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Water in Earths Processes. Lesson 10 A Wet Planet EQ: How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater?

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Presentation on theme: "Water in Earths Processes. Lesson 10 A Wet Planet EQ: How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water in Earths Processes

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3 Lesson 10 A Wet Planet EQ: How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater?

4 How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater Some people call Earth the blue planet because over 70% of Earths surface is covered with water. Some people call Earth the blue planet because over 70% of Earths surface is covered with water. Most of Earths freshwater is found in the polar ice caps near the North and South Poles. Most of Earths freshwater is found in the polar ice caps near the North and South Poles. From largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are salt water (97%), solid fresh water (2%), liquid fresh water (1%). From largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are salt water (97%), solid fresh water (2%), liquid fresh water (1%).

5 Salt Water Most of the water on Earth is in Earths oceans Most of the water on Earth is in Earths oceans Oceans contain salt water. Oceans contain salt water. The salinity, or salt concentration, averages about 3.5%, or 35 grams of salt per kg of water. The salinity, or salt concentration, averages about 3.5%, or 35 grams of salt per kg of water. In order of size from largest to smallest, Earths oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. In order of size from largest to smallest, Earths oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.

6 Fresh Water Most of the Earths freshwater is located in the polar caps. Most of the Earths freshwater is located in the polar caps. Lakes, rivers, streams, and glaciers hold the rest of Earths surface freshwater. Lakes, rivers, streams, and glaciers hold the rest of Earths surface freshwater. A glacier is a very slow moving river of ice. A glacier is a very slow moving river of ice. A large portion of the rest of Earths freshwater is trapped between underground layers of rock. This trapped freshwater is called groundwater. A large portion of the rest of Earths freshwater is trapped between underground layers of rock. This trapped freshwater is called groundwater.

7 Quick Check About how much of Earths surface is covered by water? A. 0% B. 30% C. 70% D. 100%

8 Quick Check From the largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are A. liquid fresh water, solid fresh water, salt water. B. salt water, solid fresh water, liquid fresh water. C. salt water, liquid fresh water, groundwater. D. groundwater, salt water, solid fresh water.

9 Quick Check A glacier is A. a river of liquid water. B. an ice cap. C. a solid lake. D. a slow river of ice.

10 Lesson 25 Sun, Wind, and Water EQ: How does a drop of water move through the water cycle?

11 Wind Earth receives heat energy from the sun through Radiation. Earth receives heat energy from the sun through Radiation. Radiation is the movement of energy through empty space. Radiation is the movement of energy through empty space. Air at different places on Earth heats up unevenly. The uneven heating up of Earths air is what produces wind. Air at different places on Earth heats up unevenly. The uneven heating up of Earths air is what produces wind. Cool air moves toward warmer air. Warm air moves away from cooler air. Moving air is wind. Cool air moves toward warmer air. Warm air moves away from cooler air. Moving air is wind.

12 Water Very little water is ever lost on Earth Very little water is ever lost on Earth The sun is the source of energy that drives the water cycle. The sun is the source of energy that drives the water cycle. Energy from the sun causes the water particles to move faster and escape into the air as water vapor. Energy from the sun causes the water particles to move faster and escape into the air as water vapor.

13 Water Water vapor rises into the air and cools down. The water molecules move slower and come closer together, or condense. This is called condensation. Water vapor rises into the air and cools down. The water molecules move slower and come closer together, or condense. This is called condensation. Condensation forms clouds and precipitation such as rain, sleet, hail, and snow. Condensation forms clouds and precipitation such as rain, sleet, hail, and snow. The precipitation falls to the ground and gathers there in puddles, ponds, rivers, lakes, and oceans. (Accumulation) The precipitation falls to the ground and gathers there in puddles, ponds, rivers, lakes, and oceans. (Accumulation) Some water seeps into the ground and collects there. This underground water is called groundwater. (runoff) Some water seeps into the ground and collects there. This underground water is called groundwater. (runoff)

14 Water Some groundwater finds its way into oceans. Some groundwater finds its way into oceans. Water on the surface is warmed again by the sun and will evaporate. So will water in the soil. Water on the surface is warmed again by the sun and will evaporate. So will water in the soil. Water vapor also enters the air from plants. This is called transpiration. Water vapor also enters the air from plants. This is called transpiration. This keeps the water cycle going. This keeps the water cycle going.

15 Quick Check What is the source of energy that produces winds and causes evaporation? A. lightning B. Earths rotation C. the moon D. the sun

16 Quick Check Heating liquid water produces A. snow. B. rain. C. water vapor. D. groundwater.

17 Quick Check The suns energy reaches Earth through A. evaporation. B. condensation. C. radiation. D. wind.

18 Quick Check What process produces rain? A. condensation B. evaporation C. warming D. solidification

19 Quick Check Water vapor is a A. liquid B. solid C. gas D. form of energy

20 Quick Check The cooling of water vapor leads FIRST to A. cloud formation. B. evaporation. C. formation of groundwater. D. precipitation.

21 Quick Check What process produces a cloud? A. Evaporation B. Condensation C. Radiation D. warming

22 Lesson 11 The Worlds Oceans EQ: How does the composition and topography of earths oceans vary by location? EQ: How does the composition and topography of earths oceans vary by location?

23 Location of the Worlds Oceans The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is bordered by North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is bordered by North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica The Atlantic is the second largest ocean. It is bordered by N. America, S. America, Africa, Europe, and Antarctica. The Atlantic is the second largest ocean. It is bordered by N. America, S. America, Africa, Europe, and Antarctica. The third largest ocean is the Indian Ocean. It lies between the countries of India, Pakistan, Australia, and the continents of Africa and Antarctica. The third largest ocean is the Indian Ocean. It lies between the countries of India, Pakistan, Australia, and the continents of Africa and Antarctica.

24 Composition of the Worlds Oceans The main substance dissolved in ocean water is sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt. The main substance dissolved in ocean water is sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt. Other dissolved solid substances are sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. Other dissolved solid substances are sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. Solid substances dissolved in sea water come from rivers, streams, rocks from the shore, volcanoes and underwater hot springs. Solid substances dissolved in sea water come from rivers, streams, rocks from the shore, volcanoes and underwater hot springs. The concentration of all the dissolved substances in sea water is about 3.5%. The concentration of all the dissolved substances in sea water is about 3.5%.

25 Composition of the Worlds Oceans The oceans also hold dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The oceans also hold dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Marine life such as fish need dissolved oxygen in sea water to live. Marine life such as fish need dissolved oxygen in sea water to live. Sea plants such as seaweeds need carbon dioxide to survive. They get it from the dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water. Sea plants such as seaweeds need carbon dioxide to survive. They get it from the dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water.

26 Topography of the Worlds Oceans Oceanographers have mapped the ocean floors by using special equipment. Oceanographers have mapped the ocean floors by using special equipment. Echo sounding, (pings), measure the time it takes a pulse of sound to go from the ship to the ocean floor and echo back to the ship. Echo sounding, (pings), measure the time it takes a pulse of sound to go from the ship to the ocean floor and echo back to the ship. The speed of sound in sea water averages about 1520 m per second. The speed of sound in sea water averages about 1520 m per second.

27 Quick Check Which continents border the Atlantic Ocean? A. North America, South America, Asia, Australia B. Asia, Australia, Africa C. North America, South America, Europe, Africa D. South America, Europe, Asia, Australia

28 Quick Check Which substance do fish need to live and take in from water that you take in from air? A. salt B. oxygen C. carbon dioxide D. water

29 Quick Check Pings from an echo sounder aboard a ship make a round trip in 8 seconds. How far beneath the ship is the ocean floor? A. 2,920 meters B. 6,080 meters C. 11,680 meters D. 23,360 meters

30 Quick Check Which shows the order of Earths three major oceans from largest to smallest? A. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian B. Atlantic, Pacific, Indian C. Indian, Atlantic, Pacific D. Atlantic, Indian, Pacific

31 Quick Check If you were to walk along the ocean bottom from a beach, which of the following features would you reach after the continental shelf? A. the abyssal plain B. a seamount C. the mid-ocean ridge D. the continental slope

32 Quick Check About how deep is the deepest pat of the worlds oceans? A meters B meters C. 11,000 meters D. 14,000 meters

33 The Water Cycle Section 11-1 How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater resources? How is Earths water distributed among saltwater and freshwater resources? How does Earths water move through the water cycle? How does Earths water move through the water cycle? How do people and other living things use water? How do people and other living things use water?

34 Water on Earth Most of Earths water is saltwater (97%) Most of Earths water is saltwater (97%) Most saltwater is found in the oceans Most saltwater is found in the oceans Only about 3% of water is freshwater Only about 3% of water is freshwater All living things must share about 1% of the total amount of water on Earth All living things must share about 1% of the total amount of water on Earth

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36 Distribution of Water on Earth Saltwater oceans and lakes (97%) Saltwater oceans and lakes (97%) Freshwater (3%) Freshwater (3%) –Ice (76%) –Shallow Groundwater (12%) –Deep Groundwater (11%) –Lakes and rivers (.34%) –Water Vapor (0.037%) All living things share less than 1% of total water on Earth! All living things share less than 1% of total water on Earth!

37 The Water Cycle 1 Water is naturally recycled through a process known as the water cycle Water is naturally recycled through a process known as the water cycle Water moves from bodies of water, land, and living things from Earths surface, up to the atmosphere and then back to Earths surface. Water moves from bodies of water, land, and living things from Earths surface, up to the atmosphere and then back to Earths surface. Steps for the water cycle are: evaporation, condensation, and precipitation Steps for the water cycle are: evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

38 The Water Cycle 2 The source of energy that drives the water cycle is the SUN! The source of energy that drives the water cycle is the SUN! Clouds formation – water vapor loses energy, cools down, condenses into liquid water droplets, droplets clump together around tiny dust particles, forming clouds Clouds formation – water vapor loses energy, cools down, condenses into liquid water droplets, droplets clump together around tiny dust particles, forming clouds Most evaporated water comes from oceans, and most precipitation falls back into the oceans Most evaporated water comes from oceans, and most precipitation falls back into the oceans

39 The Water Cycle 3 Evaporation – the process by which liquid water on the surface change to a gas Evaporation – the process by which liquid water on the surface change to a gas Condensation – process by which gas molecules change into a liquid. This process forms clouds Condensation – process by which gas molecules change into a liquid. This process forms clouds Precipitation – process in which clouds become too heavy to hold the water droplets, and the droplets fall to the Earths surface as rain, sleet, snow or hail Precipitation – process in which clouds become too heavy to hold the water droplets, and the droplets fall to the Earths surface as rain, sleet, snow or hail

40 How Do People Use Water? Humans use water for household purposes, agriculture, industry, transportation, and recreation. Humans use water for household purposes, agriculture, industry, transportation, and recreation. Irrigation is the process of supplying water to areas for growing crops Irrigation is the process of supplying water to areas for growing crops Industry – to make products, cool off machines Industry – to make products, cool off machines Transportation – travel upon the oceans, lakes and rivers Transportation – travel upon the oceans, lakes and rivers Recreation – exercise and sports Recreation – exercise and sports

41 Water and Living Things Water important for living things to grow, reproduce and carry on other essential processes. Water important for living things to grow, reproduce and carry on other essential processes. Photosynthesis – process of water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food Photosynthesis – process of water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food Habitat – place an organism lives and provides the things it needs to survive Habitat – place an organism lives and provides the things it needs to survive

42 Quick Check More than 97% of Earths total water supply is found in A. ice sheets. B. groundwater. C. the atmosphere. D. the oceans.

43 Quick Check The energy the drives the water cycle comes from A. the sun. B. the Earth. C. the rain. D. oceans.

44 Quick Check Rain that falls on a steep, paved street during a thunderstorm will most likely become A. groundwater. A. groundwater. B. runoff. C. a spring. D. a reservoir.

45 Quick Check More than two-thirds of Earths freshwater is found in A. rivers and streams. B. ponds and lakes. C. glaciers and icebergs. D. wetlands.

46 Quick Check How does the water cycle renew Earths supply of fresh water? A. evaporation. B. condensation C. the sun D. precipitation

47 Ocean Water Chemistry How salty is ocean water? How salty is ocean water? How do the conditions in the ocean change with depth? How do the conditions in the ocean change with depth? Describe one factor that increases the salinity of seawater and one factor that decreases salinity. Describe one factor that increases the salinity of seawater and one factor that decreases salinity.

48 The Salty Ocean The average amount of salt in ocean water is about 3.5% or 35 grams of salt per one kilogram of water Ocean water carries many different dissolved salts Sodium Chloride (table salt) is the most abundant salt in the ocean Factors increasing salinity include evaporation and freezing; factors decreasing salinity include precipitation and rivers Most oxygen in oceans come from the atmosphere because it is closer to the surface of the water.

49 The Salty Ocean Two gases found in the oceans are necessary for living things: oxygen and carbon dioxide Two gases found in the oceans are necessary for living things: oxygen and carbon dioxide Temperature decreases in the ocean with depth Temperature decreases in the ocean with depth Pressure increases with depth in the ocean Pressure increases with depth in the ocean Scuba divers are prevented from descending father than 40 m because of pressure Scuba divers are prevented from descending father than 40 m because of pressure

50 Divisions of the Global Oceans Pacific- the largest ocean; getting smaller Pacific- the largest ocean; getting smaller Atlantic- the second largest; getting larger Atlantic- the second largest; getting larger Indian- third largest; Indian- third largest; Southern- located along the border of Antarctica Southern- located along the border of Antarctica Artic- smallest ocean; most oceanographers consider it as an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans Artic- smallest ocean; most oceanographers consider it as an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans

51 How Did the Oceans Form? About 4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled enough for water vapor to condense. About 4 billion years ago, the Earth cooled enough for water vapor to condense. The water began to fall as rain. The water began to fall as rain. The rain filled the deeper levels of Earths surface and the first oceans began to form. The rain filled the deeper levels of Earths surface and the first oceans began to form.

52 Characteristics of Ocean Water Ocean water is salty Ocean water is salty Chock-full of solids Chock-full of solids Climate affects salinity Climate affects salinity Water movement affects salinity Water movement affects salinity Temperate zones Temperate zones Surface temperature Changes Surface temperature Changes

53 Ocean Water is Salty Most of the salt found in oceans is sodium chloride (table salt). Most of the salt found in oceans is sodium chloride (table salt). Salts have been added to the oceans for billions of years by running waters (rivers, streams) which dissolve various minerals, and then dump the water into the oceans. Salts have been added to the oceans for billions of years by running waters (rivers, streams) which dissolve various minerals, and then dump the water into the oceans. Also, solid materials come from volcanic eruptions, hot springs, ocean waves crashing against rocks Also, solid materials come from volcanic eruptions, hot springs, ocean waves crashing against rocks

54 Chock-Full of Solids Salinity- the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of water. Salinity- the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of water. Measured in grams (g). Measured in grams (g). 1 kg (1000 g) of ocean water carries an average of 35 g of salt (3.5%). 1 kg (1000 g) of ocean water carries an average of 35 g of salt (3.5%). During the water cycle, fresh water from the ocean is evaporated leaving only the salts behind. During the water cycle, fresh water from the ocean is evaporated leaving only the salts behind.

55 Climate Affects Salinity Some parts of the ocean are saltier than other parts of the ocean. Some parts of the ocean are saltier than other parts of the ocean. Coastal waters in places with hotter, drier climates have a higher salinity. Coastal waters in places with hotter, drier climates have a higher salinity. Coastal waters in places with cooler, more humid climates have a lower salinity. Coastal waters in places with cooler, more humid climates have a lower salinity. Main reason: evaporation Main reason: evaporation Coastal waters have less salinity because more fresh water from rivers run into the oceans in these areas. Coastal waters have less salinity because more fresh water from rivers run into the oceans in these areas.

56 Water Movement Affects Salinity Some parts of the ocean (bays, seas, gulfs) move less than other parts. Some parts of the ocean (bays, seas, gulfs) move less than other parts. Also, some parts of the open ocean that do not have currents run through them can be slow moving. Also, some parts of the open ocean that do not have currents run through them can be slow moving. Slower-moving areas of water develop high salinity. Slower-moving areas of water develop high salinity.

57 Temperate Zones Temperature of ocean water decreases with depth. Temperature of ocean water decreases with depth. Water in the ocean is divided into three layers by temperate. Water in the ocean is divided into three layers by temperate. Top layer (surface zone) Top layer (surface zone) Middle layer (thermocline zone) Middle layer (thermocline zone) Bottom layer (deep zone) Bottom layer (deep zone)

58 Temperature Changes Temperature in the surface zones vary with latitude and the time of the year. Temperature in the surface zones vary with latitude and the time of the year. Parts of the ocean along the equator are warm because it receives more direct sunlight per year than areas closer to the poles. Parts of the ocean along the equator are warm because it receives more direct sunlight per year than areas closer to the poles.

59 Quick Check Ocean water is more dense than freshwater at the same temperature because of A. pressure. B. salinity. C. the Coriolis effect. D. upwelling.

60 Quick Check The most common substances dissolved in ocean water are A. sodium and chloride. B. potassium and chloride. C. potassium and sodium. D. calcium and chloride.

61 Quick Check The concentration of all dissolved substances in seawater is 3.5%. How many grams of dissolved substances are in 200 grams of saltwater? A. 3.5 B. 7.0 C. 57 D. 200

62 Quick Check What is the salinity of saltwater? As you descend deeper into the ocean temperature _____________ and pressure __________. The two sources of oxygen in ocean water are __________ and __________.

63 Exploring the Ocean EQ: What are some features of the ocean floor?

64 What factors make ocean floor research difficult? Because of darkness, cold, and extreme pressure, scientists had to develop new technology to enable them to study the deep ocean floor. Because of darkness, cold, and extreme pressure, scientists had to develop new technology to enable them to study the deep ocean floor. SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging. SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging. Oceanographers study the oceans by: Oceanographers study the oceans by: -sonar -satellite

65 What are some of the features of the ocean floor? The eight features of the ocean floor are: The eight features of the ocean floor are: –Continental shelf: a gentle sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of the continent. –Continental slope: marks the true edge of a continent, a steady slope where rock that makes up the continent stops and the rock that makes up the ocean floor begin. –Seamounts: mountains completely under water; extinct volcanoes

66 What are some of the features of the ocean floor? –Abyssal plain: smooth, flat region of the ocean floor –Mid-ocean ridge: a continuous range of mountains that wind around Earths ocean floor. –Volcanic Island: very tall mountains created by the cooling and hardening of erupting volcanoes on the ocean floor. –Deep-sea Trench: canyons on the ocean floor that are the deepest spots on Earth. –Guyot- flat-top mountain flattened by the action of waves –SONAR stands for sound navigation and ranging. It is a system that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object.

67 Quick Check A smooth, nearly flat region of the ocean floor is call a(n) A. trench. B. mid-ocean ridge. C. abyssal plain. D. sea mount.

68 Quick Check Which ocean floor feature makes up the deepest parts of the ocean? A. abyssal plain B. mid-ocean ridge. C. deep-sea trench. D. sea mount

69 Quick Check What three (3) factors make ocean floor research difficult? 1. _______ 2. ______ 3. ______

70 Quick Check What are some features of the ocean floor? 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________

71 Lesson 12 Waves, Currents, and Tides EQ: What causes the ocean to move?

72 Waves A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space. A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space. Wind transfers energy into the sea causing waves to occur. Wind transfers energy into the sea causing waves to occur. Undersea earthquakes and landslides can also put energy into the water to produce ocean waves. Undersea earthquakes and landslides can also put energy into the water to produce ocean waves.

73 Waves The size of a wave depends on the amount of energy that is transferred to the water. The size of a wave depends on the amount of energy that is transferred to the water. The amount of energy transferred depends on three things: The amount of energy transferred depends on three things: –Wind speed –Length of time it blows –Distance over which it blows As each of these factors increase, so does the size of the wave. As each of these factors increase, so does the size of the wave.

74 Ocean Currents Winds are responsible for ocean currents. Winds are responsible for ocean currents. A surface current is an ocean current that moves along the top part of an ocean. A surface current is an ocean current that moves along the top part of an ocean. Surface currents are moved by prevailing winds. Surface currents are moved by prevailing winds. Prevailing winds are winds that blow in regular directions almost all the time. Prevailing winds are winds that blow in regular directions almost all the time.

75 Ocean Currents Surface currents can be cold or warm. Surface currents can be cold or warm. Those that flow from the poles toward the equator are cold. Those that flow from the poles toward the equator are cold. Those that flow from the equator towards the poles is warm. Those that flow from the equator towards the poles is warm. The Gulf Stream is a warm current that flows northward up the east coast of the United States toward Great Britain and western Europe. The Gulf Stream is a warm current that flows northward up the east coast of the United States toward Great Britain and western Europe.

76 Tides A tide is the rise and fall of the oceans surface caused mostly by the gravitational pull of the moon. A tide is the rise and fall of the oceans surface caused mostly by the gravitational pull of the moon. At high tide, the ocean water has risen as high as it will go on a shore. At high tide, the ocean water has risen as high as it will go on a shore. At low tide, the ocean water has fallen as low as it can go on a shore. At low tide, the ocean water has fallen as low as it can go on a shore.

77 Tides Earths rotation on its axis affects which tides will occur at a certain place on Earth. Earths rotation on its axis affects which tides will occur at a certain place on Earth. High tides occur about every 12 hrs. High tides occur about every 12 hrs. Low tides occur about every 12 hours. Low tides occur about every 12 hours. The time between low tide and high tide is about 6 hrs. The time between low tide and high tide is about 6 hrs.

78 Quick Check What causes tides but NOY waves and currents? A. winds and the moons gravity B. mostly the moons gravity C. mostly the suns gravity D. only winds

79 Quick Check What is the main cause of the Gulf Stream? A. storms B. winds that blow now and then C. winds that blow in regular directions D. the moons gravity

80 Quick Check If the first high tide of the day occurs at 1:00 a.m., the next high tide will come closest to A. 7:00 a.m. B. 7:00 p.m. C. 1:00 a.m. the next day D. 1:00 p.m.

81 Quick Check What is the cause waves and currents but NOT tides? A. wind B. the moons gravity C. the suns gravity D. Earths gravity

82 Quick Check What is the cause of most ocean waves? A. The climate B. The large ships in the ocean C. The moon D. The wind

83 Quick Check A wave will increase in height when the distance over which the wind blows over the sea A. increases. B. decreases. C. stays the same. D is 0 kilometers.

84 Quick Check The wave will increase in height when the speed of the wind A. remains unchanged for a long time. B. decreases. C. increases. D. changes direction.

85 Quick Check Which will produce the highest wave? A. wind speed of 10 km/h B. wind speed of 20 km/h C. wind speed of 30 km/h D. wind speed of 40 km/h

86 Quick Check Which unit of measurement would you use to express the area of the Atlantic Ocean? A. m B. km C. m² D. km²

87 Section 13 – 1 Wave Action

88 Wave Action How does a wave form? How does a wave form? How does wavelength and wave height change as a wave enters shallow water? How do water particles move within a wave?

89 How Waves Form Most waves form when winds blowing across the waters surface transmit their energy to the water. Most waves form when winds blowing across the waters surface transmit their energy to the water. Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases. Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases. As the energy in a wave passes, water particles move in a circular path, ending in their original position. As the energy in a wave passes, water particles move in a circular path, ending in their original position.

90 Describing Waves Crest – highest part of a wave Crest – highest part of a wave Trough – lowest part of a wave Trough – lowest part of a wave Wavelength – horizontal distance between crests or troughs Wavelength – horizontal distance between crests or troughs Wave height – vertical distance from the crest to the trough Wave height – vertical distance from the crest to the trough Frequency – number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time Frequency – number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time

91 How Waves Change Near Shore In deep waters, waves travel as long, low waves called swells. In deep waters, waves travel as long, low waves called swells. Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases. Near shore, the wave height increases and the wavelength decreases. When the wave reaches a certain height, the crest of the wave topples. The wave breaks onto the shore, forming surf. When the wave reaches a certain height, the crest of the wave topples. The wave breaks onto the shore, forming surf.

92 How Waves Affect the Shore Longshore Drift – movement of sand along the beach Longshore Drift – movement of sand along the beach Rip Currents – a rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening Rip Currents – a rush of water that flows rapidly back to sea through a narrow opening Sandbar –as waves slow down, they deposit the sand they are carrying on the shallow, underwater slope in a long ridge Sandbar –as waves slow down, they deposit the sand they are carrying on the shallow, underwater slope in a long ridge

93 Reducing Beach Erosion Over time, erosion can wear away a beach Over time, erosion can wear away a beach Threatens homes, buildings, property Threatens homes, buildings, property groin – a wall of rocks or concrete to reduce erosion along a stretch of beach groin – a wall of rocks or concrete to reduce erosion along a stretch of beach Building groins can increases the amount of erosion father down the beach Building groins can increases the amount of erosion father down the beach

94 Quick Check What is the cause of most ocean waves? A. The climate B. The large ships in the ocean C. The moon D. The wind

95 Quick Check Rolling waves with a large distance between crests have a long A. wave height B. wavelength C. frequency D. trough

96 Quick Check Groins are built to reduce the effect of A. tsunamis. B. longshore drift. C. rip currents. D. deep currents.

97 Quick Check Sand is gradually carried down the beach by A. groins B. sandbars C. crests D. longshore drift

98 Section Currents and Climate EQ: What forces cause surface currents and deep currents?

99 Surface Currents Surface currents are driven mainly by winds and follow global wind patterns, moving in circular patterns in ocean basins. Surface currents are driven mainly by winds and follow global wind patterns, moving in circular patterns in ocean basins. Surface currents affect water to a depth of several hundred meters. Surface currents affect water to a depth of several hundred meters. Coriolis effect- the effect of Earths rotation on the direction of winds and currents Coriolis effect- the effect of Earths rotation on the direction of winds and currents

100 How Surface Currents Affect Climate A surface current warms or cools the air above it, influencing the climate of the land near the coast. A surface current warms or cools the air above it, influencing the climate of the land near the coast. Climate is the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time. Climate is the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time. Currents affect climate by moving cold and warm water around the globe. Currents affect climate by moving cold and warm water around the globe. Currents are large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans Currents are large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans

101 Deep Currents Deep Currents Deep currents are caused by differences in density rather than surface winds. Deep currents are caused by differences in density rather than surface winds. Cold waters at the bottom of the ocean creep slowly across the ocean floor. Cold waters at the bottom of the ocean creep slowly across the ocean floor. Deep currents move and mix water around the world. Deep currents move and mix water around the world. They move much slower than surface currents. They move much slower than surface currents.

102 Upwelling Upwelling is the upward movement of cold water from the ocean depths. Upwelling is the upward movement of cold water from the ocean depths. As wind blows away the warm surface water, cold water rises to replace it. As wind blows away the warm surface water, cold water rises to replace it. Upwelling brings up tiny ocean organisms, minerals, and other nutrients from the deeper layers of the water. Upwelling brings up tiny ocean organisms, minerals, and other nutrients from the deeper layers of the water.

103 El Niño El Ni ñ o- an abnormal climate event that occurs every 2 to 7 years in the Pacific Ocean. El Ni ñ o- an abnormal climate event that occurs every 2 to 7 years in the Pacific Ocean. This causes a sheet of warm water to move eastward toward the South American coast. This causes a sheet of warm water to move eastward toward the South American coast. El Niño can last for one to two years before the usual winds and currents return. El Niño can last for one to two years before the usual winds and currents return.

104 Quick Check Winds and currents move in curved paths because of A.the Coriolis effect. B.longshore drift. C.wave height. D.tides.

105 Quick Check Currents are caused by A.gravitational pull of the moon. B.gravitational pull of the sun. C.Winds, the earths rotation, and differences in water density. D.the earths rotation.

106 Quick Check What causes tides but NOT waves and currents? A. winds and the moons gravity B. mostly the moons gravity C. mostly the suns gravity D. only winds

107 Quick Check What is the MAIN cause of the Gulf Stream? A. storms B. winds that blow now and then C. winds that blow in regular directions D. the moons gravity

108 Section Tides EQ: What causes tides?

109 Tides What causes tides? How can tides be used to generate electricity? Describe the positions of the sun and the moon, in relation to Earth when spring tides occur.

110 What causes tides? Tides are caused by the interaction of Earth, the moon, and the sun. Tides are caused by the interaction of Earth, the moon, and the sun. The moon pulls on the water on the side closest to it more strongly than it pulls on the center of the Earth. The moon pulls on the water on the side closest to it more strongly than it pulls on the center of the Earth. This pull creates a bulge of water, called a tidal bulge, on the side of Earth facing the moon. This pull creates a bulge of water, called a tidal bulge, on the side of Earth facing the moon. The water opposite the moon is pulled toward the moon less strongly than the water facing the moon. The water opposite the moon is pulled toward the moon less strongly than the water facing the moon. This water is left behind, forming a second bulge. This water is left behind, forming a second bulge.

111 The Daily Tide Cycle As Earth turns completely around once each day, people on or near the shore observe the rise and fall of the tides as they reach the area of each tidal bulge. As Earth turns completely around once each day, people on or near the shore observe the rise and fall of the tides as they reach the area of each tidal bulge. The high tides occur about 12 hrs. and 25 mins. Apart in each location. The high tides occur about 12 hrs. and 25 mins. Apart in each location.

112 The Monthly Tide Cycle Changes in the positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun affect the height of the tides during a month. Changes in the positions of Earth, the moon, and the sun affect the height of the tides during a month. Twice a month, at he new moon and the full moon, the sun and moon are in a straight line. Twice a month, at he new moon and the full moon, the sun and moon are in a straight line. Their combined gravitational pull produces the greatest range between high and low tide, called a spring tide. Their combined gravitational pull produces the greatest range between high and low tide, called a spring tide. In between spring tides, at the first and third quarters of the month, the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other, producing a neap tide. In between spring tides, at the first and third quarters of the month, the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other, producing a neap tide. A neap tide is a tide with the least difference between low and high tide. A neap tide is a tide with the least difference between low and high tide. The movement of large amounts of water between high and low tide are a source of potential energyenergy that is stored and waiting to be used. The movement of large amounts of water between high and low tide are a source of potential energyenergy that is stored and waiting to be used.

113 Quick Check At the full moon, the combined gravitational pulls of the sun and the moon produce a A. surface current. B. neap tide. C. spring tide. D. rip current.

114 Quick Check A tide which water reaches its lowest point on the beach each day is called A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.

115 Quick Check Tide with the least difference between high and low tide is called A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.

116 Quick Check A tide in which water reaches its highest point on the beach each day is called a A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.

117 Quick Check If the first high tide of the day occurs at 1:00 am, the next high tide will come closest to A. 7:00 am B. 1:00 am the next day C. 7:00 pm D. 1:00 pm

118 Quick Check Tide with the greatest difference between high and low tide is called a A. neap tide. B. high tide. C. spring tide. D. low tide.

119 Quick Check High tides occur A. once every two days. B. once a day. C. twice a day. D. four times a day.


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