human cortex have a fixed function and parts have no fixed function. Flexibility is at his greatest in young children. A child with cerebral brain damage may activate uncommitted areas of the brain and learn to speak, whereas with an adolescent or an adult this capacity may be only partially recovered. RIGHT HEMISPHERE: COLOUR,SPACE,IMAGES,DREAMS, MUSIC LEFT HEMISPHERE: WORDS, NUMBER,SEQUENCE,ANALYSIS,LOGIC Most types of thinking involves both hemispheres. The quality of the thinking / learning environment in the first years of life are vital. The long period of childhood is necessary for the patterning of thought processes to be established. Children cannot learn alone. They need the mediation, the necessary help of others (peers and adults), together with the appropriate stimulation, if they are to be given the chance of developing to their full potential.