3Overview Fear of Radicalism Strikes Violence Red Summer 4 million workersViolenceRed SummerResulted in deaths of African Americans due to racial violenceOct 1917 Bolshevik RevolutionSmall communist parties (2)70,000 members totalLarge Number of StrikesWilson lifted price-controlsLargest number of strikers in 1919 at 20% of workersCorporate leaders repudiated war-time concessionsVeterans struggleLabor sacrifice in war is now paid backBelieved labor troubles were due to BolshevikOverview
4Seattle General Strike (January 1919) Most famous general strike35,000 shipyard workers went on strike after they failed to get wage increase to compensate for inflationAll unions in Seattle, 60,000 additional workers, demand higher pay for shipyard workersPeaceful and orderly strikeConservatives fears European-style labor takeoverSeattle mayor called in federal troops to put off “anarchy of Russia”Labor turns to AFL, liberals, and socialists.Sought permanent federal ownership of railroadsBoard of directors would represent consumers and set policy, but workers would manage railroadsPublic and railroad workers would divide all profitsResultsConservatives viewed this as a blow to representative governmentVoted down in Congress in August 1919.Mayor toured and bragged he put down Bolshevik uprising
5Boston Police Strike“there was no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime…”September 1919Over 70% of Boston's 1,500 police men went on strikeSome worked between 73 to 98 hours per week with no paySome hailed as another victory for BolsheviksCoolidge (Governor) called out National GuardRefused Gompers’ offer to settle strikeDemanded police had no right to form a unionBecame a national heroResultsMost frightening strike in the minds of many Americans – Police went on strike in 37 other citiesPolice were fired and a new force was recruited from national guard.
6Steel StrikeAFL attempted to organize steel industry in September 1919MAJOR SHIFT: attempting to organize unskilled labor by industrySought 8 hour work day6-day weekEnd to 224 hour shifts every 2 weeksUnion recognitionJudge Elbert H. GaryHead of USX refused to negotiate on grounds that representatives of AFL were not employees½ of nation’s steel workers worked for USXStrike broken by January 1920Failure of strike marked hardening of Americans on labor matters.
7United Mine Workers of American Strike John L. LewisStruck for shorter hours and higher wages on November 1, 1919Attorney General Palmer obtained injunctions and the union called off the strikeWilson used WWI legislation that prohibited strikes in war industriesAn arbitration board later awarded the miners in wage increase.
8Palmer Raids Mitchell Palmer $500,000 from Congress Identities of people who sent bombs never identifiedRadicalsBolsheviksWobbliesTerrorist bombing in 1919 and 1920Wall Street (38 dead)Palmer’s Washington homeRed ScareTeachers forced to sign loyalty oathsAmerican Legion went after dangerous foreignersJan 2, 1920, 5,000 suspected communist arrested in 33 citiesSeized without warrants, attorneys, food, bathrooms etc..Palmer Raids“ Tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories”
9Public Reaction End Most condoned actions Began question the compromising of individual rightsEndSummer 1920 alleged May Day strikes never occurredConservatives used “red scare’ to break the backs of unions.Recession in 1921 weakened unions, prices fell faster than wagesAFL will lose ¼ of its members
10Sacco and Vanzetti1921, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti charged and convicted of killing two people in a robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts.ItaliansAtheistsAnarchistsDraft dodgersPrejudice Jury and JudgeRadicalism of defendants an issueEvidence conclusiveMany believe sentence was unjust due to prejudiceJudge Webster ThayerMotions for new trial denied by ThayerMassachusetts Supreme Court say no also1927 sentenced men to death by electric chair
12“any stigma and disgrace should be removed from their names” Results of Trial“any stigma and disgrace should be removed from their names”Attracted world attentionRiots in Japan, Warsaw, Paris, and Buenos Aries after executionsClass-Based?Upper class vs. ImmigrantsAmericans protestFelix FrankfurterAlbert EinsteinGeorge Bernard ShawItalian community affected1977 Gov. Michael Dukakis of MassVindicated both men claiming faults existed in the case…
14KKK Resurgence South, Southwest, and North Central States (Il, IN, OH) Spawned by 1915 movie Birth of a Nation: D.W. GriffithFirst blockbuster epic (3 hours)Based on 1905 book: The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the KKK, by Thomas DixonMore resembled “Know-Nothings” and American Protective Association than anti-black terrorist of 1860.Anti-foreign, Anti-Catholic, Anti-black, Anti-Jewish, Anti-pacifist, Anti-Communist, Anti-internationalist, Anti-evolutionist, Anti-bootlegger, Anti-gambling, Anti-adultery, Anti-birth control.Pro WASP and Pro-”native” AmericansDemiseDavid Stephenson: KKK leader in IndianJail for 2nd degree murder of a woman he kidnapped and abused.Led to downfall of influence of clanKlan claim as a protector of the virtue of white women compromisedEmbezzlement by Klan officials led to congressional investigation$10 to join
15Closing Door on Immigration 1921 Immigration ActEnd open immigration with a limit and quota system350,000 total per annum and no more than 3% of the people already in US: based on 1910 censusOnly 158,367 from countries other than N. and W. Europe
161924 National Origins Act (Immigration Act of 1924) Reduced immigration to 152,000 total per annum3% down to 2%; 21, 847 from countries other than N. and W. Europe.Reduced numbers from E and S Europe as most had come in 1890sPoles, Italians, Russians seen as “less American”Asians banned completelyIrish and Germans not as affected: discriminated against 1850sCanadians and Latin Americans exempt from this quota systemMexicans migrated to LA, San Antonio, and Denver in large numbers and held low-paying jobs and lived in barrios.Five years later the act of 1929, virtually cut immigration in half by limiting the total to 152, 574 per annumBy 1931 more foreigners left than arrivedCongress abolished the national origins quota system in 65.
18FundamentalismBelieved teaching of evolution was destroying faith in God and the BibleContributing to the moral breakdown of youth in the jazz ageAttempt to pass laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution
19THE RISE OF SCIENCE IN 20TH CENTURY FOR MANY TRUTH COMES FROM SCIENCE. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD:OBSERVATIONHYPOTHESISEXPERIMENTATIONVALIDATIONSCIENTIFIC TRUTH
20FUNDAMENTALISM VS MODERNISM FAITH VS SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGEFUNDAMENTALIST BELIEVE THAT THE BIBLE IS LITERAL TRUTH.GOD SPOKE TO PROPHETS OF THE BIBLE.THE BOOK OF GENESIS DESCRIBES CREATION.
21MODERNISTS MODERNISTS SEE THE BIBLE A TRUE, BUT NOT LITERALLY TRUE. THEY TRY TO RECONCILE RELIGIOUS FAITH WITH THE FINDING OF MODERN SCIENCE.THEY SEE THE BIBLE AS SIMPLY “PLEASANT POETRY”. IT PROVIDES RELIGIOUS AND MORAL TRUTH, BUT THE STORIES ARE ALLEGORIES.
22Scopes Trial… Introduction 1925 Dayton eastern Tennessee High-school biology teacher John Scopes indicted for teaching evolutionTennessee’s Butler Law of 1924 banned any teaching of theories that contradicted the Divine Creation of man as taught in the bible (Book of Genesis)ACLU wanted to fight the case and ran ad in the NY times asking for teacher to volunteer to be arrested for violating the Butler LawScopes volunteeredCase attracted huge following: broadcast over radio!
23Clarence Darrow: defended Scopes William Jennings Bryan was the prosecutor: Presbyterian FundamentalistFundamentalism on trialDarrow put Bryan on the witness stand the last day to defend a literal interpretation of the BibleBryan asked at length about his literal biblical beliefs:Did he think the earth was created in 6 days?Bryan: “not six days of 24 hours”Scopes found guiltyViolating Butler ActFined $100SC of Tennessee set aside the fine on technicalityFundamentalism suffered a set backBryan was aware of his contradictions and died less than a week after the trial due to a stress-caused stroke
26Prohibition Last Progressive reform 18th Amendment ratified by sates in 1919Supported by churches and womenHeavy support in Mid-westSouthern whites eager to keep stimulants from blacksVolstead Act 1919Implemented the amendmentOpposed in larger eastern cities where colonies of “wet” foreign-born peoples
27Problem with Enforcement Federal authorities had problems enforcing a law where majority of people were hostile to itMost drinkers ignored “dry” lawsLack of enforcement officialsAlcohol could be sold by doctor’s prescriptionAlcohol was necessary for industrial uses (poison was supposed to be added to it to prevent consumption)Alcohol could be manufactured in small amounts almost anywhere“Near Beer” was legal (1/2 of 1% of alcohol)
28Results Rise in Organized Crime Huge profits from “bootlegging” became foundation for corruptionAl Capone- most powerful gangsterJohn Dillinger – gangsterIncrease in gang violence: about 500 gang members killed in Chicago during 1920sOfficials accepted bribes and did not enforce prohibitionOrganized crime spread prostitution, gambling, and narcotics.SpeakeasiesSecret bars operated by bootleggersWomen can now drink in a saloonDisappearance of saloonsUS accustomed to casually breaking the lawProhibition repealed in 1933
30Glorification of Business “Picked up 12 men from the bottom of society and forged an organization that conquered the world.”Glorification of BusinessThe Man Nobody Knows by Bruce BartonCalled Jesus the first modern businessmanBusinessmen considered the people that “ruled” the nation
31Economy Brief Depression 1920-21 Andrew Mellon’s “trickle down” tax policies favored the rapid expansion of capital investmentBuying on credit became another innovative feature of the postwar economy1922 to 1928: industrial productivity rose 70%New TechnologyNew IndustriesInventionsConstructionMedical BreakthroughsCorporate Revolution