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Chidsey & Steege 2005 SCPY 699 Problem- Solving Interventions in Schools Fall 2009 Dr. Gerald D. Nunn:

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Presentation on theme: "Chidsey & Steege 2005 SCPY 699 Problem- Solving Interventions in Schools Fall 2009 Dr. Gerald D. Nunn:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chidsey & Steege 2005 SCPY 699 Problem- Solving Interventions in Schools Fall 2009 Dr. Gerald D. Nunn:

2  Simply, the “response” that a student makes to a defined “intervention”.  Assume it is the intervention that caused the response.  Also assume that a “scientifically-based” intervention was used. 2 Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

3  Elements/concepts of RTI have been around a long time.  Based upon Problem Solving Model or approach.  RTI is current “buzzword” for a more comprehensive model.  RTI actually is the part of problem-solving that has to do with measuring the response to intervention, there is a lot more to it. 3Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

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5  Although RTI and Problem Solving are intended for the General Education setting, most applications have a heavy special education emphasis  Throw-back from 30 years of special education taking role of interventions  Intent is for RTI to be implemented in General Education setting 5Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

6  High Quality Instruction  Frequent Assessment  Data-based decision making 6Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

7 Identify Problem Define Problem Explore Intervention Act On Implement Intervention Look at Results of Intervention Does problem exist? How important is the problem? What is the best Solution for the Problem? Is the intervention being Implemented with integrity? Evidence that the intervention is working (results)? 7Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

8  NCLB Primary focus upon accountability and having programs that work in place for students, e.g. Reading First, Prevention Programs.  IDEIA Primay focus upon “evidence-based practices” ◦ Scientifically-Based Instruction ◦ Evaluation of how well students respond to the intervention ◦ Use of “data” for “decision-making” 8Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

9  IQ vs. Performance Discrepancy  RTI Approach  Waiting to Fail  Admiring the Problem 9Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

10 10Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

11 11Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

12 12Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

13 13Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

14  How SSED is used in problem-solving assessment and evaluation of interventions.  Addresses both the assessment and intervention phases.  Alternating treatments/interventions, e.g. A/B/A/B, etc. 14Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

15  Baseline measure (dependent variable) of behavior or academic performance.  Introduction of intervention (independent variable), hopefully a scientifically-based one.  Documenting the effects of intervention through repeated measurement.  Either withdrawing or reintroducing intervention to guage effects (RTI) or comparing modifications of the IV (Intervention) upon the DV (measure of behavior or achievement) 15Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

16  Provides objective documentation of student progress.  Ongoing interventions allow tem to quickly identify effective and ineffective components and make adjustment to interventions (data-based decision-making)  Practitioners have an ethical responsibility to evaluate the efficac of interventions and single-subject experimental designs.  Federal, state, and agency regulations require documentation of intervention effectiveness.  SSED interventions are applicable to and easy to use with individuals and small groups.  SSED all for comparison of the effectiveness of interventions, permitting team to select the most efficacious interventions that meet the needs of students. 16Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

17  Purpose of using SSED in RTI is to 1.Compare effectiveness of interventions 2.Allow team to select best interventions 3.Test drive interventions for their potential 4.Document student performance 17Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

18  Data Recording Procedures to obtain accurate and meaningful data. ◦ Types of Recording procedures: 1.Frequency recording (# of times a behavior occurs) 2.Duration recording (how long a behavior occurs) 3.Intensity (the relative magnitude of a behavior) 4.Whole-interval recording (percent of intervals in which behavior occurs for an entire interval of time). 5.Partial-interval recording (percent of intervals in which behavior occurs for pat of the interval) 6.Performance-based recording (Likert ratings estimating relative occurrence of behaviors) 7.Permanent products recording (tangible outomes such as number of words spelled correctly). 18Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

19  Is the behavior/measure an expected outcome of the intervention?  Is he recording procedure sensitive enough to measure the expected behavior changes?  Will the behavior recording capture the magnitude of the behavior, e.g. 15 sec vs. 15 minute tantrum.  Are there adequate resources to collect the data needed? 19Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

20  Baseline Phase ◦ Pre-intervention level of target behavior ◦ Should describe the typical behavior ◦ Need 3-7 data-points for reliability ◦ Collected in relevant setting for target behavior ◦ Defines the “problem”, e.g. what occurs vs. what is expected. ◦ Defines the “intensity” of the problem or its “significance” ◦ Informs us about predicting the behavior if an intervention was not implemented. ◦ Provides comparison for determining discrepancy ratio (O/E), 10/2 = 5 x’s discrepant. ◦ Confirms RTI 20Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

21  At least 3-7 data points.  Stable, sample without extreme variability.  Typical environment, where the behavior is most likely, or most important.  No intervention or other mediating strategies that would account for the change in intervention, no or little overlap between baseline and intervention phase.  Level of data, serious to warrant intervention with likelihood of improvement or treatment gains.  Trends in the data, demonstrated over time, stable trends. 21Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

22  Intervention is implemented consistently with precision.  Intervention is implemented “intact” with “integrity”  Same procedures used to measure intervention as were used to measure baseline.  If intervention is changed, then it is a change in the intervention phase and should be noted on the graph. 22Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

23  The systematic procedures used in problem- solving underly the process used in “assessment” of academic or behavioral problems presented by students.  There is a systematic process to be followed.  This chapter provides an overview and materials to accomplish this form of assessment. 23Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 2009

24  Main purpose is to meet the “needs” of learners.  Tier Framework conceputalizes the level of “need” demonstrated by the student.  Assessment determines how these needs are being or not being met.  Interventions are the mechanisms used to meet the needs.  Evaluation (via progress monitoring) is how we determine “effects” or “results” Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200924

25  Step 1: Implement Evidence-Based General Education Methods  Step 2: Collect Benchmarks of All Students’ Performance a Minimum of 3 x’s a year.  Step 3: Identify Which Students Scored Below the Benchmark Targets  Step 4: Provide Daily Scientifically-Base Small-Groups Instruction (Intervention)  Step 5: Monitor Student Progress Toward the Benchmarks Using Frequent Assessments  Step 6: Review, Revise, and or Discontinue Small-Group Instruction/Interventions  Step 7: Increase the Intensity, Duration, and/or Frequency of Instruction/Intervention  Step 8: Review, Revise, and/or Discontinue Small-Group Instruction/Intervention.  Step 9: Comprehensive Evaluation, If Needed  Step 10: Special Education Eligibility, If Needed Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200925

26  Document ongoing, systematic interventions that target the behavior/academic skill.  Keep record of the pre and post response of the student.  Change interventions based upon results shown by data. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200926

27  Norms for all students Fall, Winter, Spring  Preferably on Reading, Math, Written Language  AIMS Web, School Generated Probes showing normative expectations for academic areas.  Benchmarks give standards for judging success and progress over time for decision- making. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200927

28  After the administration of curriculum- based measures, the student identified below benchmarks, normally around the 10 th percentile.  Team consider the students in greatest need and what can be done in terms of interventions for them.  These are your Tier 2 level interventions. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200928

29  Use interventions with support of efficacy  Use interventions systematically  Keep data on student growth/progress Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200929

30  Measure Baseline, 3-5 points before intervention.  Measure median each week  Use decision-points (3 point rule)  Change if needed. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200930

31  Modify as data indicates.  Review each week  You can change the interventions by “tweaking”, or changing to new intervention, or increasing intensity of the intervention, or by adding other contingencies, e.g. R+ Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200931

32  You are trying to see how the intervention can be shaped or configured to have its greatest effect.  Always ask yourself if the intervention is being applied with “integrity” before throwing it away.  Brainstorm with your team about any problems or their ideas about implementation. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200932

33  If successful, discontinue the intervention.  Follow-up for a few weeks to see if it is maintained or if other less intense intervention, accommodations, etc. will maintain it without team intervention.  Always rely on data to make your decisions. Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200933

34  This is a “due process” or “placement” decision based upon the lack of response to intervention.  It assume that you have done all of the steps preceding it.  It does not guarantee better results that what you have already done! Gerald D. Nunn, Ph.D., NCSP: Problem Solving Interventions: Fall 200934


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