2Wordsplash water cycle precipitation condensation habitat irrigation groundwaterevaporationwater cycleprecipitationcondensationWordsplashhabitatirrigationwater vaporphotosynthesistranspiration
3EQ: How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater? Lesson 10 A Wet PlanetEQ: How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater?
4How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater Some people call Earth the “blue planet” because over 70% of Earth’s surface is covered with water.Most of Earth’s freshwater is found in the polar ice caps near the North and South Poles.From largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are salt water (97%), solid fresh water (2%), liquid fresh water (1%).
5Salt Water Most of the water on Earth is in Earth’s oceans Oceans contain salt water.The salinity, or salt concentration, averages about 3.5%, or 35 grams of salt per kg of water.In order of size from largest to smallest, Earth’s oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.
6Fresh WaterMost of the Earth’s freshwater is located in the polar caps.Lakes, rivers, streams, and glaciers hold the rest of Earth’s surface freshwater.A glacier is a very slow moving river of ice.A large portion of the rest of Earth’s freshwater is trapped between underground layers of rock. This trapped freshwater is called groundwater.
7Quick Check About how much of Earth’s surface is covered by water?
8Quick CheckFrom the largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth areliquid fresh water, solid fresh water, salt water.B. salt water, solid fresh water, liquid fresh water.C. salt water, liquid fresh water, groundwater.D. groundwater, salt water, solid fresh water.
9Quick Check A glacier is A. a river of liquid water. B. an ice cap. C. a solid lake.D. a slow river of ice.
10Lesson 25 Sun, Wind, and Water EQ: How does a drop of water move through the water cycle?
11Wind Earth receives heat energy from the sun through Radiation. Radiation is the movement of energy through empty space.Air at different places on Earth heats up unevenly. The uneven heating up of Earth’s air is what produces wind.Cool air moves toward warmer air. Warm air moves away from cooler air. Moving air is wind.
12Water Very little water is ever lost on Earth The sun is the source of energy that drives the water cycle.Energy from the sun causes the water particles to move faster and escape into the air as water vapor.
13WaterWater vapor rises into the air and cools down. The water molecules move slower and come closer together, or condense. This is called condensation.Condensation forms clouds and precipitation such as rain, sleet, hail, and snow.The precipitation falls to the ground and gathers there in puddles, ponds, rivers, lakes, and oceans. (Accumulation)Some water seeps into the ground and collects there. This underground water is called groundwater. (runoff)
14Water Some groundwater finds its way into oceans. Water on the surface is warmed again by the sun and will evaporate. So will water in the soil.Water vapor also enters the air from plants. This is called transpiration.This keeps the water cycle going.
15Quick CheckWhat is the source of energy that produces winds and causes evaporation?A. lightningB. Earth’s rotationC. the moonD. the sun
16Quick CheckHeating liquid water produces A. snow. B. rain. C. water vapor. D. groundwater.
17Quick Check The sun’s energy reaches Earth through A. evaporation. B. condensation.C. radiation.D. wind.
18Quick Check What process produces rain? A. condensation B. evaporation C. warmingD. solidification
19Quick Check Water vapor is a A. liquid B. solid C. gas D. form of energy
20Quick Check The cooling of water vapor leads FIRST to A. cloud formation.B. evaporation.C. formation of groundwater.D. precipitation.
21Quick Check What process produces a cloud? Evaporation Condensation Radiationwarming
22Lesson 11 The World’s Oceans EQ: How does the composition and topography of earth’s oceans vary by location?
23Location of the World’s Oceans The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is bordered by North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and AntarcticaThe Atlantic is the second largest ocean. It is bordered by N. America, S. America, Africa, Europe, and Antarctica.The third largest ocean is the Indian Ocean. It lies between the countries of India, Pakistan, Australia, and the continents of Africa and Antarctica.
24Composition of the World’s Oceans The main substance dissolved in ocean water is sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt.Other dissolved solid substances are sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium.Solid substances dissolved in sea water come from rivers, streams, rocks from the shore, volcanoes and underwater hot springs.The concentration of all the dissolved substances in sea water is about 3.5%.
25Composition of the World’s Oceans The oceans also hold dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.Marine life such as fish need dissolved oxygen in sea water to live.Sea plants such as seaweeds need carbon dioxide to survive. They get it from the dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water.
26Topography of the World’s Oceans Oceanographers have mapped the ocean floors by using special equipment.Echo sounding, (pings), measure the time it takes a pulse of sound to go from the ship to the ocean floor and echo back to the ship.The speed of sound in sea water averages about 1520 m per second.
27Quick Check Which continents border the Atlantic Ocean? A. North America, South America, Asia, AustraliaB. Asia, Australia, AfricaC. North America, South America, Europe, AfricaD. South America, Europe, Asia, Australia
28Quick CheckWhich substance do fish need to live and take in from water that you take in from air?A. saltB. oxygenC. carbon dioxideD. water
29Quick CheckPings from an echo sounder aboard a ship make a round trip in 8 seconds. How far beneath the ship is the ocean floor?A. 2,920 metersB. 6,080 metersC. 11,680 metersD. 23,360 meters
30Quick CheckWhich shows the order of Earth’s three major oceans from largest to smallest?A. Pacific, Atlantic, IndianB. Atlantic, Pacific, IndianC. Indian, Atlantic, PacificD. Atlantic, Indian, Pacific
31Quick CheckIf you were to walk along the ocean bottom from a beach, which of the following features would you reach after the continental shelf?A. the abyssal plainB. a seamountC. the mid-ocean ridgeD. the continental slope
32Quick CheckAbout how deep is the deepest pat of the world’s oceans? A meters B meters C. 11,000 meters D. 14,000 meters
33The Water Cycle Section 11-1 How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater resources?How does Earth’s water move through the water cycle?How do people and other living things use water?
34Water on Earth Most of Earth’s water is saltwater (97%) Most saltwater is found in the oceansOnly about 3% of water is freshwaterAll living things must share about 1% of the total amount of water on Earth
36Distribution of Water on Earth Saltwater oceans and lakes (97%)Freshwater (3%)Ice (76%)Shallow Groundwater (12%)Deep Groundwater (11%)Lakes and rivers (.34%)Water Vapor (0.037%)All living things share less than 1% of total water on Earth!
37The Water Cycle 1Water is naturally recycled through a process known as the water cycleWater moves from bodies of water, land, and living things from Earth’s surface, up to the atmosphere and then back to Earth’s surface.Steps for the water cycle are: evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
38The Water Cycle 2The source of energy that drives the water cycle is the SUN!Clouds formation – water vapor loses energy, cools down, condenses into liquid water droplets, droplets clump together around tiny dust particles, forming cloudsMost evaporated water comes from oceans, and most precipitation falls back into the oceans
39The Water Cycle 3Evaporation – the process by which liquid water on the surface change to a gasCondensation – process by which gas molecules change into a liquid. This process forms cloudsPrecipitation – process in which clouds become too heavy to hold the water droplets, and the droplets fall to the Earth’s surface as rain, sleet, snow or hail
40How Do People Use Water?Humans use water for household purposes, agriculture, industry, transportation, and recreation.Irrigation is the process of supplying water to areas for growing cropsIndustry – to make products, cool off machinesTransportation – travel upon the oceans, lakes and riversRecreation – exercise and sports
41Water and Living Things Water important for living things to grow, reproduce and carry on other essential processes.Photosynthesis – process of water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own foodHabitat – place an organism lives and provides the things it needs to survive
42Quick CheckMore than 97% of Earth’s total water supply is found in A. ice sheets. B. groundwater. C. the atmosphere. D. the oceans.
43Quick CheckThe energy the drives the water cycle comes from A. the sun. B. the Earth. C. the rain. D. oceans.
44Quick CheckRain that falls on a steep, paved street during a thunderstorm will most likely become A. groundwater. B. runoff. C. a spring. D. a reservoir.
45Quick CheckMore than two-thirds of Earth’s freshwater is found in A. rivers and streams. B. ponds and lakes. C. glaciers and icebergs. D. wetlands.
46Quick CheckHow does the water cycle renew Earth’s supply of fresh water? A. evaporation. B. condensation C. the sun D. precipitation
47Ocean Water Chemistry How salty is ocean water? How do the conditions in the ocean change with depth?Describe one factor that increases the salinity of seawater and one factor that decreases salinity.
48The Salty OceanThe average amount of salt in ocean water is about 3.5% or 35 grams of salt per one kilogram of waterOcean water carries many different dissolved saltsSodium Chloride (table salt) is the most abundant salt in the oceanFactors increasing salinity include evaporation and freezing; factors decreasing salinity include precipitation and riversMost oxygen in oceans come from the atmosphere because it is closer to the surface of the water.
49The Salty OceanTwo gases found in the oceans are necessary for living things: oxygen and carbon dioxideTemperature decreases in the ocean with depthPressure increases with depth in the oceanScuba divers are prevented from descending father than 40 m because of pressure
50Divisions of the Global Oceans Pacific- the largest ocean; getting smallerAtlantic- the second largest; getting largerIndian- third largest;Southern- located along the border of AntarcticaArtic- smallest ocean; most oceanographers consider it as an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans
51How Did the Oceans Form?About 4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled enough for water vapor to condense.The water began to fall as rain.The rain filled the deeper levels of Earth’s surface and the first oceans began to form.
52Characteristics of Ocean Water Ocean water is saltyChock-full of solidsClimate affects salinityWater movement affects salinityTemperate zonesSurface temperature Changes
53Ocean Water is SaltyMost of the salt found in oceans is sodium chloride (table salt).Salts have been added to the oceans for billions of years by running waters (rivers, streams) which dissolve various minerals, and then dump the water into the oceans.Also, solid materials come from volcanic eruptions, hot springs, ocean waves crashing against rocks
54Chock-Full of SolidsSalinity- the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of water.Measured in grams (g).1 kg (1000 g) of ocean water carries an average of 35 g of salt (3.5%).During the water cycle, fresh water from the ocean is evaporated leaving only the salts behind.
55Climate Affects Salinity Some parts of the ocean are saltier than other parts of the ocean.Coastal waters in places with hotter, drier climates have a higher salinity.Coastal waters in places with cooler, more humid climates have a lower salinity.Main reason: evaporationCoastal waters have less salinity because more fresh water from rivers run into the oceans in these areas.
56Water Movement Affects Salinity Some parts of the ocean (bays, seas, gulfs) move less than other parts.Also, some parts of the open ocean that do not have currents run through them can be slow moving.Slower-moving areas of water develop high salinity.
57Temperate Zones Temperature of ocean water decreases with depth. Water in the ocean is divided into three layers by temperate.Top layer (surface zone)Middle layer (thermocline zone)Bottom layer (deep zone)
58Temperature ChangesTemperature in the surface zones vary with latitude and the time of the year.Parts of the ocean along the equator are warm because it receives more direct sunlight per year than areas closer to the poles.
59Quick CheckOcean water is more dense than freshwater at the same temperature because of A. pressure. B. salinity. C. the Coriolis effect. D. upwelling.
60Quick CheckThe most common substances dissolved in ocean water are A. sodium and chloride. B. potassium and chloride. C. potassium and sodium. D. calcium and chloride.
61Quick CheckThe concentration of all dissolved substances in seawater is 3.5%. How many grams of dissolved substances are in 200 grams of saltwater? A. 3.5 B. 7.0 C. 57 D. 200
62Quick CheckWhat is the salinity of saltwater? As you descend deeper into the ocean temperature _____________ and pressure __________. The two sources of oxygen in ocean water are __________ and __________.
63EQ: What are some features of the ocean floor? Exploring the OceanEQ: What are some features of the ocean floor?
64What factors make ocean floor research difficult? Because of darkness, cold, and extreme pressure, scientists had to develop new technology to enable them to study the deep ocean floor.SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging.Oceanographers study the oceans by:-sonar-satellite
65What are some of the features of the ocean floor? The eight features of the ocean floor are:Continental shelf: a gentle sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of the continent.Continental slope: marks the true edge of a continent, a steady slope where rock that makes up the continent stops and the rock that makes up the ocean floor begin.Seamounts: mountains completely under water; extinct volcanoes
66What are some of the features of the ocean floor? Abyssal plain: smooth, flat region of the ocean floorMid-ocean ridge: a continuous range of mountains that wind around Earth’s ocean floor.Volcanic Island: very tall mountains created by the cooling and hardening of erupting volcanoes on the ocean floor.Deep-sea Trench: canyons on the ocean floor that are the deepest spots on Earth.Guyot- flat-top mountain flattened by the action of wavesSONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging. It is a system that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object.
67Quick CheckA smooth, nearly flat region of the ocean floor is call a(n) A. trench. B. mid-ocean ridge. C. abyssal plain. D. sea mount.
68Quick CheckWhich ocean floor feature makes up the deepest parts of the ocean? A. abyssal plain B. mid-ocean ridge. C. deep-sea trench. D. sea mount
69Quick CheckWhat three (3) factors make ocean floor research difficult?_____________
70Quick CheckWhat are some features of the ocean floor?__________
71Lesson 12 Waves, Currents, and Tides EQ: What causes the ocean to move?
72WavesA wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space.Wind transfers energy into the sea causing waves to occur.Undersea earthquakes and landslides can also put energy into the water to produce ocean waves.
73WavesThe size of a wave depends on the amount of energy that is transferred to the water.The amount of energy transferred depends on three things:Wind speedLength of time it blowsDistance over which it blowsAs each of these factors increase, so does the size of the wave.
74Ocean Currents Winds are responsible for ocean currents. A surface current is an ocean current that moves along the top part of an ocean.Surface currents are moved by prevailing winds.Prevailing winds are winds that blow in regular directions almost all the time.
75Ocean Currents Surface currents can be cold or warm. Those that flow from the poles toward the equator are cold.Those that flow from the equator towards the poles is warm.The Gulf Stream is a warm current that flows northward up the east coast of the United States toward Great Britain and western Europe.
76TidesA tide is the rise and fall of the ocean’s surface caused mostly by the gravitational pull of the moon.At high tide, the ocean water has risen as high as it will go on a shore.At low tide, the ocean water has fallen as low as it can go on a shore.
77TidesEarth’s rotation on its axis affects which tides will occur at a certain place on Earth.High tides occur about every 12 hrs.Low tides occur about every 12 hours.The time between low tide and high tide is about 6 hrs.
78Quick CheckWhat causes tides but NOY waves and currents? A. winds and the moon’s gravity B. mostly the moon’s gravity C. mostly the sun’s gravity D. only winds
79Quick CheckWhat is the main cause of the Gulf Stream? A. storms B. winds that blow now and then C. winds that blow in regular directions D. the moon’s gravity
80Quick CheckIf the first high tide of the day occurs at 1:00 a.m., the next high tide will come closest to A. 7:00 a.m. B. 7:00 p.m. C. 1:00 a.m. the next day D. 1:00 p.m.
81Quick CheckWhat is the cause waves and currents but NOT tides? A. wind B. the moon’s gravity C. the sun’s gravity D. Earth’s gravity
82Quick Check What is the cause of most ocean waves? The climate The large ships in the oceanThe moonThe wind
83Quick CheckA wave will increase in height when the distance over which the wind blows over the seaA. increases.B. decreases.C. stays the same.D is 0 kilometers.
84Quick CheckThe wave will increase in height when the speed of the windA. remains unchanged for a long time.B. decreases.C. increases.D. changes direction.
85Quick CheckWhich will produce the highest wave? A. wind speed of 10 km/h B. wind speed of 20 km/h C. wind speed of 30 km/h D. wind speed of 40 km/h
86Quick CheckWhich unit of measurement would you use to express the area of the Atlantic Ocean? A. m B. km C. m² D. km²
88Wave ActionHow does a wave form?How does wavelength and wave height change as a wave enters shallow water?How do water particles move within a wave?
89How Waves FormMost waves form when winds blowing across the water’s surface transmit their energy to the water.Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases.As the energy in a wave passes, water particles move in a circular path, ending in their original position.
90Describing Waves Crest – highest part of a wave Trough – lowest part of a waveWavelength – horizontal distance between crests or troughsWave height – vertical distance from the crest to the troughFrequency – number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time
91How Waves Change Near Shore In deep waters, waves travel as long, low waves called swells.Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases.When the wave reaches a certain height, the crest of the wave topples. The wave breaks onto the shore, forming surf.
92How Waves Affect the Shore Longshore Drift – movement of sand along the beachRip Currents – a rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow openingSandbar –as waves slow down, they deposit the sand they are carrying on the shallow, underwater slope in a long ridge
93Reducing Beach Erosion Over time, erosion can wear away a beachThreatens homes, buildings, propertygroin – a wall of rocks or concrete to reduce erosion along a stretch of beachBuilding groins can increases the amount of erosion father down the beach
94Quick Check What is the cause of most ocean waves? The climate The large ships in the oceanThe moonThe wind
95Quick CheckRolling waves with a large distance between crests have a longwave heightwavelengthfrequencytrough
96Quick Check Groins are built to reduce the effect of tsunamis. longshore drift.rip currents.deep currents.
97Quick Check Sand is gradually carried down the beach by groins sandbarscrestslongshore drift
98EQ: What forces cause surface currents and deep currents? SectionCurrents and ClimateEQ: What forces cause surface currents and deep currents?
99Surface CurrentsSurface currents are driven mainly by winds and follow global wind patterns, moving in circular patterns in ocean basins.Surface currents affect water to a depth of several hundred meters.Coriolis effect- the effect of Earth’s rotation on the direction of winds and currents
100How Surface Currents Affect Climate A surface current warms or cools the air above it, influencing the climate of the land near the coast.Climate is the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time.Currents affect climate by moving cold and warm water around the globe.Currents are large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans
101Deep CurrentsDeep currents are caused by differences in density rather than surface winds.Cold waters at the bottom of the ocean creep slowly across the ocean floor.Deep currents move and mix water around the world.They move much slower than surface currents.
102UpwellingUpwelling is the upward movement of cold water from the ocean depths.As wind blows away the warm surface water, cold water rises to replace it.Upwelling brings up tiny ocean organisms, minerals, and other nutrients from the deeper layers of the water.
103El NiñoEl Niño- an abnormal climate event that occurs every 2 to 7 years in the Pacific Ocean.This causes a sheet of warm water to move eastward toward the South American coast.El Niño can last for one to two years before the usual winds and currents return.
104Quick Check Winds and currents move in curved paths because of the Coriolis effect.longshore drift.wave height.tides.
105Quick Check Currents are caused by gravitational pull of the moon. gravitational pull of the sun.Winds, the earth’s rotation, and differences in water density.the earth’s rotation.
106Quick Check What causes tides but NOT waves and currents? A. winds and the moon’s gravityB. mostly the moon’s gravityC. mostly the sun’s gravityD. only winds
107Quick Check What is the MAIN cause of the Gulf Stream? A. storms B. winds that blow now and thenC. winds that blow in regular directionsD. the moon’s gravity
108Tides EQ: What causes tides? SectionTidesEQ: What causes tides?
109TidesWhat causes tides? How can tides be used to generate electricity? Describe the positions of the sun and the moon, in relation to Earth when spring tides occur.
110What causes tides?Tides are caused by the interaction of Earth, the moon, and the sun.The moon pulls on the water on the side closest to it more strongly than it pulls on the center of the Earth.This pull creates a bulge of water, called a tidal bulge, on the side of Earth facing the moon.The water opposite the moon is pulled toward the moon less strongly than the water facing the moon.This water is “left behind,” forming a second bulge.
111The Daily Tide CycleAs Earth turns completely around once each day, people on or near the shore observe the rise and fall of the tides as they reach the area of each tidal bulge.The high tides occur about 12 hrs. and 25 mins. Apart in each location.
112The Monthly Tide CycleChanges in the positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun affect the height of the tides during a month.Twice a month, at he new moon and the full moon, the sun and moon are in a straight line.Their combined gravitational pull produces the greatest range between high and low tide, called a spring tide.In between spring tides, at the first and third quarters of the month, the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other, producing a neap tide.A neap tide is a tide with the least difference between low and high tide.The movement of large amounts of water between high and low tide are a source of potential energy—energy that is stored and waiting to be used.
113Quick CheckAt the full moon, the combined gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon produce a A. surface current. B. neap tide. C. spring tide. D. rip current.
114Quick CheckA tide which water reaches its lowest point on the beach each day is called A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.
115Quick CheckTide with the least difference between high and low tide is called A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.
116Quick CheckA tide in which water reaches its highest point on the beach each day is called a A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.
117Quick CheckIf the first high tide of the day occurs at 1:00 am, the next high tide will come closest toA. 7:00 amB. 1:00 am the next dayC. 7:00 pmD. 1:00 pm
118Quick CheckTide with the greatest difference between high and low tide is called a A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.
119Quick CheckHigh tides occur A. once every two days. B. once a day. C. twice a day. D. four times a day.