2AGENDA FOR WRITING PERSUASIVE AND EXPOSITORY ESSAYSBYDIANNE JOHNSONI. INTRODUCTION (TEN MINUTES)II. ASSESSMENT IN MY CLASSROOM (FIVE MINUTES)III. THE WRITING PROCESS (FIFTEEN MINUTES)A. PERSUASIVE – DISCUSS AND THEN SHOW VIDEOB. EXPOSITORY – DISCUSS AND THEN SHOW VIDEOIV. ACTIVITY ON HOW TO WRITE THE INTRODUCTION, BODY AND CONCLUSION WITH A SHEET OF PAPER (THE GROUP) - (FIFTEEN MINUTES)V. SELF-ASSESSMENT USING RUBRIC (FIVE MINUTES)VI. ACTIVITY ON GEORGIA DEPT OF EDUCATION(READ ESSAYS AND SCORE THEM) (TEN MINUTES)VII. VIDEO ON WRITING ESSAYS (TEN MINUTES)VIII. QUESTIONS (FIVE MINUTES)
4TIME + SPACE + CHOICE = REAL WRITING DO YOU HAVE A WRITING CLASSROOM?1. AFTER RECEIVING A WRITING ASSIGNMENT, DO YOUR STUDENTSA. GROAN B. SIGH C. WHINE “HOW LONG DOES IT HAVE TO BE? D. SAY “YIPPEE!”2. WHEN YOU ANNOUNCE IT IS WRITING TIME, DO YOUR STUDENTSA. GROAN B. SIGH C. SAY “HOW MANY SENTENCES DO I HAVE TO WRITE?” D. SAY “YIPPEE!”3. WHEN YOU ANNOUNCE THERE IS NO TIME TO WRITE TODAY, DO YOUR STUDENTSA. SHOUT “HOORAY!” B. SIGH IN RELIEF C. SAY “YIPPEE!” D. THROW THINGS AT YOU
5REASONS TO WRITE TO INSTRUCT TO INFORM TO EXPRESS ONESELF TO ENTERTAIN TO DESCRIBETO INFORMTO ENTERTAINTO PERSUADETO EVALUATE
12For many students, writing can be intimidating, upsetting and mystifying. Students can be defensive about any criticism on their writing from their students and peers.By approaching writing as a process, instructors encourage students to postpone closure on a piece of writing until they have explored all of its possibilities.Breaking the act of writing down into distinct steps enables students to maintain perspective on their writing, to understand that the feedback is about a specific aspect of their writing, and to discover they can master and yes, even enjoy writing!
14Teach Me How to Write TEACH ME – I WANT TO WRITE. TEACH ME - SHOW ME BECAUSE I JUST DID NOT GET IT ON YESTERDAY.(THE WRITING PROCESS)
15The Writing Process: The Steps to Writing Success Good writing is essential for success in school and the 21st Century workplace.Writing is a complex combination of skills which is best taught by breaking down the process. The writing process involves a series of steps to follow in producing a finished piece of writing.
16Steps in the Writing Process 1. Pre-writing: This is the planning phase of the writing process, when students brainstorm, research, gather and outline ideas, often using diagrams for mapping out their thoughts. Audience and purpose should be considered at this point, and for the older students, a working thesis statement needs to be started. 2. Drafting: Students create their initial composition by writing down all their ideas in an organized way to convey a particular idea or present an argument. Audience and purpose need to be finalized. 3. Revising: Students review, modify, and reorganize their work by rearranging, adding, or deleting content, and by making the tone, style, and content appropriate for the intended audience. The goal of this phase of the writing process is to improve the draft. 4. Editing: At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having another writer’s feedback in this stage is helpful. 5. Publishing: In this last step of the writing process, the final writing is shared with the group. Sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways, and with the help of computers, it can even be printed or published online.
18http://www. youtube. com/watch. v=39utTLsUmVwhttp://www. youtube How to begin a response
19WRITING A SUPER PARAGRAPH WRITING A SUPER PARAGRAPH IS LIKE BUILDING A TASTY SANDWICH WITH THREE DISTINCT PART.TOPIC SENTENCESTATES THE MAIN IDEA __________SUPPORTING DETAILS(THREE TO FIVE DETAILS THAT___________SUPPORT THE TOPIC SENTENCE)CLOSING SENTENCE________________________________RESTATE THE TOPIC
20When planning your essay consider this format: Persuasive Essay ANDExpository ESSAYIV. Point Three A. Intro and explanation of point B. Evidence C. How point relates to thesisV. Conclusion A. Restate subject B. Summarize Main Points C. Restate THESIS (B and C can be combined into the proof)I. Introduction A. Subject B. Main Points C. THESISII. Point One A. Intro and explanation of point B. Evidence C. How point relates to thesisIII. Point Two A. Intro and explanation of point B. Evidence C. How point relates to thesis
22We Will Write an EssayWe will take a few minutes to write the introduction, body, and conclusion on your paper in blue or black ink. Allow enough space to write. We will write Introduction on in THE FIRST BLOCK. The body paragraphs can be written in Block Two, Three, Four, Five or Six and the Conclusion will be on the LAST BLOCK . Then we will SHARE AND SELF-ASSESS OR WITH PEERS. WE CAN LIST OR USE A CLUSTER TO GET OUR IDEAS TOGETHER.
23WRITING – PRETEST – TOPIC - PARAGRAPHS YOUR TOPIC FOR THE DAY IS:CELL PHONES ARE SO IMPORTANT IN THE 21ST CENTURY. IN MIDDLE SCHOOL, SOME STUDENTS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO USE THEIR PHONES. WRITE A PERSUASIVE ESSAY TO YOUR LOCAL BOARD CONVINCING THEM HOW IMPORTANT IT WOULD BE TO USE CELL PHONES IN SCHOOL.
24WE WILL WRITE AN ESSAY CONTINUES YOU WILL USE A CLUSTER SHEET TO GET YOUR IDEAS TOGETHER BEFORE WRITING YOUR ESSAY.Should students use their cell phones in middle school?Students should be able to use their phones in school because of _____________, ________________, and _________________.(PASS OUT MODEL ESSAY TO GO BY)
26SENTENCE STRUCTURE YOUR ESSAYS SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: COMPLEX SENTENCESSUBORDINATING CLAUSESCOMPOUND COMPLEX SENTENCESSIMPLE SENTENCESCOMPOUND SENTENCES
27There are three main reasons for using transitional phrases within your writing: 1. Using transitional words and phrases helps papers read more smoothly by providing coherence.A coherent paper allows the reader to flow from the first supporting point to the next.3. Transitions indicate relations, whether from sentence to sentence, from paragraph to paragraph, or from one idea to the next.
28Using transitional words and phrases helps papers read more smoothly, and at the same time allows the reader to flow more smoothly from one point to the next.Transitions enhance logical organization and understandability and improve the connections between thoughts. They indicate relations, whether within a sentence, paragraph, or paper.This list illustrates categories of "relationships" between ideas, followed by words and phrases that can make the connections:Addition: also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise,
29Support Transitions: Here are some transitional openers for your Commentaries: In other words, CONCLUDING TRANSITIONSClearly, Finally, Hence, Overall,Furthermore, In conclusion, So, In the end,However, LastlyNonetheless,In regards toOne can seeThis shows that (use this sparingly)Consequently,Thus,Hence,
30Essay Transitions Example Openers: Here are some openers to use to start your Concrete Details: For exampleFor instance,Most noticeably,In the story/poem/book/chapter,As seen in the story,In fact,In addition,Another example/instance,To begin with,As presented by the author,
31USE THE RUBRIC TO SELF – ASSESS YOUR ESSAYS SEE THE ATTACHED RUBRIC FOR SELF- ASSESSMENTPASS OUT RUBRIC
35VIDEO ON WRITINGhttps://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/ell-essay-structure-lessonhttps://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/ell-essay-structure-lessonGOOD VIDEO FOR ESL STUDENTS
36COMPOSITON ESSAY (THIS IS A VIDEO THAT EXPLAINS HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY) What is an EssayCOMPOSITON ESSAY (THIS IS A VIDEO THAT EXPLAINS HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY)
37THE FOUR TYPES OF WRITING ESSAYWRITINGEXPOSITORYWRITING– GIVES FACTS OR DIRECTIONS, IDENTIFIES OR EXPLAINS.PERSUASIVE WRITINGEXPRESSES AN OPINION AND TRIES TO CONVINCE A READER TO SUPPORT IT.
38THE FOUR TYPES OF WRITING CONTINUES ESSAYWRITINGNARRATIVE WRITINGINCULDES A SERIES OF EVENTS IN ORDER CONFLICT THAT LEAD TO ACTIONA CLIMAX OR TURNING POINT IN THE ACTION A SATIFYING ENDINGDESCRIPTIVE WRITINGGIVES A CLEAR AND VIVID PICTURE OF A PERSON, PLACE, THING, OR EVENT.
39Parts of the Persuasive Essay The IntroductionThe introduction has a "hook or grabber" to catch the reader's attention. Some "grabbers" include:Opening with an unusual detail: (Manitoba, because of its cold climate, is not thought of as a great place to be a reptile. Actually, it has the largest seasonal congregation of garter snakes in the world!).
40A Paragraph That Creates Interest in What You Have to Say INTRODUCTIONWriting the Introduction to an EssayA Paragraph That Creates Interest in What You Have to SayThink of your introductory paragraph as a recipe with three important ingredients:1. a strong topic sentence 2. mention of the main points your essay will cover 3. a concluding sentence
41The HookOne way to grab your reader's attention is with an interesting quotation, question, or piece of information in the topic sentence: "I do not like to write -- I like to have written," reflected American author Gloria Steinem. or"Have you ever eaten a sundae so big that it almost toppled over before you could finish?“ or"Not all animals that have fins and swim in the ocean are actually fish."
42Here are some ways to do this: Write a Topic SentenceHere are some ways to do this: start with a hook (use a question or quotation) start with a plan (tell your reader what to expect) start with a teaser (build curiosity & anticipation)
43"My three favorite foods are spaghetti, pizza, and jelly beans." The PlanAnother way to begin your essay is with a topic sentence that simply lists each subject you will be covering:"My three favorite foods are spaghetti, pizza, and jelly beans."This opening sentence helps you easily divide the rest of your essay into its three different paragraphs and tells readers what they can expect.
44 The Teaser You can also build your essay better by creating a topic sentence that is an action statement:
45"We practiced all week to get ready for the big game." The Teaser"We practiced all week to get ready for the big game."Now the reader really wants to know how hard you practiced, and whether all that work paid off!
46The No-No Here is a type of topic sentence that is not a very strong way to begin your essay: "Hi my name is and I’m going to tell you about . . ." I KNOW WHO YOU ARE – SHOW IT IN YOUR PAPER!!!!!!!!!!! The readers know you're going to tell them something, so you don't need to say it. Just introduce the subject and begin.
47Mention your main points But don't give everything away!Assuming you started with a topic sentence relating to sports in general, this would be a good follow-up sentence mentioning the main points of your essay: However, the three sports that I like best are soccer, tennis, and riding.
48Your concluding sentence This is okay, but needs stronger writing:"Here are the reasons why I love penguins."This includes much stronger word choices:"Your favorite animal is probably not the penguin, but you might change your mind after you hear my reasons for loving penguins so much."
49Remember to follow the "recipe" to write a strong introductory paragraph: topic sentence + main points + concluding sentenceScience fiction is such a fascinating genre for middle school students. Of all the books I've read this year in 6th grade, my favorite ones are Dark Life, Ink heart, and A Wrinkle in Time. You probably wouldn’t pick the same books, but you might just change your mind after you hear the reasons these science fiction stories are my favorites.
50VIDEO ON SUPPORTING DETAILS eature=player_embedded&v=yF9u KLG10Y4
51Opening with a strong statement: (Cigarettes are the number one cause of lighter sales in Canada!) Opening with a Quotation: (Elbert Hubbard once said , "Truth is stronger than fiction.")Opening with an Anecdote: An anecdote can provide an amusing and attention-getting opening if it is short and to the point
525. Opening with a Statistic or Fact: Sometimes a statistic or fact will add emphasis or interest to your topic. It may be wise to include the item's authoritative source6. Opening with a Question. (Have you ever considered how many books we'd read if it were not for television?)7. Opening with an Exaggeration or Outrageous Statement. (The whole world watched as the comet flew overhead.)The introduction should also include a thesis or focus statement.The Thesis/Hypothesis is your statement of purpose. The thesis/hypothesis should be one sentence in length. This is the foundation of your essay and it will serve to guide you in writing the entire paper.
53There are three objectives of a thesis statement: 1. It tells the reader the specific topic of your essay.2. It imposes manageable limits on that topic.3. It suggests the organization of your paper.
54How to Write a Persuasive Essay Persuasive or argumentative essaysIn persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince others to agree with our facts, share our values, accept our argument and conclusions, and adopt our way of thinking.
55How to Write a Persuasive Essay Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include:Establishing facts to support an argumentClarifying relevant values for your audience (perspective)Prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencing the facts and values in importance to build the argumentForming and stating conclusions“Persuading" your audience that your conclusions are based upon the agreed-upon facts and shared values having the confidence to communicate your "persuasion" in writing.
56How to Write a Persuasive Essay Write out the questions in your own words.Think of the questions posed in the assignment while you are reading and researching.Determine factsAny sources that will help you determine their reliability (as well as for further reference)What prejudices lie in the argument or values that color the facts or the issueWhat you think of the author's argumentList out facts; consider their importance: prioritize, edit, sequence, discard, etc. Ask yourself "What's missing?"
57How to Write a Persuasive Essay Start writing a draft! (refer to: Writing essays, the basics) Start as close as possible to your reading/research Do not concern yourself with grammar or spellingWrite your first paragraphIntroduce the topicInform the reader of your point of view!Entice the reader to continue with the rest of the paper!Focus on three main points to develop
58Persuasive EssayEstablish flow from paragraph to paragraph Keep your voice activeQuote sources to establish authorityStay focused on your point of view throughout the essayFocus on logical argumentsDon't lapse into summary in the development--wait for the conclusionConclusion Summarize, then conclude, your argument Refer to the first paragraph/opening statement as well as the main points does the conclusion restate the main ideas?Reflect the succession and importance of the argumentsLogically conclude their development?
59Persuasive Essay Continues Edit/rewrite the first paragraph to better telegraph your development and conclusion. Take a day or two off! Re-read your paper with a fresh mind and a sharp pencil Ask yourself: Does this make sense? Am I convinced? Will this convince a reader? Will they understand my values, and agree with my facts?Edit, correct, and re-write as necessaryCheck spelling and grammar!Have a friend read it and respond to your argument. Were they convinced?Revise if necessaryTurn in the paperCelebrate a job well done, with the confidence that you have done your best.
62Persuasive PromptsSnow days are great for family quality time. Too much money is a bad thing. Teens should be required to take parenting classes.People should go to jail when they abandon their pets.Kids should get paid for good grades.Free speech should have limitations.Kids should have less homework.Recycling should be mandatory for everyone.Children should be required to read more.Yearly driving tests should be mandatory over a certain age.
64The First Sentence Should be as Follows: As you researched your topic, you probably discovered many interesting anecdotes, quotes, or trivial facts. This is exactly the sort of thing you should use for an engaging introduction.Consider these ideas for creating a strong beginning.Surprising fact: The pentagon has twice as many bathrooms as are necessary. The famous government building was constructed in the 1940s, when segregation laws required that separate bathrooms be installed for people of African descent. This building isn’t the only American icon that harkens back to this embarrassing and hurtful time in our history. Across the United States there are many examples of leftover laws and customs that reflect the racism that once permeated American society.
65HOW TO WRITE - CONTINUES 2. Introduce the topic.The next few sentences should explain your first statement, and prepare the reader for your thesis statement."The old yellow bus was reported to be the very one that sparked the civil rights movement, when a young woman named Rosa Parks..."
66Your First Sentence Can Include: Humor: When my older brother substituted fresh eggs for our hard-boiled Easter eggs, he didn’t realize our father would take the first crack at hiding them. My brother’s holiday ended early that particular day in 1991, but the rest of the family enjoyed the warm April weather, outside on the lawn, until late into the evening. Perhaps it was the warmth of the day and the joy of eating Easter roast while Tommy contemplated his actions that make my memories of Easter so sweet. Whatever the true reason, the fact is that my favorite holiday of the year is Easter Sunday.Quotation: Hillary Rodham Clinton once said that “There cannot be true democracy unless women's voices are heard.” In 2006, when Nancy Pelosi became the nation’s first female Speaker of the House, one woman’s voice rang out clear. With this development, democracy grew to its truest level ever in terms of women’s equality. The historical event also paved the way for Senator Clinton as she warmed her own vocal chords in preparation for a presidential race.
67HOW TO WRITE … CONTINUES 3. Make a claim or express your opinion in a thesis sentence.At the end of your introductory paragraph, you will place a powerful thesis statement. Your thesis sentence should provide your specific assertion and convey a clear point of view."In refusing to surrender her seat to a white man, Rosa Parks inspired a courageous freedom movement that lives on, even today."Your instructor will be looking for the specific elements above when reviewing your introductory paragraph, so be sure to review your first paragraph to make sure it meets these three goals.
68HOW TO WRITE … CONTINUES BodyThe body of the essay will include three paragraphs (if this is a five-paragraph essay), each limited to one main idea that supports your thesis. You should state your idea, then back it up with two or three sentences of evidence or examples.Example of a main idea:"It took incredible courage for an African American woman to make such a bold stance in 1955 Alabama."Offer evidence to support this statement:"This act took place in an era when African Americans could be arrested and face severe retribution for committing the most trivial acts of defiance."Include a few more supporting statements with further evidence, then use transition words to lead to the paragraph that follows. All of your body paragraphs should follow the pattern of statement, supporting ideas, and transition statement.
69How to Write an Essay…Continues Your last paragraph will be your conclusion.ConclusionThe final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim (from your thesis sentence). It should point out your main points, but should not repeat specific examples.Once you complete the first draft of your essay, it's a good idea to re- visit the thesis statement in your first paragraph. Read your essay to see if it flows well.You might find that the supporting paragraphs are strong, but they don't address the exact focus of your thesis. Simply re-write your thesis sentence to fit your body and summary more exactly.By doing this, you will ensure that every sentence in your essay supports, proves, or reflects your thesis. Your instructor will be looking for this!
71Middle School Expository/Informative Prompts 1. Imagine that you could give advice to someone—it could be someone you know personally, a historical figure, or a famous person living today. Write an essay that identifies the person and the advice you would give. Choose a familiar subject so that you can provide details and elaboration that explain why this person needs your advice.2. In an essay, explain how disappointments can have a good side.3. Write an essay explaining why someone you care about is important to you.4. "Dress for success" is a phrase all of us have heard before, but it means something different to each person. Write an essay explaining what "dress for success" means to you.5. Write an essay to explain why honesty is important in a friendship.6. Through the years new inventions have changed the way we live. Think about one invention that has had an impact on the way you live. Now write to explain to your teacher how this invention has changed your life.
72GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WEBSITE THIS IS WHEN I SHOW MY STUDENTS OTHER STUDENTS WRITTEN ESSAYS ACROSS GEORGIA FROM THE GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.STUDENTS WILL READ AND SCORE THE ESSAYS THAT THEY HAVE READ.THEN I WILL SAY, THIS WILL ALSO HAPPEN TO YOUR PAPER WHEN YOU WRITE THE ESSAY FOR JANUARY.
73ACTIVITY – YOU WILL READ AND SCORE NOW ALL OF Y0U WILL BE GIVEN AN ESSAY FROM THE GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WEBSITE TO GRADE AND DECIDE WHAT SCORE YOU THINK THE ESSAY RECEIVED.SCORES FROM NUMBERS 0-5.