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BA 572 - J. Galván1 THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR E-COMMERCE Web technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "BA 572 - J. Galván1 THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR E-COMMERCE Web technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 BA J. Galván1 THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR E-COMMERCE Web technologies

2 BA J. Galván2 WWW- THE TRIUMPH OF ANARCHY Perhaps the most important human technological artifact that evolved more or less ad-hoc Limited original vision of the WWW has very little to do with todays impressive reality Web Users have consistently innovated in figuring out new ways of leveraging this powerful medium Web architects then try to catch up by extending (read patching) the Web infrastructure to support these new uses

3 BA J. Galván3 HOW IT ALL STARTED The web as a static document repository PROBLEM: You have documents in your computer that I would like to see How can I reach you? OR I would like to send you a text message Tim Berners-Lees original vision for the WWW (circa 1989) An easy way to access cross-linked static documents stored in a variety of servers around the world Initial specification defined: A language for formatting such documents (HTML) A simple protocol for communicating between browsers and servers (HTTP)

4 BA J. Galván4 THE TURNING POINT Marc Andreesen (student at UIUC) writes Mosaic – first graphical WWW browser (precursor of Netscape)

5 BA J. Galván5 WWW IS A CLIENT SERVER SYSTEM Web Clients Use HTTP protocol to connect to servers Request and display Web pages stored in servers Typical clients: Web browsers Web Servers Listen for incoming connections from clients Use HTTP protocol to converse with clients Store and transmit Web pages to clients

6 BA J. Galván6 WWW THE ORIGINAL CONCEPT ( ) Human Readers INTERACT with Interconnected Static Documents Main advantage: Universality Main disadvantage Lack of interactivity Yet another mass broadcast medium Main business use Awareness building

7 BA J. Galván7 HTML Hypertext Markup Language Used to place texts and images in web pages Understood by all web browsers However, there are different versions of HTML and different browsers may display different pages

8 BA J. Galván8 HTML EXAMPLE

9 BA J. Galván9 HTML EXAMPLE CODE HEADING HEADING Subheading Text link

10 BA J. Galván10 LAYERS IN THE WEB

11 BA J. Galván11 The World Wide Web Client/server application Layered on top of Internet Web page – basic information unit Web site – set of related pages Hyperlink – logical page-to-page link Home page – Web sites starting point

12 BA J. Galván12 Web Software Browser Client-side application program Internet Explorer, Netscape/AOL, Mozilla, Opera,... Requests and displays (views of) Web pages Web server Server-side application program Where a Web site resides Manages access to Web site contents Fills page requests – serves pages

13 BA J. Galván13 STRUCTURE OF A WEBSITE

14 BA J. Galván14 CONNECTIONS TO A WEBSITE

15 BA J. Galván15 HOW THE ORIGINAL WEB WORKS

16 BA J. Galván16 ANATOMY OF AN URL URL = Uniform Resource Locator Name of protocol for communicating with server Domain name of Web server where page is stored Pathname of page within server local File system Name of webpage Domain levels

17 BA J. Galván17 HOW THE WEB WORKS (I)

18 BA J. Galván18 HOW THE WEB WORKS (II)

19 BA J. Galván19 HOW THE WEB WORKS (III)

20 BA J. Galván20 Web Servers Server hardware The host computer Server software Application program Web server (Apache, IIS) Database server server Runs on server hardware or host

21 BA J. Galván21 MULTIPLE SERVERS CAN RUN ON THE SAME HOST. Server is software

22 BA J. Galván22 MULTIPLE SERVERS CAN RUN ON MULTIPLE INTERCONNECTED HOSTS. A Web or Application Server is software!!

23 BA J. Galván23 SEPARATE FIREWALLS AT EACH LAYER Firewall protects Internal network from public network Runs on Router (via Network Address Translation) Host Server Workstation

24 BA J. Galván24 Interactivity Early browsers limited to static pages Business need for Animation, sound, flashing logo Access to global markets Client side data input Need for client side interactivity

25 BA J. Galván25 Client-side Interactivity Scripts Macro-like instructions JavaScript, Jscript, VBScript Embedded in HTML text Applet Small program executed within browser Java, VisualBasic Plug-ins and helper applications

26 BA J. Galván26 SOME POPULAR PLUG-INS. Plug-in is integrated software application Processes registered file types (e.g., proprietary file formats) Often available as free download

27 BA J. Galván27 Web Information Systems Client-side interactivity Server-side interactivity Personalized marketing JIT inventory Inter- and intra-corporate communication

28 BA J. Galván28 Web Applications Applications that support a Web information system Client/server Browser on client side Server software on server side Middleware translates between HTML Non-Web server format

29 BA J. Galván29 Middleware connects two applications/servers. Server-side middleware links Web server Database server Other applications

30 BA J. Galván30 Maintaining State The Web is stateless Each transaction is independent No problem for Web surfing Web information system is stateful Series of related transactions Must remember previous steps Cookies provide one solution; another is registration, login, and tracking via DB

31 BA J. Galván31 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications

32 BA J. Galván32 THE WEB AS A TRANSACTION FACILITATOR Business Motivation: Low-cost front-end for allowing customers to connect to corporate computers Customer registration/Address changes Order tracking/Customer support Online Transactions: eCommerce Problems of original Web concept Static web pages No interactivity Stateless protocol: no support for multi-step transactions Insecure communications

33 BA J. Galván33 WEB FORMS - PRIMITIVE INTERACTIVITY Pages which contain fields to be filled by user Usually contain a Submit button When user presses Submit, server responds by sending a page containing information specific to the user-supplied parameters Examples: Web search tools Order forms in commercial web sites See e.g.

34 BA J. Galván34 WEB FORMS

35 BA J. Galván35 BUSINESS USES OF WEB FORMS Server sends original html page containing input fields User types info into fields and presses submit button Client establishes connection with handler script at server side (script filename contained in web page) Client collects user input into a long string and sends it along with an HTTP command back to server POST customer=John+Doe&cardno= &expires=6/98&product=123&quantity=5 Handler script at server reads parameter string and processes it, usually producing a new page as a result

36 BA J. Galván36 CGI Common Gateway Interface Set of standards for writing handler scripts How it works All URLs that refer to a special directory (e.g. /cgi) cause the execution of a corresponding script at the server (for example Scripts typically translate parameters into SQL statements for a database and translate the query results into an HTML page

37 BA J. Galván37 HOW IT WORKS - FEDEX

38 BA J. Galván38 MICROSOFT ACTIVE SERVER PAGES (ASP) Competing technology to CGI Scripting Language is similar to Visual Basic MS Access can automatically convert database tables, queries and forms into ASP pages Requires Microsoft web server

39 BA J. Galván39 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications

40 BA J. Galván40 THE INTERACTIVE WEB Business Motivation: Allow complex interaction between user browser and corporate server Web becomes an extension of the users PC Browser becomes a window to a variety of corporate applications Problems with Web Forms/CGI/ASP All processing done at server side Rapid user interaction with Web page not possible Need local processing to create highly interactive Web pages

41 BA J. Galván41 ENTER JAVA APPLETS Programming language to enable interactive Web pages Developed by Sun Microsystems originally for programming intelligent microwave ovens!!! Java programs are called applets Applets are platform-independent They can run equally well on Windows, Macs, Unix, etc. Require special browsers that can support Java though

42 BA J. Galván42 HOW DOES JAVA WORK?

43 BA J. Galván43 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications

44 BA J. Galván44 PERSONALIZED INTERACTION Business motivation: Low cost medium for gathering information from customers to allow Personalized service Targeted advertising Problems with current model Does not allow easy identification of distinct customers

45 BA J. Galván45 COOKIES A method for identifying web users and delivering customized web sites First time user connects to a web site, s/he is asked to fill in personal information form Server packages information into a cookie file and sends cookie to browser Browser stores cookie in local file system Each subsequent time browser visits site, it sends cookie back to server Server uses information stored in cookie to identify user and possibly customize the supplied web pages Privacy implications?

46 BA J. Galván46 COOKIE APPLICATIONS

47 BA J. Galván47 SUMMARY: WWW THE CURRENT CONCEPT (1995-TODAY) Human Users INTERACT with Documents and Applications Main business use B2C Transactions Customer Support

48 BA J. Galván48 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications

49 BA J. Galván49 MULTIPLE DELIVERY DEVICES Business motivation: Allow users to access web content from a variety of devices PC Browsers PDAs (e.g. Palm Pilots) Mobile Phones Telephones (via voice interface) … Problems of current Web model Each access device has different look-and-feel requirements HTML specifies formatting for PC browsers only

50 BA J. Galván50 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications

51 BA J. Galván51 ORGANIZE AND INDEX WEB CONTENT Web is useless unless we can easily locate relevant resources Current solution: Search Engines Index the Web by automatically discovering web pages and organizing them around keywords found in their text

52 BA J. Galván52 HOW DOES GOOGLE WORK? Before you ever enter a query: Programs (called web crawlers or spiders)follow links from one page to another all over the web. The programs construct indexes of which words appear on which pages and save the indexes (and often copies of the pages) on massive server farms maintained by Google. Each page is also assigned a page rank based on the number of other pages that link to it. Links from pages that, in turn, have lots of other pages linking to them are weighted more heavily.

53 BA J. Galván53 GOOGLES PAGE RANK FORMULA PR(A) = (1-d) + d(PR(t1)/C(t1) PR(tn)/C(tn)) Where t1 -tn are pages linking to page A, C is the number of outbound links that a page has d is a damping factor, usually set to In words: a page's PageRank = * (a "share" of the PageRank of every page that links to it) "share" = the linking page's PageRank divided by the number of outbound links on the page.

54 BA J. Galván54 HOW DOES GOOGLE WORK? (CONT.) After you enter a query: Programs check the indexes to determine which pages contain the combination of words you entered. Google provides a list of these pages in order of page rank (order is probably affected by other factors, too)

55 BA J. Galván55 GOOGLE NUMBERS AS OF DECEMBER 2004 Over four billion Web pages, each an average of 10KB, all fully indexed. Up to 2,000 PCs in a cluster. Over 30 clusters. One petabyte of data in a cluster --so much that hard disk error rates of begin to be a real issue. Sustained transfer rates of 2Gbps in a cluster. An expectation that two machines will fail every day in each of the larger clusters. No complete system failure since February Source: ZDNet – UK

56 BA J. Galván56 PROBLEMS WITH TODAYS SEARCHES… Text keywords are misleading… HTML does not give any clues as to the true meaning of the data Example: Desperately seeking Wendy Cook

57 BA J. Galván57 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to- Business applications

58 BA J. Galván58 SUPPORT FOR B2B APPLICATIONS Original Web was conceived as a communication medium between computers and humans Amazing new applications will become possible if computers can automatically read and understand Web pages Electronic purchasing Intelligence gathering …. Problem: HTML pages are unstructured HTML only provides information about presentation, not meaning

59 BA J. Galván59 WHAT IS THE UNDERLYING ISSUE? When storing documents on the web, specify not only their appearance, but also their semantics (i.e. their meaning!)

60 BA J. Galván60 WHAT IS THE MEANING OF WEBSITE ADDRESSES? BEST RADIO IN TOWN SEARCH OF THE WORD RETREIVE IN GOOGLE +en+Google&metahttp://www.google.es/search?hl=es&q=RETREIVE&btnG=B%C3%BAsqueda +en+Google&meta= CORRECTION GOOGLE 1&q=RETRIEVE&spell=1 ACCESS TO WELCOME PAGE OF A BANK https://www.sabadellatlantico.com/es/HERRAMIENTAS/INDEX/?url=/es/PAGI NA_INICIAL/BANCO_ATLANTICO/BIENVENIDOS/ INTRANET INTRANET LOGIN PAGE IN A BANK (Access to the Intranet) https://oi.cajamadrid.es/CajaMadrid/oi/pt_oi/Login/login ARTICLE SELECTED IN A WEBSITE

61 BA J. Galván61 BEST RADIO IN TOWN An ordinary address Hypertext protocol Addressing the whole web 2nd level domain, owned by the organization 1st level domain. Identifies activity

62 BA J. Galván62 SEARCHES Placing RETREIVE in Google After the address comes search? and all the data of the query CORRECTION GOOGLE (RETRIEVE) Includes changes in the original query after answering that the word seeked was really RETRiEVE This type of query changes with time. It cannot be assured to recover the same document executing the same query at different times

63 BA J. Galván63 ACCESS TO WELCOME PAGE OF A BANK https://www.sabadellatlantico.com/es/HERRAMIENTAS/INDEX/?url= /es/PAGINA_INICIAL/BANCO_ATLANTICO/BIENVENIDOS/ Protocol – web – secondary + primary domains – Folders + ?url – Spanish + welcome page There are language options in previous pages

64 BA J. Galván64 INTRANETS Portal supplying asp dynamic pages INTRANET through IP addresses within the local network LOGIN PAGE IN A BANK (Within the Intranet) https://oi.cajamadrid.es/CajaMadrid/oi/pt_oi/ Login/login

65 BA J. Galván65 RECOVERABLE DOCUMENTS Adobe document from National Science Foundation Article selected in a website Dynamic webpage selecting articles from a database. The server is programmed in PHP and articles are indexed (?id=11667)

66 BA J. Galván66 THE SEMANTIC WEB The Next Generation Web with well-established infrastructure for expressing information in a Precise, Human-readable, and Machine-interpretable form. Enable syntactic and semantic interoperability among independently-developed Web applications, allowing them to efficiently perform sophisticated tasks for humans. Enable Web resources to be accessible by their semantics rather than by keywords and syntactic forms. Enable inferencing: Chris is an associate professor at MIT. Associate professors are permanent employees. Chris is a permanent employee of MIT.

67 BA J. Galván67 EVOLUTION

68 BA J. Galván68

69 BA J. Galván69 Please, beware of technical problems

70 BA J. Galván70 NEW BUSINESS MODELS

71 BA J. Galván71 HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURE


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