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THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR E-COMMERCE

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1 THE INFRASTRUCTURE FOR E-COMMERCE
Web technologies BA J. Galván

2 WWW- THE TRIUMPH OF ANARCHY
Perhaps the most important human technological artifact that evolved more or less ad-hoc Limited original vision of the WWW has very little to do with today’s impressive reality Web Users have consistently innovated in figuring out new ways of leveraging this powerful medium Web architects then try to catch up by extending (read “patching”) the Web infrastructure to support these new uses BA J. Galván

3 HOW IT ALL STARTED The web as a static document repository PROBLEM:
“You have documents in your computer that I would like to see” How can I reach you? OR “I would like to send you a text message” Tim Berners-Lee’s original vision for the WWW (circa 1989) An easy way to access cross-linked static documents stored in a variety of servers around the world Initial specification defined: A language for formatting such documents (HTML) A simple protocol for communicating between browsers and servers (HTTP) BA J. Galván

4 THE TURNING POINT 1993 -Marc Andreesen (student at UIUC) writes Mosaic – first graphical WWW browser (precursor of Netscape) BA J. Galván

5 WWW IS A CLIENT SERVER SYSTEM
Web Clients Use HTTP protocol to connect to servers Request and display Web pages stored in servers Typical clients: Web browsers Web Servers Listen for incoming connections from clients Use HTTP protocol to converse with clients Store and transmit Web pages to clients BA J. Galván

6 WWW THE ORIGINAL CONCEPT (1989-1995)
Human Readers INTERACT with Interconnected Static Documents Main advantage: Universality Main disadvantage Lack of interactivity Yet another mass broadcast medium Main business use Awareness building BA J. Galván

7 HTML Hypertext Markup Language
Used to place texts and images in web pages Understood by all web browsers However, there are different versions of HTML and different browsers may display different pages BA J. Galván

8 HTML EXAMPLE BA J. Galván

9 HTML EXAMPLE CODE Head tag Body tag Table tag BA 572 - J. Galván
<meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=windows-1252"> <link rel=Edit-Time-Data href="webpage_archivos/editdata.mso"> <title>HEADING</title> <style><!-- .SpellE {} .Section1 {page:Section1;} --> </style> </head> <body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" link=blue vlink=purple class="Normal" lang=ES> <div class=Section1> <p>HEADING</p> <p><span class=SpellE>Subheading</span></p> <table class=MsoTableGrid border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td width=192 valign=top class="Normal"> <p><span class=SpellE>Text</span></p></td> <td width=192 valign=top class="Normal">  </td> </tr> <td width=192 valign=top class="Normal"> <p> <img width=192 height=164 src="webpage_archivos/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"> </p></td> <td width=192 valign=top class="Normal"> <p><a href="http://www.google.es/">link</a></p></td> </table> </div> </body> </html> Head tag Body tag Table tag BA J. Galván

10 LAYERS IN THE WEB BA J. Galván

11 The World Wide Web Client/server application
Layered on top of Internet Web page – basic information unit Web site – set of related pages Hyperlink – logical page-to-page link Home page – Web site’s starting point BA J. Galván

12 Web Software Browser Web server Client-side application program
Internet Explorer, Netscape/AOL, Mozilla, Opera,... Requests and displays (views of) Web pages Web server Server-side application program Where a Web site resides Manages access to Web site contents Fills page requests – “serves” pages BA J. Galván

13 STRUCTURE OF A WEBSITE BA J. Galván

14 CONNECTIONS TO A WEBSITE
BA J. Galván

15 HOW THE ORIGINAL WEB WORKS
BA J. Galván

16 ANATOMY OF AN URL URL = Uniform Resource Locator
Domain levels Name of webpage Pathname of page within server local File system Name of protocol for communicating with server Domain name of Web server where page is stored BA J. Galván

17 HOW THE WEB WORKS (I) BA J. Galván

18 HOW THE WEB WORKS (II) BA J. Galván

19 HOW THE WEB WORKS (III) BA J. Galván

20 Web Servers Server hardware Server software The host computer
Application program Web server (Apache, IIS) Database server server Runs on server hardware or host BA J. Galván

21 MULTIPLE SERVERS CAN RUN ON THE SAME HOST.
MULTIPLE SERVERS CAN RUN ON THE SAME HOST. Server is software BA J. Galván

22 MULTIPLE SERVERS CAN RUN ON MULTIPLE INTERCONNECTED HOSTS.
A Web or Application Server is software!! BA J. Galván

23 SEPARATE FIREWALLS AT EACH LAYER
Firewall protects Internal network from public network Runs on Router (via Network Address Translation) Host Server Workstation BA J. Galván

24 Interactivity Early browsers limited to static pages Business need for
Animation, sound, flashing logo Access to global markets Client side data input Need for client side interactivity BA J. Galván

25 Client-side Interactivity
Scripts Macro-like instructions JavaScript, Jscript, VBScript Embedded in HTML text Applet Small program executed within browser Java, VisualBasic Plug-ins and helper applications BA J. Galván

26 SOME POPULAR PLUG-INS. Plug-in is “integrated” software application
Processes registered file types (e.g., proprietary file formats) Often available as free download BA J. Galván

27 Web Information Systems
Client-side interactivity Server-side interactivity Personalized marketing JIT inventory Inter- and intra-corporate communication BA J. Galván

28 Web Applications Applications that support a Web information system
Client/server Browser on client side Server software on server side Middleware translates between HTML Non-Web server format BA J. Galván

29 Middleware connects two applications/servers.
Server-side middleware links Web server Database server Other applications BA J. Galván

30 Maintaining State The Web is stateless
Each transaction is independent No problem for Web surfing Web information system is stateful Series of related transactions Must “remember” previous steps Cookies provide one solution; another is registration, login, and tracking via DB BA J. Galván

31 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Enable transactions
Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

32 THE WEB AS A TRANSACTION FACILITATOR
Business Motivation: Low-cost front-end for allowing customers to connect to corporate computers Customer registration/Address changes Order tracking/Customer support Online Transactions: eCommerce Problems of original Web concept Static web pages No interactivity Stateless protocol: no support for multi-step transactions Insecure communications BA J. Galván

33 WEB FORMS - PRIMITIVE INTERACTIVITY
Pages which contain fields to be filled by user Usually contain a “Submit” button When user presses “Submit”, server responds by sending a page containing information specific to the user-supplied parameters • Examples: Web search tools Order forms in commercial web sites See e.g. BA J. Galván

34 WEB FORMS BA J. Galván

35 BUSINESS USES OF WEB FORMS
Server sends original html page containing input fields User types info into fields and presses submit button Client establishes connection with handler script at server side (script filename contained in web page) Client collects user input into a long string and sends it along with an HTTP command back to server POST customer=John+Doe&cardno= &expires=6/98&product=123&quantity=5 Handler script at server reads parameter string and processes it, usually producing a new page as a result BA J. Galván

36 CGI Common Gateway Interface
Set of standards for writing handler scripts How it works All URLs that refer to a special directory (e.g. /cgi) cause the execution of a corresponding script at the server (for example Scripts typically translate parameters into SQL statements for a database and translate the query results into an HTML page BA J. Galván

37 HOW IT WORKS - FEDEX BA J. Galván

38 MICROSOFT ACTIVE SERVER PAGES (ASP)
Competing technology to CGI Scripting Language is similar to Visual Basic MS Access can automatically convert database tables, queries and forms into ASP pages Requires Microsoft web server BA J. Galván

39 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers
Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

40 THE INTERACTIVE WEB Business Motivation:
Allow complex interaction between user browser and corporate server Web becomes an extension of the user’s PC Browser becomes a window to a variety of corporate applications Problems with Web Forms/CGI/ASP All processing done at server side Rapid user interaction with Web page not possible Need local processing to create highly interactive Web pages BA J. Galván

41 ENTER JAVA APPLETS Programming language to enable interactive Web pages Developed by Sun Microsystems originally for programming intelligent microwave ovens!!! Java programs are called applets Applets are platform-independent They can run equally well on Windows, Macs, Unix, etc. Require special browsers that can support Java though BA J. Galván

42 HOW DOES JAVA WORK? BA J. Galván

43 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers Facilitate personalization
Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

44 PERSONALIZED INTERACTION
Business motivation: Low cost medium for gathering information from customers to allow Personalized service Targeted advertising Problems with current model Does not allow easy identification of distinct customers BA J. Galván

45 COOKIES A method for identifying web users and delivering customized web sites First time user connects to a web site, s/he is asked to fill in personal information form Server packages information into a “cookie” file and sends cookie to browser Browser stores cookie in local file system Each subsequent time browser visits site, it sends cookie back to server Server uses information stored in cookie to identify user and possibly customize the supplied web pages Privacy implications? BA J. Galván

46 COOKIE APPLICATIONS BA J. Galván

47 SUMMARY: WWW THE CURRENT CONCEPT (1995-TODAY)
Human Users INTERACT with Documents and Applications Main business use B2C Transactions Customer Support BA J. Galván

48 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers
Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

49 MULTIPLE DELIVERY DEVICES
Business motivation: Allow users to access web content from a variety of devices PC Browsers PDAs (e.g. Palm Pilots) Mobile Phones Telephones (via voice interface) Problems of current Web model Each access device has different look-and-feel requirements HTML specifies formatting for PC browsers only BA J. Galván

50 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers
Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

51 ORGANIZE AND INDEX WEB CONTENT
Web is useless unless we can easily locate relevant resources Current solution: Search Engines Index the Web by automatically “discovering” web pages and organizing them around keywords found in their text BA J. Galván

52 HOW DOES GOOGLE WORK? Before you ever enter a query:
Programs (called “web crawlers” or “spiders”)follow links from one page to another all over the web. The programs construct indexes of which words appear on which pages and save the indexes (and often copies of the pages) on massive “server farms” maintained by Google. Each page is also assigned a “page rank” based on the number of other pages that link to it. Links from pages that, in turn, have lots of other pages linking to them are weighted more heavily. BA J. Galván

53 GOOGLE’S PAGE RANK FORMULA
PR(A) = (1-d) + d(PR(t1)/C(t1) PR(tn)/C(tn)) Where t1 -tn are pages linking to page A, C is the number of outbound links that a page has d is a damping factor, usually set to 0.85. In words: a page's PageRank = * (a "share" of the PageRank of every page that links to it) "share" = the linking page's PageRank divided by the number of outbound links on the page. BA J. Galván

54 HOW DOES GOOGLE WORK? (CONT.)
After you enter a query: Programs check the indexes to determine which pages contain the combination of words you entered. Google provides a list of these pages in order of page rank (order is probably affected by other factors, too) BA J. Galván

55 GOOGLE NUMBERS AS OF DECEMBER 2004
Over four billion Web pages, each an average of 10KB, all fully indexed. Up to 2,000 PCs in a cluster. Over 30 clusters. One petabyte of data in a cluster --so much that hard disk error rates of begin to be a real issue. Sustained transfer rates of 2Gbps in a cluster. An expectation that two machines will fail every day in each of the larger clusters. No complete system failure since February 2000. Source: ZDNet – UK <http://www.zdnet.com.au/insight/software/0, , ,00.htm> BA J. Galván

56 PROBLEMS WITH TODAY’S SEARCHES…
Text keywords are misleading… HTML does not give any clues as to the true meaning of the data Example: Desperately seeking Wendy Cook BA J. Galván

57 EVOLUTION OF THE WWW Business Drivers
Enable transactions Allow interactivity between browser and server Facilitate personalization Support multiple browsing devices Better organize and retrieve Web content Support Business-to-Business applications BA J. Galván

58 SUPPORT FOR B2B APPLICATIONS
Original Web was conceived as a communication medium between computers and humans Amazing new applications will become possible if computers can automatically read and understand Web pages Electronic purchasing Intelligence gathering …. Problem: HTML pages are unstructured HTML only provides information about presentation, not meaning BA J. Galván

59 WHAT IS THE UNDERLYING ISSUE?
When storing documents on the web, specify not only their appearance, but also their semantics (i.e. their meaning!) BA J. Galván

60 WHAT IS THE MEANING OF WEBSITE ADDRESSES?
BEST RADIO IN TOWN SEARCH OF THE WORD RETREIVE IN GOOGLE CORRECTION GOOGLE ACCESS TO WELCOME PAGE OF A BANK https://www.sabadellatlantico.com/es/HERRAMIENTAS/INDEX/?url=/es/PAGINA_INICIAL/BANCO_ATLANTICO/BIENVENIDOS/ INTRANET LOGIN PAGE IN A BANK (Access to the Intranet) https://oi.cajamadrid.es/CajaMadrid/oi/pt_oi/Login/login ARTICLE SELECTED IN A WEBSITE BA J. Galván

61 BEST RADIO IN TOWN An ordinary address
1st level domain. Identifies activity Hypertext protocol Addressing the whole web 2nd level domain, owned by the organization BA J. Galván

62 SEARCHES Placing “RETREIVE” in Google CORRECTION GOOGLE (RETRIEVE)
After the address comes “search?” and all the data of the query CORRECTION GOOGLE (RETRIEVE) Includes changes in the original query after answering that the word seeked was really RETRiEVE This type of query changes with time. It cannot be assured to recover the same document executing the same query at different times BA J. Galván

63 ACCESS TO WELCOME PAGE OF A BANK
https://www.sabadellatlantico.com/es/HERRAMIENTAS/INDEX/?url=/es/PAGINA_INICIAL/BANCO_ATLANTICO/BIENVENIDOS/ Protocol – web – secondary + primary domains – Folders + ?url – Spanish + welcome page There are language options in previous pages BA J. Galván

64 INTRANETS Portal supplying asp dynamic pages
INTRANET through IP addresses within the local network LOGIN PAGE IN A BANK (Within the Intranet) https://oi.cajamadrid.es/CajaMadrid/oi/pt_oi/Login/login BA J. Galván

65 RECOVERABLE DOCUMENTS
Adobe document from National Science Foundation Article selected in a website Dynamic webpage selecting articles from a database. The server is programmed in PHP and articles are indexed (?id=11667) BA J. Galván

66 THE SEMANTIC WEB The “Next Generation Web” with well-established infrastructure for expressing information in a Precise, Human-readable, and Machine-interpretable form. Enable syntactic and semantic interoperability among independently-developed Web applications, allowing them to efficiently perform sophisticated tasks for humans. Enable Web resources to be accessible by their semantics rather than by keywords and syntactic forms. Enable inferencing: Chris is an associate professor at MIT. Associate professors are permanent employees. Chris is a permanent employee of MIT. BA J. Galván

67 EVOLUTION BA J. Galván

68 Smile for a while BA J. Galván

69 Please, beware of technical problems
BA J. Galván

70 NEW BUSINESS MODELS BA J. Galván

71 HUMAN INFRASTRUCTURE BA J. Galván


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