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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Rakesh Pathak, Ph.D., Software Research Engineer SOURCES OF NONLINEAR DEFORMATIONS IN LIGHT FRAME WOOD SHEAR WALLS

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 2 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM Physical Description Simplified Deflection Formula Analytical Model Revisiting basics of Virtual Work Parametric Study Summary and Conclusions PRESENTATION OUTLINE

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 3 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM SHEAR WALL: DESCRIPTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 4 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM SHEAR WALL: DEFLECTION FORMULA

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 5 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 6 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM FINITE ELEMENT MODELING: NAIL PROPERTY

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 7 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM Virtual work is defined as the work done by either virtual forces acting through real displacement or by real forces acting through virtual displacement VIRTUAL WORK: LINEAR APPLICATION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 8 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM VIRTUAL WORK: NONLINEAR APPLICATION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 9 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM 8 ft x 8 ft Nail Type Nail Spacing Panels Frames 36 combinations PARAMETRIC STUDY: DESCRIPTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 10 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM PARAMETRIC STUDY: NONLINEAR VIRTUAL WORK VERIFICATION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 11 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM PARAMETRIC STUDY: FRAME CONTRIBUTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 12 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM PARAMETRIC STUDY: PANEL CONTRIBUTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 13 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM PARAMETRIC STUDY: NAIL CONTRIBUTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 14 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM PARAMETRIC STUDY: TOTAL DEFLECTION

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 15 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM This paper presents nonlinear virtual work application study for the first time. Displacement contribution from framing elements is found to be nonlinear and not linear as specified in IBC. Displacement contribution from panels elements matches well with IBC. Displacement contribution from nails between finite element model and IBC. are found to be very different. Nails in finite element models were observed to carry more load compared to IBC specified Table. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

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© 2011 Bentley Systems, Incorporated 16 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM IBC inelastic drift is found to be conservative for all the models when compared with Finite Element results. The parametric study shows some differences between IBC and finite element results Wood Diaphragm flexibility calculation may get affected in certain scenarios but further study is needed as similar differences there may offset the error in flexibility calculations. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

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