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Change Overview – “Big Picture” Change and Followers

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0 Leading Change in the 21st Century
Larry D. Coble School Leadership Services

1 Change Overview – “Big Picture” Change and Followers
Leading Change in the 21st Century Introduction Change Overview – “Big Picture” Change and Followers Change and Leaders Change Models/Considerations Change “Pearls of Wisdom” Application Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

2 Introduction “The only person who likes change is a baby with a wet diaper.” Mark Twain not necessarily true/Change Style Indicator preferences Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

3 Issue of Change in a Personal Context
Introduction Issue of Change in a Personal Context Discussion Reflect on changes you’ve been intentional about making in your own life. What are the keys to successfully changing yourself/obstacles? Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

4 Organizationally - Introduction Discussion
Have you been an educational leader who has let change occur as it will? Have you been a change agent driving change? Have you had formal plans for dealing with the change? Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

5 Research Shows - Introduction
That most leaders do not have formal plans for dealing with change. The majority of leaders are reluctant in their approach because of a “short-term” mentality. Leaders don’t like to lose control/uncertain exactly what to do. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

6 “We no longer have problems to solve, we have messes to manage.”
Change Overview - “Big Picture” “We no longer have problems to solve, we have messes to manage.” Independent Problems Related to Each Other. Russell Akoff Stanford University Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

7 THERE ARE TWO SIDES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
THE HARD SIDE OF CHANGE THE SOFT SIDE OF CHANGE …is about buy-in, commitment, attitude, creativity, Overcoming resistance to change, and self-leadership. …is about processes, measurement, tools, structures and procedures. The hard side is about MANAGEMENT The soft side is about LEADERSHIP Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Adapted from Enlightened Leadership: Getting to the Heart of Change

8 Application Exercise – Leading for Change: Staying on Track and Avoiding Derailment, p. 30 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

9 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
The motivation to change may come from internal desires to improve the organization and how it serves the public, or it may come from outside the organization. Changes that are based on internal desires for improvement are more likely to be successful than changes that are made solely to comply with the demands of others. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

10 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
The “quick-fix” solution reduces the motivation of members to carry out the long-term change necessary to avert future crises. The task for the leaders is to provide enough of a “quick-fix” for the organization to continue to function, without decreasing the motivation needed for the more long-term change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

11 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
CHANGE IS ... A process, not an event. Made by individuals first, then institutions. A highly personal experience. Developmental growth in feelings and skills. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

12 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
When changing organizational practice, deal with people first, the innovation second. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

13 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
As educational leaders, you must … manage change or face the risk of having undesired changed forced upon you. not take on too much. recognize that politically motivated change alone can be counterproductive. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

14 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
A lot of frustrated Teachers and Administrators A lack of a model leading to meaningful change Change occurs on the edge of frustration (guilt, skepticism, frustration, doubt) Change is full of chaos and contradictions Don’t expect overnight progress Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

15 “To keep things from getting worse takes a lot of change.”
Change Overview - “Big Picture” “To keep things from getting worse takes a lot of change.” -- Phil Schlechty Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

16 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
Most people have a tendency to view change as something that is important for others to do. Resistance is a personal, as well as an organizational, issue. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

17 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
Leaders and employees view change differently. Senior leaders see change as an opportunity to strengthen the school district by aligning operations with strategy, to take on new professional challenges and risks, and to advance their careers. For many employees, including principals, change is neither sought after nor welcomed. It is viewed to be disruptive and intrusive. It upsets the balance. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

18 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
In truly great organizations, change is a constant, but not the only constant. Leaders understand the difference between what should never change and what should be open for change, between what is truly sacred and what is not. And by being clear about what should never change, they are better able to stimulate change and progress in everything else. Adapted from: James Collins & Jerry Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies, 1994. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

19 Ten Cultural Components to Consider When Implementing Change
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Ten Cultural Components to Consider When Implementing Change Rules and Policies Goals and Measurement Customs and Norms Training Ceremonies and Events Management Behaviors Rewards and Recognition Communications Physical Environment Organizational Structure Source: Timothy Galpin, “Connecting Culture to Organizational Change,” HR Magazine, March 1996, pp Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

20 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Ten Cultural Components to Consider When Implementing Change, pp Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

21 Change Overview - “Big Picture”
Learning: A Closer Look Transition Change A New Challenge Stress Growth Discomfort Short-term Performance Drop The Implementation Dip Turning the Corner Learning to Learn Building a New Process Reaping the Benefits Plateau Comfort Zone What I Already Know How to Do My “Grain” Combined Effect of Drive, Personality and Experience Going Against the Grain Temporary Drop Meeting the Challenge Results of Old Learning Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

22 Two Perspectives on Policy Development
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Management of Change Two Perspectives on Policy Development Leadership Developmental Appreciate differences Initiating Enabling Visionary Expanding responsibility Guidelines Multiple ways Inclusion Risk Empowering Regulation Certainty Standardization Responding Restricting Traditional Fixed responsibility Mandates One way Exclusion Security Controlling Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

23 Managing Complex Change
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Managing Complex Change Vision Skills Incentives Resources Action Plan CHANGE Skills Incentives Resources Action Plan CONFUSION Vision Incentives Resources Action Plan ANXIETY GRADUAL CHANGE Vision Skills Resources Action Plan Vision Skills Incentives Action Plan FRUSTRATION FALSE STARTS Vision Skills Incentives Resources Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

24 Resources That Change Requires
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Resources That Change Requires SUPPORT Those involved in planning the change. Those involved in implementing the change. Those directly affected by the change. Other influential individuals whose support helps facilitate the change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

25 Resources That Change Requires
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Resources That Change Requires TIME For planning sessions, organizational assessment, and implementation of programs, including training and evaluation. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

26 Resources That Change Requires
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Resources That Change Requires MONEY To obtain outside resources. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

27 Leading Change Change Overview - “Big Picture”
Ritual Closing (Wake/Funeral/ Mourning period) This provides for transformation and capacity to move on with the continuity. Rupture / Loss Negative people feel the most loss. Replay Organization is moving along Busy Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Larry D. Coble, School Leadership Services 27

28 Incompetence and Anxiety Confusion and Lack of Predictability
Change Overview - “Big Picture” Four Problems When Facing Change Incompetence and Anxiety Confusion and Lack of Predictability TRAINING / SKILLS / SUPPORT REALIGN (if you change one part, you must realign other parts) Warfare ARENA rules referee fight fairly celebrate winners & losers Loss TRANSITION RITES SENSE OF HUMOR should permeate the change process. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services Larry D. Coble, School Leadership Services 28

29 WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE
Change and Followers WHY PEOPLE RESIST CHANGE Perceived Negative Outcome Fear of More Work Habits Must Be Broken Lack of Communication Failure to Align with the Organization as a Whole Employee Rebellion Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

30 Change and Followers Before most people can understand and accept a proposed change they seek answers to - What will this mean to me? What will it mean to my friends? What will it mean to the school/district? What other alternatives are there? Are there better options? If I’m going to operate differently, can I do it? How will I learn the new skills I will need? Will I have to make sacrifices? What will they be? (continued) Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

31 Change and Followers Before most people can understand and accept a proposed change they seek answers to - How do I feel about having to make them? Do I really believe this change is necessary? Do I really believe what I am learning about the direction for the future? Is this the right direction for us to take? Are others playing some game, perhaps to improve their positions at my expense? Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

32 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Why People Resist Change, p.33
Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

33 Change and Followers CSI CONTINUUM Originator Pragmatist Conserver
66 56 42 28 14 7 25% % % Originator Pragmatist Conserver Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

34 Application Exercise – Read/discuss Change Style Preferences Exercise and Leader Reaction to Change Exercise, pp Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

35 Change and Followers Responses to Change Innovators Early Adopters
more educated, liberal, wealthy, cosmopolitan, and more knowledgeable of the literature. Early Adopters respected opinion leaders to whom others turn for advice. They are more “place bound” in their thinking, and more credible to their peers. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

36 Change and Followers Responses to Change Early Majority Late Majority
more deliberate and careful in their thinking. They adopt change, but it takes them more time. Late Majority skeptics. Laggards live their lives with an eye on the rearview mirror. They view yesterday as better than today and believe that tomorrow will be a lot worse than either. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

37 Application Exercise – Read, respond individually, and discuss Planning for Change, pp. 41 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

38 Change and Leaders Senior leaders consistently misjudge the effect of the “gap” on their relationship with subordinates and on the effort required to win acceptance of change. Leaders must learn to see things differently must put themselves in their subordinates’ shoes to understand how change looks from their perspectives. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

39 Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders
Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Formal Dimension Captures the basic tasks/performance requirements/job descriptions/employment contracts/ performance agreements. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

40 Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders
Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Psychological Dimension Incorporates elements of mutual expectations/reciprocal commitments that arise from feelings like trust and dependence between employee and employer. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

41 Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders
Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Social Dimension Addresses what the school/district says about values/mission statement/interplay between practices and the leader’s attitudes toward employees. Subordinates are interested in whether or not leaders “practice what they preach.” Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

42 Personal Compacts. Change and Leaders
Leaders need to think in terms of Personal Compacts. Social Dimension Often undermined most when conflicts arise and communication breaks down. The social dimension, along with the leader’s credibility, once lost, that is the most difficult to recover. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

43 Important Underlying Assumptions
Change and Leaders Important Underlying Assumptions In order to provide effective leadership for organizational change, leaders need to understand: Themselves and their beliefs and values. The content and purpose of the change that they advocate. Their organization and the context in which it functions. The process of change itself. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

44 Change Modules/Considerations
The Change Process PHASE I Initiation or Mobilization or Adoption I. the process that leads up to and includes the making of the decision to adopt or proceed with a change. II. the first experiences of attempting to put a new idea or reform into practice PHASE II Implementation or Initial Use PHASE III Institutionalization or Continuation or Incorporation or Routinization III. whether the change becomes an integral part of the system or disappears Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

45 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase I Initiation The Initiation Phase of the Change Process covers the activities that lead up to and include the making of the decision to adopt or proceed with a change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

46 Change Modules/Considerations
Some Examples of Generic Initiation Activities Researching a particular idea that will be the focus of the change. Helping others to improve their understanding of the need for making a change. Finding resources that can be used to support the change. Building a support base for the change by mobilizing allies. Planning a strategy for getting the change approved. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

47 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase I High profile need (educator driven) plus political support produces a better “start up.” Clear model. Strong advocate/catalyst. Active initiation or “mustering the gusto” to get it started. Trying to get all people on board before trying the change doesn’t seem to work. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

48 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase II Implementation The Implementation Phase of the Change Process covers the first experiences of attempting to put a new idea or reform into practice. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

49 Change Modules/Considerations
Some Examples of Generic Implementation Activities Training staff in the skills that they will need to operationalize the change. Revising organizational structures to support the change. Creating new policies and procedures to eliminate behavior that is inconsistent or in conflict with the change. Redefining fiscal and time priorities to support the change. Recognizing changes in staff members’ behavior that are congruent with and contribute to the change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

50 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase II Ready -- Fire -- Aim Orchestration of the change (e.g., school leadership team). Shared control/empowerment. Top down doesn’t work. Bottom up doesn’t work - Schools don’t have all the answers. Need a combination of top down/bottom up. The “Top” provides – Vision, Direction, Purpose Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

51 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase III Institutionalization The Institutionalization Phase of the Change Process pertains to those things that determine whether the change, ultimately, becomes an integral part of the system or disappears. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

52 Some Examples of Generic Institutionalization Activities
Change Modules/Considerations Some Examples of Generic Institutionalization Activities Shaping organizational norms that are congruent with and supportive of the change. Utilizing evaluation data to convince others that the change has worked. Obtaining and publicizing outside experts’ testimonies regarding the value of the change. Identifying and eliminating all rules, regulations, procedures, etc. that might undermine the change. Disseminating information to others in outside organizations to convince them to replicate the change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

53 Change Modules/Considerations
Phase III “INSTITUTIONALIZATION” REQUIRES Embedding. Linking to instruction. Widespread use of the innovation. Removal of competing priorities. An effort to integrate the change into what’s already going on. Vision -- key to controlling overload. Continuing assistance (training, technical support, etc.) Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

54 Change Modules/Considerations
CHANGES THAT WORK Usually include: Pressure and support. Technical assistance (continuing knowledge acquisition and training). Implementation dip. Problem-solving mechanisms. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

55 Change Modules/Considerations
Any change of substance faces early, overwhelming difficulties (three to five years to implement). Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

56 Six Elements Necessary for Planned Change
Change Modules/Considerations Six Elements Necessary for Planned Change 1. Motivation to change the present organization. 2. A vision of the future organization. 3. An understanding of where the organization is now. 4. A process for moving from the present to the future organization. 5. Resources to move from the present to the future organization. 6. A method of assessing changes. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

57 Change Modules/Considerations
Change Guidelines Empower the leader. Involve those who are affected by change. Select a “change” leadership team composed of teachers, administrators, support staff and community members. Pilot change with those who welcome change. Throughout the process communicate needs, plans, and results -- both internally to staff and externally to the community. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

58 Change Modules/Considerations
Change Guidelines Link planning to implementation. Define objectives clearly. Research ideas and develop a good model. Focus on instruction and the link to organizational conditions. Stress ongoing staff development and assistance. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

59 Change Modules/Considerations
Change Guidelines Envision a finished product but be flexible. Build in-mid-course correction as needed. Anticipate problems and resistance and be prepared to deal with them. Prepare to act on limited data. Plan for continuation and spread. Review capacity for future change. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

60 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 1. Availability of Resources Staff time Principal’s signal that the project has priority; his/her symbolic participation Teacher time--as little infringement as possible on regular responsibilities Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

61 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 2. Availability and Nature of Incentives and Disincentives Money not a big motivator Human paradox: need to stand out and need to belong to a winning team Possible motivators: Sense that contribution is valued and project is useful Recognition for participation and chance for interaction with peers/experts Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

62 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 3. Nature of School Linkages Interdependence of subunits--grade level groups, departments, teams (the extent to which members of a subunit affect each others’ instructional behavior) Joint planning of and talking about instruction Degree of interdependence determines the degree to which innovation or change is implemented Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

63 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 4. School Goals and Priorities If the project does not fit in with one of the two highest priority local goals   TROUBLE Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

64 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 5. Nature and Extent of Faculty Factions and Tensions Discomfort of teachers discussing classroom activities in presence of principal Resentment over perceived privileges awarded to project participants Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

65 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 6. Turnover of Key Administrators and Faculty Turnover is major disruption Someone crucial leaving the site (principal, teacher participant, superintendent) Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

66 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 7. Nature of Knowledge Use and Instructional and Administrative Practices Current practices Worry over discrepancy between changes and current organizational performance Discrepancy between planning activities and planning skills Encouragement needed versus encouragement provided Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

67 8 Change Modules/Considerations
Conditions That Affect Curriculum Change Projects 8 8. History of Prior Change Projects Starting something but not finishing it Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

68 Moving From Personal To Shared Vision
Change Modules/Considerations Moving From Personal To Shared Vision Personal Shared What matters to you? What matters to you and others? How you choose to do your work? How you choose to work with others? What do you want to create? What do we want to create? Adapted from: P. Block. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

69 Change Modules/Considerations
Incremental Thinking Versus the Future Incremental thinking is when you design an organization to be run tomorrow based on what you have today. Strategic or systems thinking is when you look into the future and design your organization based on what you want to become. Adapted from Linda Honold. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

70 Change Modules/Considerations
Transactional Leader Gets followers to do leader’s wishes by means of transaction ($, etc.). Gets leader’s expectations met. Uses power to benefit self. Operates in a short-term time span. Maintains status quo, doesn’t actively manage values. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

71 Transformational Leader
Change Modules/Considerations Transformational Leader Creates visions that lead to transformed organizations. Gets performance beyond expectations. Uses power to benefit the organization and its members. Operates in long-range time span. Manages organization change and strengthens cultural values. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

72 Change Modules/Considerations
Leaders whose view of themselves is significantly more positive than the views held about them by their subordinates appear to be less effective as transformational leaders than those leaders who have a more accurate self-assessment. Campbell, 1992: Atwater/Yammarino, 1992. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

73 TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
Change Modules/Considerations Transformative Change Human Development Partnerships and Networking Understanding self and others Learning from each other and working together around common goals. The Power of Community Enlightened, Democratic Leadership Inclusivity Drawing strength from diversity Hearing and being heard TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE Leaders who are Modeling Visionary Participatory Model the shared values of the organization Alignment Synthesis Interdependence Systems Thinking Challenge of Change Sustaining Change in a World of Challenges. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

74 Change Modules/Considerations
Sustainability of System-Wide School Change Three Potentially Powerful Questions What is actually going on in this system that relates to the issue(s) at hand? Who is involved and what are their roles? How are decisions made? Adapted from: P. Block. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

75 Sustainability of System-Wide School Change
Change Modules/Considerations Sustainability of System-Wide School Change Focus Shift From what is not working and how to fix it To what is working and how to leverage it. From fixing past mistakes To finding and leveraging emerging possibilities. From asking what is wrong and who is to blame To what is possible here and who cares. Adapted from: P. Block. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

76 Change Modules/Considerations
EFFECTIVE LEADERS Are comfortable with change. Have the emotional strength to be supportive of their school/district while it deals with anxieties attendant upon unlearning processes that were previously successful by creating a sense of psychological safety. Have a true understanding of the cultural dynamics and properties of their own school/district culture. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

77 NEW SKILLS FOR LEADERS Change Modules/Considerations Anticipatory
Visioning Value Congruence Empowerment Self-Understanding Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

78 Communicate the Need for Change
Change Modules/Considerations Communicate the Need for Change A well-designed communications plan will help reduce the impact of any existing conditions that may prevent or restrict change. List staff members -- professional and support members -- who are presently receiving information about your school and/or district activities. List ways you think this communication process could be improved to maintain a two-way flow of communication about the changes needed. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

79 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
Change is the “Engine of Growth.” Change is an Emotional Experience  not a cognitive process. It starts in the belly, not in the head. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

80 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
The experiences you have had in the past will impact on how you lead change in the present. The way you lead will impact on the success or failure of change initiatives. There are some exceptions, because circumstances, such as lack of resources, may be out of your control. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

81 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
Recognize that changes occur through the actions of others and that you can only get others to act (long-term commitment) if you can build high quality relationships. Explain over and over why changes are needed. Convince followers that there is a need for change by showing them the advantages of changing. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

82 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
Conduct “listening” sessions with people who represent a cross section of the school/district and let them talk. Make these sessions a priority. Write handwritten follow-up notes of thanks to all who meet with you. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

83 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
Use your leadership skills and the power of your office to “make it safe” for others to act, take risks, and rebound from failures. Utilize symbolic leadership to shape a culture that supports change. The role of the boss/school board is critical in the change process. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

84 Change - “Pearls of Wisdom”…
The way you feel about change will impact on how you lead change initiatives. Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

85 Application Exercises Why Should We Change? What Could We Change?
Are We Ready For Change? p. 42 Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services

86 Application Exercise Big Picture Change, p. 43
Larry D. Coble, © School Leadership Services


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