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Leading Change in the 21 st Century Larry D. Coble School Leadership Services.

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1 Leading Change in the 21 st Century Larry D. Coble School Leadership Services

2 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 1 Leading Change in the 21 st Century Introduction Change Overview – Big Picture Change and Followers Change and Leaders Change Models/Considerations Application Change Pearls of Wisdom

3 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 2 Introduction The only person who likes change is a baby with a wet diaper. Mark Twain not necessarily true/Change Style Indicator preferences

4 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 3 Issue of Change in a Personal Context Reflect on changes youve been intentional about making in your own life. What are the keys to successfully changing yourself/obstacles? Introduction Discussion

5 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 4 Organizationally - Have you been an educational leader who has let change occur as it will? Have you been a change agent driving change? Have you had formal plans for dealing with the change? Introduction Discussion

6 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 5 Research Shows - That most leaders do not have formal plans for dealing with change. The majority of leaders are reluctant in their approach because of a short-term mentality. Leaders dont like to lose control/uncertain exactly what to do. Introduction

7 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 6 We no longer have problems to solve, we have messes to manage. Independent Problems Related to Each Other. Russell Akoff Stanford University Change Overview - Big Picture

8 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 7 THERE ARE TWO SIDES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE THE HARD SIDE OF CHANGE THE SOFT SIDE OF CHANGE The hard side is about MANAGEMENT The soft side is about LEADERSHIP Adapted from Enlightened Leadership: Getting to the Heart of Change …is about processes, measurement, tools, structures and procedures. …is about buy-in, commitment, attitude, creativity, Overcoming resistance to change, and self- leadership.

9 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 8 Application Exercise – Leading for Change: Staying on Track and Avoiding Derailment, p. 30

10 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 9 The motivation to change may come from internal desires to improve the organization and how it serves the public, or it may come from outside the organization. Change Overview - Big Picture Changes that are based on internal desires for improvement are more likely to be successful than changes that are made solely to comply with the demands of others.

11 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 10 The quick-fix solution reduces the motivation of members to carry out the long-term change necessary to avert future crises. Change Overview - Big Picture The task for the leaders is to provide enough of a quick-fix for the organization to continue to function, without decreasing the motivation needed for the more long-term change.

12 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 11 CHANGE IS... A process, not an event. Change Overview - Big Picture Developmental growth in feelings and skills. Made by individuals first, then institutions. A highly personal experience.

13 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 12 When changing organizational practice, deal with people first, Change Overview - Big Picture the innovation second.

14 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 13 As educational leaders, you must … Change Overview - Big Picture manage change or face the risk of having undesired changed forced upon you. not take on too much. recognize that politically motivated change alone can be counterproductive.

15 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 14 A lot of frustrated Teachers and Administrators Change Overview - Big Picture A lack of a model leading to meaningful change Change occurs on the edge of frustration (guilt, skepticism, frustration, doubt) Change is full of chaos and contradictions Dont expect overnight progress

16 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 15 To keep things from getting worse takes a lot of change. -- Phil Schlechty Change Overview - Big Picture

17 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 16 Most people have a tendency to view change as something that is important for others to do. Resistance is a personal, as well as an organizational, issue. Change Overview - Big Picture

18 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 17 Leaders and employees view change differently. Senior leaders see change as an opportunity to strengthen the school district by aligning operations with strategy, to take on new professional challenges and risks, and to advance their careers. Change Overview - Big Picture For many employees, including principals, change is neither sought after nor welcomed. It is viewed to be disruptive and intrusive. It upsets the balance.

19 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 18 In truly great organizations, change is a constant, but not the only constant. Leaders understand the difference between what should never change and what should be open for change, between what is truly sacred and what is not. And by being clear about what should never change, they are better able to stimulate change and progress in everything else. Adapted from: James Collins & Jerry Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, Change Overview - Big Picture

20 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 19 Ten Cultural Components to Consider When Implementing Change Rules and Policies Goals and Measurement Customs and Norms Training Ceremonies and Events Management Behaviors Rewards and Recognition Communications Physical Environment Organizational Structure Source: Timothy Galpin, Connecting Culture to Organizational Change, HR Magazine, March 1996, pp Change Overview - Big Picture

21 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 20 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Ten Cultural Components to Consider When Implementing Change, pp

22 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 21 Learning: A Closer Look Transition Change A New Challenge Stress Growth Discomfort Short-term Performance Drop Results of Old Learning Plateau Comfort Zone What I Already Know How to Do My Grain Combined Effect of Drive, Personality and Experience Turning the Corner Learning to Learn Building a New Process Reaping the Benefits Going Against the Grain Temporary Drop Meeting the Challenge Change Overview - Big Picture The Implementation Dip

23 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 22 Management of Change Leadership Developmental Appreciate differences Initiating Enabling Visionary Expanding responsibility Guidelines Multiple ways Inclusion Risk Empowering Regulation Certainty Standardization Responding Restricting Traditional Fixed responsibility Mandates One way Exclusion Security Controlling Two Perspectives on Policy Development Change Overview - Big Picture

24 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 23 Managing Complex Change VisionSkills Incentives Resources Action Plan Vision Skills Incentives Resources Action Plan CHANGE CONFUSION ANXIETY GRADUAL CHANGE FRUSTRATION FALSE STARTS Change Overview - Big Picture

25 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 24 Resources That Change Requires SUPPORT Change Overview - Big Picture Those involved in planning the change. Those involved in implementing the change. Those directly affected by the change. Other influential individuals whose support helps facilitate the change.

26 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 25 Resources That Change Requires Change Overview - Big Picture TIME For planning sessions, organizational assessment, and implementation of programs, including training and evaluation.

27 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 26 Resources That Change Requires Change Overview - Big Picture MONEY To obtain outside resources.

28 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 27 Change Overview - Big Picture Larry D. Coble, School Leadership Services 27 Leading Change Organization is moving along Rupture / Loss Negative people feel the most loss. Replay Busy Ritual Closing (Wake/Funeral/ Mourning period) This provides for transformation and capacity to move on with the continuity.

29 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 28 Change Overview - Big Picture Larry D. Coble, School Leadership Services 28 Incompetence and Anxiety Confusion and Lack of Predictability Warfare Loss TRAINING / SKILLS / SUPPORT ARENA rules referee fight fairly celebrate winners & losers REALIGN (if you change one part, you must realign other parts) TRANSITION RITES SENSE OF HUMOR should permeate the change process. Four Problems When Facing Change

30 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 29 W HY P EOPLE R ESIST C HANGE Perceived Negative Outcome Fear of More Work Lack of Communication Habits Must Be Broken Failure to Align with the Organization as a Whole Employee Rebellion Change and Followers

31 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 30 B EFORE MOST PEOPLE CAN UNDERSTAND AND ACCEPT A PROPOSED CHANGE THEY SEEK ANSWERS TO - What will this mean to me? What will it mean to my friends? What will it mean to the school/district? What other alternatives are there? Are there better options? If Im going to operate differently, can I do it? How will I learn the new skills I will need? Will I have to make sacrifices? What will they be? Change and Followers (continued)

32 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 31 B EFORE MOST PEOPLE CAN UNDERSTAND AND ACCEPT A PROPOSED CHANGE THEY SEEK ANSWERS TO - How do I feel about having to make them? Do I really believe this change is necessary? Do I really believe what I am learning about the direction for the future? Is this the right direction for us to take? Are others playing some game, perhaps to improve their positions at my expense? Change and Followers

33 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 32 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Why People Resist Change, p.33

34 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 33 CSI C ONTINUUM % 50% 25% Originator Pragmatist Conserver Change and Followers

35 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 34 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Change Style Preferences Exercise and Leader Reaction to Change Exercise, pp

36 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 35 Responses to Change Innovators Early Adopters Change and Followers more educated, liberal, wealthy, cosmopolitan, and more knowledgeable of the literature. respected opinion leaders to whom others turn for advice. They are more place bound in their thinking, and more credible to their peers.

37 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 36 Responses to Change Change and Followers Early Majority Late Majority Laggards more deliberate and careful in their thinking. They adopt change, but it takes them more time. skeptics. live their lives with an eye on the rearview mirror. They view yesterday as better than today and believe that tomorrow will be a lot worse than either.

38 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 37 Application Exercise – Read, respond individually, and discuss Planning for Change, pp. 41

39 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 38 Senior leaders consistently misjudge the effect of the gap on their relationship with subordinates and on the effort required to win acceptance of change. Leaders must learn to see things differently - must put themselves in their subordinates shoes to understand how change looks from their perspectives. Change and Leaders

40 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 39 Leaders need to think in terms of Change and Leaders Personal Compacts. Formal Dimension Captures the basic tasks/performance requirements/job descriptions/employment contracts/ performance agreements.

41 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 40 Psychological Dimension Incorporates elements of mutual expectations/reciprocal commitments that arise from feelings like trust and dependence between employee and employer. Leaders need to think in terms of Change and Leaders Personal Compacts.

42 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 41 Social Dimension Addresses what the school/district says about values/mission statement/interplay between practices and the leaders attitudes toward employees. Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders Subordinates are interested in whether or not leaders practice what they preach.

43 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 42 Social Dimension Often undermined most when conflicts arise and communication breaks down. Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders The social dimension, along with the leaders credibility, once lost, that is the most difficult to recover.

44 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 43 Important Underlying Assumptions Themselves and their beliefs and values. In order to provide effective leadership for organizational change, leaders need to understand: Change and Leaders The content and purpose of the change that they advocate. Their organization and the context in which it functions. The process of change itself.

45 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 44 The Change Process PHASE I Initiation or Mobilization or Adoption PHASE II Implementation or Initial Use PHASE III Institutionalization or Continuation or Incorporation or Routinization I. the process that leads up to and includes the making of the decision to adopt or proceed with a change. II. the first experiences of attempting to put a new idea or reform into practice III. whether the change becomes an integral part of the system or disappears Change Modules/Considerations

46 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 45 The Initiation Phase of the Change Process covers the activities that lead up to and include the making of the decision to adopt or proceed with a change. Change Modules/Considerations Phase I Initiation

47 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 46 Some Examples of Generic Initiation Activities Researching a particular idea that will be the focus of the change. Helping others to improve their understanding of the need for making a change. Finding resources that can be used to support the change. Building a support base for the change by mobilizing allies. Planning a strategy for getting the change approved. Change Modules/Considerations

48 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 47 Phase I High profile need (educator driven) plus political support produces a better start up. Change Modules/Considerations Clear model. Strong advocate/catalyst. Active initiation or mustering the gusto to get it started. Trying to get all people on board before trying the change doesnt seem to work.

49 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 48 The Implementation Phase of the Change Process covers the first experiences of attempting to put a new idea or reform into practice. Change Modules/Considerations Phase II Implementation

50 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 49 Some Examples of Generic Implementation Activities Training staff in the skills that they will need to operationalize the change. Revising organizational structures to support the change. Creating new policies and procedures to eliminate behavior that is inconsistent or in conflict with the change. Redefining fiscal and time priorities to support the change. Recognizing changes in staff members behavior that are congruent with and contribute to the change. Change Modules/Considerations

51 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 50 Ready -- Fire -- Aim Change Modules/Considerations Phase II Orchestration of the change (e.g., school leadership team). Shared control/empowerment. Top down doesnt work. Bottom up doesnt work - Schools dont have all the answers. Need a combination of top down/bottom up. The Top provides – Vision, Direction, Purpose

52 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 51 The Institutionalization Phase of the Change Process pertains to those things that determine whether the change, ultimately, becomes an integral part of the system or disappears. Change Modules/Considerations Phase III Institutionalization

53 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 52 Some Examples of Generic Institutionalization Activities Shaping organizational norms that are congruent with and supportive of the change. Utilizing evaluation data to convince others that the change has worked. Obtaining and publicizing outside experts testimonies regarding the value of the change. Identifying and eliminating all rules, regulations, procedures, etc. that might undermine the change. Disseminating information to others in outside organizations to convince them to replicate the change. Change Modules/Considerations

54 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 53 INSTITUTIONALIZATION REQUIRES Embedding. Change Modules/Considerations Phase III Linking to instruction. Widespread use of the innovation. Removal of competing priorities. An effort to integrate the change into whats already going on. Vision -- key to controlling overload. Continuing assistance (training, technical support, etc.)

55 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 54 CHANGES THAT WORK Usually include: Change Modules/Considerations Pressure and support. Technical assistance (continuing knowledge acquisition and training). Implementation dip. Problem-solving mechanisms.

56 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 55 Any change of substance faces early, overwhelming difficulties (three to five years to implement). Change Modules/Considerations

57 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 56 Six Elements Necessary for Planned Change 1. Motivation to change the present organization. Change Modules/Considerations 2. A vision of the future organization. 3. An understanding of where the organization is now. 4. A process for moving from the present to the future organization. 5. Resources to move from the present to the future organization. 6. A method of assessing changes.

58 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 57 Change Guidelines Empower the leader. Change Modules/Considerations Involve those who are affected by change. Select a change leadership team composed of teachers, administrators, support staff and community members. Pilot change with those who welcome change. Throughout the process communicate needs, plans, and results -- both internally to staff and externally to the community.

59 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 58 Change Guidelines Link planning to implementation. Change Modules/Considerations Define objectives clearly. Research ideas and develop a good model. Focus on instruction and the link to organizational conditions. Stress ongoing staff development and assistance.

60 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 59 Change Guidelines Envision a finished product but be flexible. Change Modules/Considerations Build in-mid-course correction as needed. Anticipate problems and resistance and be prepared to deal with them. Prepare to act on limited data. Plan for continuation and spread. Review capacity for future change.

61 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 60 Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects Availability of Resources Staff time Principals signal that the project has priority; his/her symbolic participation Teacher time--as little infringement as possible on regular responsibilities Change Modules/Considerations

62 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Availability and Nature of Incentives and Disincentives Money not a big motivator Human paradox: need to stand out and need to belong to a winning team Possible motivators: Sense that contribution is valued and project is useful Recognition for participation and chance for interaction with peers/experts Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

63 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Nature of School Linkages Interdependence of subunits--grade level groups, departments, teams (the extent to which members of a subunit affect each others instructional behavior) Joint planning of and talking about instruction Degree of interdependence determines the degree to which innovation or change is implemented Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

64 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services School Goals and Priorities If the project does not fit in with one of the two highest priority local goals TROUBLE Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

65 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Nature and Extent of Faculty Factions and Tensions Discomfort of teachers discussing classroom activities in presence of principal Resentment over perceived privileges awarded to project participants Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

66 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Turnover of Key Administrators and Faculty Turnover is major disruption Someone crucial leaving the site (principal, teacher participant, superintendent) Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

67 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Nature of Knowledge Use and Instructional and Administrative Practices Current practices Worry over discrepancy between changes and current organizational performance Discrepancy between planning activities and planning skills Encouragement needed versus encouragement provided Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

68 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services History of Prior Change Projects Starting something but not finishing it Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8 Change Modules/Considerations

69 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 68 SharedPersonal What matters to you? What matters to you and others? Adapted from: P. Block. Moving From Personal To Shared Vision Change Modules/Considerations How you choose to do your work? What do you want to create? How you choose to work with others? What do we want to create?

70 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 69 Incremental Thinking Versus the Future Incremental thinking is when you design an organization to be run tomorrow based on what you have today. Adapted from Linda Honold. Change Modules/Considerations Strategic or systems thinking is when you look into the future and design your organization based on what you want to become.

71 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 70 Gets followers to do leaders wishes by means of transaction ($, etc.). Transactional Leader Change Modules/Considerations Gets leaders expectations met. Uses power to benefit self. Operates in a short-term time span. Maintains status quo, doesnt actively manage values.

72 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 71 Transformational Leader Creates visions that lead to transformed organizations. Change Modules/Considerations Gets performance beyond expectations. Uses power to benefit the organization and its members. Operates in long-range time span. Manages organization change and strengthens cultural values.

73 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 72 Leaders whose view of themselves is significantly more positive than the views held about them by their subordinates appear to be less effective as transformational leaders than those leaders who have a more accurate self- assessment. Campbell, 1992: Atwater/Yammarino, Change Modules/Considerations

74 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 73 Human Development Partnerships and Networking Enlightened, Democratic Leadership Systems Thinking The Power of Community Understanding self and others Learning from each other and working together around common goals. Alignment Synthesis Interdependence Leaders who are Modeling Visionary Participatory Model the shared values of the organization Inclusivity Drawing strength from diversity Hearing and being heard T RANSFORMATIVE C HANGE Transformative Change Challenge of Change Sustaining Change in a World of Challenges. Change Modules/Considerations

75 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 74 Sustainability of System-Wide School Change What is actually going on in this system that relates to the issue(s) at hand? Who is involved and what are their roles? How are decisions made? Adapted from: P. Block. Three Potentially Powerful Questions Change Modules/Considerations

76 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 75 Adapted from: P. Block. Focus Shift From what is not working and how to fix it To what is working and how to leverage it. From fixing past mistakes To finding and leveraging emerging possibilities. From asking what is wrong and who is to blame To what is possible here and who cares. Sustainability of System-Wide School Change Change Modules/Considerations

77 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 76 E FFECTIVE L EADERS Are comfortable with change. Have the emotional strength to be supportive of their school/district while it deals with anxieties attendant upon unlearning processes that were previously successful by creating a sense of psychological safety. Have a true understanding of the cultural dynamics and properties of their own school/district culture. Change Modules/Considerations

78 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 77 N EW S KILLS F OR L EADERS Anticipatory Visioning Value Congruence Empowerment Self-Understanding Change Modules/Considerations

79 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 78 Communicate the Need for Change List staff members -- professional and support members -- who are presently receiving information about your school and/or district activities. List ways you think this communication process could be improved to maintain a two- way flow of communication about the changes needed. A well-designed communications plan will help reduce the impact of any existing conditions that may prevent or restrict change. Change Modules/Considerations

80 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 79 Change - Pearls of Wisdom… Change is the Engine of Growth. Change is an Emotional Experience not a cognitive process. It starts in the belly, not in the head.

81 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 80 The experiences you have had in the past will impact on how you lead change in the present. The way you lead will impact on the success or failure of change initiatives. There are some exceptions, because circumstances, such as lack of resources, may be out of your control. Change - Pearls of Wisdom…

82 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 81 Recognize that changes occur through the actions of others and that you can only get others to act (long-term commitment) if you can build high quality relationships. Explain over and over why changes are needed. Convince followers that there is a need for change by showing them the advantages of changing. Change - Pearls of Wisdom…

83 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 82 Conduct listening sessions with people who represent a cross section of the school/district and let them talk. Make these sessions a priority. Write handwritten follow-up notes of thanks to all who meet with you. Change - Pearls of Wisdom…

84 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 83 Use your leadership skills and the power of your office to make it safe for others to act, take risks, and rebound from failures. Utilize symbolic leadership to shape a culture that supports change. The role of the boss/school board is critical in the change process. Change - Pearls of Wisdom…

85 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 84 The way you feel about change will impact on how you lead change initiatives. Change - Pearls of Wisdom…

86 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 85 Application Why Should We Change? What Could We Change? Are We Ready For Change? p. 42 Exercises

87 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services 86 Application Big Picture Change, p. 43 Exercise


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