2Questions to ConsiderWhy was Texas politics dominated by the Democratic Party until the early 1990s?Why have a majority of Texans come to identify with the Republican Party?What developments could lead to a resurgence of support for the Texas Democratic Party?
3How Political Parties Operate Development of the Texas Party System Chapter ContentsHow Political Parties OperateDevelopment of the Texas Party SystemHow the Party Machinery Is Organized in TexasA New Era of Republican Dominance
4Learning ObjectivesDescribe the functions and characteristics of American political parties.Explain the factors which contributed to Democratic Party dominance in Texas and identify the factions which operated within this system.Describe the structure of the party organization from the local to the national level. Explain the relative independence of state party organizations.Explain the recent success of the Republican Party in Texas.Explain the current status of the Democratic Party in Texas.
5What If…Texas Nominated Its Candidates by Convention Nomination by convention would allow the parties more control over who gets nominated.Could select stronger candidatesCandidates closer to the party’s platform
6What If…Texas Nominated Its Candidates by Convention (Cont’d) Could increase accountability in governmentWould eliminate costly primariesVoters would have little voice in choosing candidates.
7For Critical Analysis1. Other than GOP dominance, what other factors would make it difficult for Texas to adopt a convention system of nominating candidates? 2. Describe the major issue positions of Democrats or Republicans in Texas. How would a convention system of nominating candidates make it easier for the state party to enact its positions into law?
8How Political Parties Operate What Is a Political Party?A broad-based coalitionPrimary purpose of winning electionsProvide a link between the people and governmentFacilitate participation in political systemOrganize support for candidatesUnify and mobilize groups and interests
9How Political Parties Operate (Cont’d) Functions of parties:Nominate and elect their members to public officeEducate the publicProvide voters with cues on how to voteMobilize voters by encouraging participation in the electoral processRun the government
10Characteristics of American Political Parties PragmatismWilling to compromise to appeal votersTry to appeal to a large number of interestsDecentralizationPrecinct, local, state, and national levelsVarious levels are semi-independent actors.Power has shifted to the national parties.
11DecentralizationFigure 22-1 The Decentralized Nature of American Political Parties and the Strengthening of the National Party’s Service FunctionInsert Figure 22-1 here
12Third parties have difficulty winning elections. The Two-Party SystemThird parties have difficulty winning elections.In Texas, it is difficult for third parties to get on the ballot.
13Politics with a Purpose: Crystal City High School and the Creation of the Raza Unida Party Mexican-American population of Crystal City, Texas, had long been denied political power.In 1963, the Hispanic population organized and won control of the city council.
14Protests led to the election of Hispanics to the school board. Politics with a Purpose: Crystal City High School and the Creation of the Raza Unida Party (Cont’d)Hispanic students at Crystal City High School protested unequal treatment.Protests led to the election of Hispanics to the school board.
15La Raza Unida Party was created in 1970. Politics with a Purpose: Crystal City High School and the Creation of the Raza Unida Party (Cont’d)La Raza Unida Party was created inSpread to other statesHad its greatest success at the local level
16Mobilized Mexican-American voters, especially young people Politics with a Purpose: Crystal City High School and the Creation of the Raza Unida Party (Cont’d)Mobilized Mexican-American voters, especially young peopleTwice nominated Ramsey Muñiz as candidate for governorMany of its concerns became part of the Democratic Party platform.
17Development of the Texas Party System The One-Party Tradition in TexasFrom Reconstruction until the 1990s, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics.Democratic primary became the substitute for the two-party contest.The Great Depression solidified Democratic dominance.
18Ideological Basis of Factionalism: Conservatives and Liberals Support free market and traditional valuesSupport government promotion of businessOppose social welfare programsFavor stiffer penalties for criminals
19Ideological Basis of Factionalism: Conservatives and Liberals (Cont’d) Support government regulation of economySupport social-welfare programsSupport protection of civil rights and liberties
20Conservative and Liberal Factions in the Democratic Party For many years, factions within the Texas Democratic Party resembled a two-party system.Conservative Democrats were more successful than liberals.
21Conservative and Liberal Factions in the Democratic Party (Cont’d) Texas conservatives traditionally voted Democratic in state and local races.Voted for Republican presidential candidatesConservative Democrats dominated the governorship, the legislature and Texas’s representatives in Congress.
22The Success of the Conservative Democrats Reasons for the success of the conservative faction:Represent powerful industriesPublish most of the state’s daily newspapersContribute money to campaignsMore likely to vote in Democratic primaries
23The Impact of Governor Shivers Shivers helped establish the dominance of the conservative faction of the Democratic Party.Shivercrats supported Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 election.Most Democratic candidates for state office that year were also nominated by Republican Party.
25Liberal DemocratsLiberal Democrats in Texas consist of groups that have supported the Democratic Party nationally.Organized laborAfrican AmericansMexican AmericansTeachers and intellectuals
26Liberal Democrats (Cont’d) Liberal Democrats in Texas consist of groups that have supported the Democratic Party nationally (Cont’d)Small farmers and ranchersEnvironmental groupsAbortion-rights groupsTrial lawyers
27Liberal Democrats (Cont’d) Historically, Texas Liberalism was most successful from 1890s through 1930s.Defection of conservatives to Republican Party has allowed liberal Democrats to capture party’s nominations.This defection has made Republican Party dominant in the state.
28The Rise of the Republican Party Republican Party in Texas was traditionally seen as the party of Reconstruction.In the 1950s, conservative Democrats began to support Republican presidential candidates.
29The Rise of the Republican Party (Cont’d) In 1961, Republican John Tower was elected to replace Lyndon Johnson in the U.S. Senate.In 1978, Republican Bill Clements was elected governor.
30The Republicans Become Dominant In 1998, Republicans won every statewide office.They captured a majority in the Texas Senate in 1996Won majority in Texas House in 2002In 2004, they captured a majority in Texas’s congressional delegation.Competitive in local elections
31The Republican Become Dominant (Cont’d) Table 22–1 Changes in the Number of Republican and Democratic Officeholders in Texas
32Sources of Republican Strengths and Weaknesses The Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Midland-Odessa areasThe Northern PanhandleEast Texas oil field counties of Smith, Rusak and GreggThe Hill Country-Edwards Plateau area
33Sources of Republican Strengths and Weaknesses (Cont’d) Large urban cities: Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, El Paso, AustinSouth and South Central TexasFar West TexasFar pockets of East Texas
34Sources of Republican Strengths and Weaknesses (Cont’d) Figure 22–2 Presidential Candidates with Most VotesInsert figure 22-2 here
35Sources of Republican Strengths and Weaknesses (Cont’d) Middle- and upper-class individuals and rural, high-income ranchersWhite Anglo-Saxon Protestants and German AmericansActive and retired military officersTraditional conservatives
36Conservative and Moderate Factions Within the Republican Party Conservative Christians dominate the Texas Republican Party.Control much of the party machineryModerate Republicans represent business interests.Want low taxesWant to limit government role in business
37Republicans and Minorities The party has failed to generate much support among the minority voters.Mexican Americans have traditionally identified with the Democratic Party.Substantial number of Hispanic voters are swing voters.
38An Example of a Third Party: The Libertarian Party Active force in Texas politicsCombines the conservative emphasis on free markets with the liberal skepticism toward legislating morality
39An Example of a Third Party: The Libertarian Party (Cont’d) Faces the same hurdles as other third partiesPoor financingLack of media coverageGaining ballot accessHave won more than 300 local and state offices throughout the country
40How the Party Machinery Is Organized in Texas Temporary Party OrganizationPermanent Party Organization
41How the Party Machinery Is Organized in Texas (Cont’d) Figure 22–3 Texas Political Party OrganizationInsert Figure 2-3 here
42Temporary Party Organization Precinct ConventionAdopts resolutions to be passed onto the county or state senatorial district conventionSelects delegates to the county or senatorial district convention
43Temporary Party Organization (Cont’d) Precinct Convention (Cont’d)Open to all who vote in the primary electionAttendance is very low.Small minority can control of convention.
44Temporary Party Organization (Cont’d) County and Senatorial District ConventionsVotes on adoption of resolutions to be considered at the state conventionSelects delegates and alternates to attend state conventionMay be dominated by liberal or conservative factions
45Temporary Party Organization (Cont’d) State ConventionHeld in June of even-numbered yearsElects state party officers and state executive committeeAdopts a party platformCertifies the candidates nominated by the party in its primary
46Temporary Party Organization (Cont’d) State Convention (Cont’d)In presidential election years, the state convention alsoElects representatives to national committeeSelects 34 candidates to the electoral collegeElects some delegates to national convention
47Permanent Party Organization Precinct ChairParty organizer in the precinctPresides over precinct conventionMember of the county executive committee
48Permanent Party Organization (Cont’d) County ChairPresides over county executive committeeOrganizes party primariesMust certify the names of official nominees
49Permanent Party Organization (Cont’d) County Executive CommitteeAssembles delegates to the county conventionCanvasses returns from the primary for local officesHelps the county chair prepare the primary ballot
50Permanent Party Organization (Cont’d) State ChairPresides over meetings of state executive committeeCalls state convention to orderHandles requests of statewide candidates on the ballotCertifies runoff primary election winners
51Permanent Party Organization (Cont’d) State Executive Committee64 membersLed by a chair and a vice chairDetermines site of the next state conventionCanvasses statewide primary returnsCertifies the nomination of party candidates
52A New Era of Republican Dominance Republicans hold 99 of the 150 seats in the Texas House19 of the 31 seats in the Texas SenateTexas has swung from Democratic Party dominance to Republican Party dominance
53Emergence of Republican Party Dominance Conservative middle- and upper-class white Democrats gradually switched allegiance to the Republican Party.Many alienated by the Democratic Party’s emphasis on civil rights.Ronald Reagan attracted conservative Democrats to the Republican Party.
54Emergence of Republican Party Dominance (Cont’d) A majority of recent migrants to Texas from other states have been Republicans or independents.The rise of an affluent middle class has created a new environment for many Texans.
55Emergence of Republican Party Dominance (Cont’d) Table 22–2 Democratic and Republican Party IdentifiersSources: Statewide polls in 1952 and 1972 conducted by Belden Associates of Dallas and archived at the Roper Center. Data for 1990 from the Texas poll, Texas A&M University Policy Resources Laboratory, Harte-Hanks Communications. Data for 2008 from University of Texas, Austin, Texas Politics Poll
56Can the Democrats Still Be Competitive? Democrats are still strongly represented in local offices.In recent elections, they have gained seats in the Texas House of Representatives.Growing minority populations tend to support the Democratic Party.
57A growing number of voters in Texas engage in ticket splitting. DealignmentA growing number of voters in Texas engage in ticket splitting.
58You Can Make a Difference: Grassroots Politics at the Precinct Level Many politicians got started at the precinct level.Activity might include: registering voters, attending the precinct convention and getting voters to the polls.Local involvement can influence leadership and activities of the party.
59Attend precinct convention What Can You Do?Attend precinct conventionHeld after polls close on primary dayPass resolutionsDelegates to next level conventions selectedSparse attendance allows individuals to be heard.