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Cardiac Issues in Athletic Participation: To Screen or Not to Screen? George C. Phillips, MD, FAAP, CAQSM September 18, 2008 Sports Medicine Rounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiac Issues in Athletic Participation: To Screen or Not to Screen? George C. Phillips, MD, FAAP, CAQSM September 18, 2008 Sports Medicine Rounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiac Issues in Athletic Participation: To Screen or Not to Screen? George C. Phillips, MD, FAAP, CAQSM September 18, 2008 Sports Medicine Rounds

2 Cardiac Issues in Sports 12 million high school athletes in the U.S. 12 million high school athletes in the U.S. Estimated 0.5% risk of sudden cardiac death in young athletes Estimated 0.5% risk of sudden cardiac death in young athletes ~60,000 athletes with a potentially life-threatening condition ~60,000 athletes with a potentially life-threatening condition Estimated 1/200,000 high school athletes suffer sudden cardiac death each year (60) Estimated 1/200,000 high school athletes suffer sudden cardiac death each year (60) Currently, routine screening includes a history and physical exam Currently, routine screening includes a history and physical exam

3 Cardiac History Screening 1.0 Previous murmur or high BP Previous murmur or high BP Family history of early MI or sudden death Family history of early MI or sudden death Exercise-related symptoms Exercise-related symptoms Survey of PPE forms from 254 high schools, only 17% had all three questions Survey of PPE forms from 254 high schools, only 17% had all three questions

4 Cardiac History Screening 2.0 Unpublished data from Rausch and Phillips: Unpublished data from Rausch and Phillips: Review of standard physical forms from 47 states Review of standard physical forms from 47 states 85% (40/47) had all three elements for cardiac screening on their PPE form 85% (40/47) had all three elements for cardiac screening on their PPE form

5 Cardiac History Screening Preparticipation Physical Evaluation, 3 rd Ed. Preparticipation Physical Evaluation, 3 rd Ed. Have you ever passed out or nearly passed out during exercise? Have you ever passed out or nearly passed out during exercise? Have you ever passed out or nearly passed out after exercise? Have you ever passed out or nearly passed out after exercise? Have you ever had discomfort, pain, or pressure in your chest during exercise? Have you ever had discomfort, pain, or pressure in your chest during exercise? Does your heart race or skip beats during exercise? Does your heart race or skip beats during exercise?

6 Cardiac History Screening Has a doctor ever told you that you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, a heart murmur, or a heart infection? Has a doctor ever told you that you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, a heart murmur, or a heart infection? Has a doctor ever ordered a test for your heart? Has a doctor ever ordered a test for your heart? Has anyone in your family ever died for no apparent reason? Has anyone in your family ever died for no apparent reason? Does anyone in your family have a heart problem? Does anyone in your family have a heart problem? Has any family member or relative died of heart problems or sudden death before age 50? Has any family member or relative died of heart problems or sudden death before age 50? Does anyone in your family have Marfan syndrome? Does anyone in your family have Marfan syndrome?

7 Cardiac History Screening Same 47 state forms reviewed Same 47 state forms reviewed 17% (8/47) completely addressed all of the recommended screening questions 17% (8/47) completely addressed all of the recommended screening questions Forms were generally better at questions addressing exercise related symptoms (79-100%) than past medical or family history (32-45%) with the exception of family history of early sudden/cardiac death (98%) Forms were generally better at questions addressing exercise related symptoms (79-100%) than past medical or family history (32-45%) with the exception of family history of early sudden/cardiac death (98%)

8 Sudden Death in Athletes Maron – , 158 sudden deaths among trained athletes Maron – , 158 sudden deaths among trained athletes 134 were due to cardiovascular disease 134 were due to cardiovascular disease Only 1 case had findings on PPE Only 1 case had findings on PPE 68% played basketball or football 68% played basketball or football

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10 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Number one cause in athlete < 35 years old Number one cause in athlete < 35 years old Autosomal dominant, frequency ~ 1:500 Autosomal dominant, frequency ~ 1:500 Only ~ 30% gene penetrance Only ~ 30% gene penetrance ~ 5% lifetime risk with disorder ~ 5% lifetime risk with disorder Normal type histology, but with significant disarray Normal type histology, but with significant disarray

11 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (>15 mm) Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (>15 mm) Anterior motion of mitral valve in systole Anterior motion of mitral valve in systole Functional LV outflow tract obstruction Functional LV outflow tract obstruction Syncope with exercise Syncope with exercise Systolic ejection murmur Systolic ejection murmur Increases with Valsalva, standing position Increases with Valsalva, standing position preload exacerbates the functional obstruction preload exacerbates the functional obstruction

12 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Cellular abnormalities in the heart cause other problems as well Cellular abnormalities in the heart cause other problems as well Electrical conduction problems cause arrhythmias Electrical conduction problems cause arrhythmias Ventricular tachyarrhythmia Ventricular tachyarrhythmia Congestive heart failure Congestive heart failure Myocardial ischemia Myocardial ischemia

13 Commotio Cordis Perfectly timed blow to the chest Perfectly timed blow to the chest Many factors affect the transmission of force from impact into a disruption of the cardiac electrical cycle Many factors affect the transmission of force from impact into a disruption of the cardiac electrical cycle Size and compliance of the chest wall Size and compliance of the chest wall Speed/force of impact (~40 mph) Speed/force of impact (~40 mph) Localization of impact Localization of impact No underlying cardiac history in victims No underlying cardiac history in victims

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15 Reduced Risk of Sudden Death From Chest Wall Blows (Commotio Cordis) With Safety Baseballs Mark S. Link, MD*; Barry J. Maron, MD; Paul J. Wang, MD*; Natesa G. Pandian, MD*; Brian A. VanderBrink, BA*; and N. A. Mark Estes III, MD* (Pediatrics 2002)

16 ARVD Normal heart tissue is replaced by fibrofatty tissue Normal heart tissue is replaced by fibrofatty tissue Dilatation or formation of aneurysms in the right ventricular wall Dilatation or formation of aneurysms in the right ventricular wall Very different experience from Italy Very different experience from Italy Genetics? Genetics? Effect of their screening program Effect of their screening program Universal EKGs Universal EKGs

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18 The Question Should young athletes in the U.S. be routinely screened beyond the preparticipation history and physical for cardiac abnormalities? Should young athletes in the U.S. be routinely screened beyond the preparticipation history and physical for cardiac abnormalities?

19 ~30,000 Italian athletes ~30,000 Italian athletes Demographics (78% male, 98% white) Demographics (78% male, 98% white) Sports (31.3% soccer, 17.7% volleyball) Sports (31.3% soccer, 17.7% volleyball) Resting EKG – 6% abnormal Resting EKG – 6% abnormal Upon further review, only 1.2% true positives Upon further review, only 1.2% true positives Under age 30, only 0.65% true positives Under age 30, only 0.65% true positives Exercise EKG – 4.9% abnormal Exercise EKG – 4.9% abnormal Under age 30, 4.1% abnormal Under age 30, 4.1% abnormal 159 athletes DQs = 0.46% 159 athletes DQs = 0.46% Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study BMJ 2008

20 What if in the U.S.? 12 million high school athletes 12 million high school athletes Resting EKGs – 720,000 initially abnormal Resting EKGs – 720,000 initially abnormal Only 78,000 true positives Only 78,000 true positives Exercise EKGs – 492,000 abnormal Exercise EKGs – 492,000 abnormal DQs – 55,200 athletes (13,800 annually thereafter) DQs – 55,200 athletes (13,800 annually thereafter) Cost: $600 million in year one, then $150 million annually thereafter if only one screening for entry into high school sports Cost: $600 million in year one, then $150 million annually thereafter if only one screening for entry into high school sports

21 What if in the U.S.? ~$11,000 per athlete DQd ~$11,000 per athlete DQd Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Prevent 16 deaths annually Prevent 16 deaths annually $2.475 million per death prevented $2.475 million per death prevented Commotio Cordis Commotio Cordis Prevent 8 of 12 deaths annually Prevent 8 of 12 deaths annually Safety 10 dozen per team, $3 per baseball, and 15,500 HS teams Safety 10 dozen per team, $3 per baseball, and 15,500 HS teams ~$700,000 per death prevented ~$700,000 per death prevented


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