Presentation on theme: "A Systemic Functional Linguistics Approach to Translation Studies 系统功能语言学视角下的 翻译研究 Huang Guowen (Sun Yat-sen University) 中山大学 黃国文"— Presentation transcript:
A Systemic Functional Linguistics Approach to Translation Studies 系统功能语言学视角下的 翻译研究 Huang Guowen (Sun Yat-sen University) 中山大学 黃国文
Acknowledgements I’d like to express my thanks to the School of Foreign Languages of Nanjing University of Technology for inviting me to give a talk here.
Acknowledgements At Sun Yat-sen University a number of people have worked with me in the area of translation studies: 张美芳 教授、博士（中山大学 / 澳门大学） 尚媛媛 副教授、博士（深圳大学） 王 鹏 讲师、博士（中山大学） 李发根 教授、博士（江西师范大学） 司显柱 教授、博士（江西财经大学）
Outline 1 Introduction: Two general approaches to translation studies 2 Functional Linguistics 3 Functional Linguistics and translation studies 4 Hallidayan functionalism in translation studies (Catford, Hatim & Mason, Bell, Baker) 5 SFL approach revisited (assumptions, functional views of language, levels of analysis) 6 Illustration: “ Jiang Xue ” 7 Summary
1 Introduction: Two approaches Two approaches to translation studies: (1) Linguistics (formal vs functional) (2) Literary Translation studies as a science Translation as an art Translation as a practice and translation studies as a inter-discipline or a multi- discipline
2 Functional Linguistics Functionalism in linguistics (1) Prague School Linguistics (V. Mathesius, R. Jakobson, J. Firbas, N. Trubetzkoy) (2) London School Linguistics (J. Firth) (3) Copenhagen School (L. Hjelmslev) (4) French functionalism (A. Martinet ) (5) Systemic Functional Linguistics (M. Halliday)
2 Functional Linguistics (6) Autonomist functionalism or generative functionalism (S. Kuno, E. Prince) (7) Functional grammar (S. Dik) (8) Text/Discourse grammar (van Dijk) (9) Mixed functionalism (S. Levinson)
2 Functional Linguistics (10) Typological functionalism (W. Croft) (11) Role and Reference Grammar (R.D. van Valin, W.A. Foley) (12) West Coast Functionalism (T. Giv ó n, P. Hopper, S. Thompson) (13) Cognitive linguistics (R.W. Langacker)
Note that different functional approaches are usually related in one way or another. E.g., Halliday was Firth's student and both were influenced by the Prague School. Both Halliday and Firth came from a European tradition influenced by de Saussure (esp Halliday) (as was the Prague School to some extent). What is clear is that there are influences rather than hierarchies involved here.
3 Functional Linguistics and translation studies As a practice, the history of translation is as old as that of the human society. In terms of theoretical approaches to translation studies, almost every linguistic theory/model has something to offer to the study of translation (as a theory or as a practice). Thus, one can say that there are more than 10 “functional linguistics” approaches to translation studies.
3 Functional Linguistics and translation studies There are a number of important functional approaches to translation studies. Below are three major ones: (1) Hallidayan functionalism (M. Baker, B. Hatim, R. Bell, J. House) (2) German functionalism (K. Reiss, H. Vermeer, C. Nord, J. Holz-Manttari) (3) Pragmatics/Mixed functionalism (E-A. Gutt, L. Hickey)
3 Functional Linguistics and translation studies Basic assumptions: Viewing language as a means of communication Emphasizing cognitive, socio-cultural, physiological factors Regarding semantic, pragmatic, functional patterning as central Doing analysis of texts and their contexts
4 Hallidayan functionalism in translation studies Background (neo-Firthian ) Developments of Hallidayan linguistics: four stages (1) 1961--: Scale and Category Grammar (2) 1966--: Systemic Grammar (3) 1970--: Functional Grammar (Systemic Functional Grammar) (4) 1978--: Systemic Functional Linguistics
Halliday develops his theory of language from the study of syntax. From “ a theory of syntax ” to “ a theory of language ” Scale and Category Grammar, Systemic Grammar, Functional Grammar, Systemic Functional Grammar, Systemic Functional Linguistics
4.1 Catford ’ s approach J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics, 1965. ( 卡特福德《翻译的语言学理论》 ; 穆雷 译. 北京旅游出版社 1991) Notes: (1) Based on Scale and Category Grammar; (2) An Essay in Applied Linguistics In 1956, the University of Edinburgh established the first School of Applied Linguistics under the direction of J.C. Catford.
Definition Translation: the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). (Catford 1965) 翻译是用另一种语言（译语）的等值 的文本材料来替换一种语言（原语） 的文本材料。（穆雷 译 1990 ）
“textual material” “textual material” (rather than “text”): it is not the entirety of a SL which is translated Replacement: replacement of SL grammar and lexis by equivalent TL grammar and lexis Replacement of SL graphology by TL graphology – but the TL graphological form is by no means a translation equivalent of the SL graphological form
“equivalent” “The central problem of translation practice is that of finding TL translation equivalents. A central task of translation theory is that of defining the nature and conditions of translation equivalence.”
“transference” “at one or more levels there may be no replacement at all, but simple transference of SL material into the TL text.” In normal translation, the TL text has a TL meaning. The values of TL items are entirely those set up by formal and contextual relations in the TL itself.
However, it is possible to carry out an operation in which the TL text, or part of the TL text, does have values set up in the SL (i.e. has SL meaning). Catford calls this process “transference”.
In translation, there is substitution of TL meanings for SL meanings: not transference of SL meanings into the TL. In transference there is an implantation of SL meanings into the TL text. These two processes must be clearly differentiated in any theory of translation.
“textual equivalence” vs “formal correspondence” “A textual equivalent is any TL text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion to be the equivalent of a given SL text or portion of text. ”
“A formal correspondent, on the other hand, is any TL category (unit, class, structure, element of structure, etc.) which can be said to occupy, as nearly as possible, the ‘same’ place in the ‘economy’ of the TL as the given SL category occupies in the SL.”
4.2 Approach by Hatim & Mason Hatim & Mason (1990) takes a functional discourse approach Register analysis Discourse structure Texture Text type Context Intertextuality and intentionality
4.3 Bell’s approach Bell (1991) focuses on elements in communication What?Why?When?How?Where?Who?
4.4 Baker’s approach Baker (1992) focuses on “equivalence”: Equivalence at word level Equivalence above word level Grammatical equivalence Textual equivalence Pragmatic equivalence
5 SFL approach revisited Revisiting the Systemic Functional Linguistics approach to translation studies
5.1 Basic assumptions A translated text is different from the original text in terms of context of co- text, context of situation and context of culture. A functional linguistics approach to the analysis of a translated text is a functional linguistics study of the text and its context.
5.2 A functional view of language Language as meaning-potential –Choices of language are meaningful in relation to the system of choices available (what could have been said but was not) Language as metafunctional –Ideational –Interpersonal –Textual Language as multi-stratal –(Discourse) Semantics –Lexicogrammar –Phonology / Graphology
The traffic light system The traffic light system Stop Stop Slow down RED Slow down RED Go AMBER Go AMBER GREEN GREEN Meaning (is realized by) Form
Language as meaning-potential He is my father/dad. 父亲。 父亲。 他是我 爸爸。 老窦。 老窦。
Meaning as metafunctional Meaning as metafunctional –Ideational metafunction –Interpersonal metafunction –Textual metafunction Ideational equivalence Interpersonal equivalence Textual equivalence
Ideational equivalence A. He is a teacher of English. (Relational process) B. He teaches English. (Material process) (1) 他是英语老师。（关系过程） (2) 他教授英语的。（物质过程）
Interpersonal equivalence 窈窕淑女，君子好逑。（《诗经》） A good young man is wooing a maiden fair he loves. （许渊冲 译， 1992 ） The lad is keen to woo the lass, a very dream. （赵彦春 译， 2002 ） A lad would like to woo a lass with pretty looks. （汪榕培 译， 1997 ）
Textual equivalence They arrived at the airport yesterday afternoon and were met by the mayor of Beijing there. (passive) （ 1 ）他们昨天下午到达机场，北京市 市长到那里接见了他们。（主动语态） （ 2 ）他们昨天下午到达机场，便受到 北京市市长的接见。 （被动语态）
5.3 Levels of analysis (1) Ideology (2) Context of Culture: genre (schematic patterning) (3) Context of Situation: register (field, tenor, mode) (4) Context of co-text: language (Ideational, Interpersonal, Textual)
6. Illustration: “ Jiang Xue ” Text 1: River Snow Text 1: River Snow A hundred mountains and no bird, A thousand paths without a footprint; A little boat, a bamboo cloak, An old man fishing in the cold river- snow. (Witter Bynner 译） (Witter Bynner 译）
6. Illustration: “ Jiang Xue ” Text 2: The Snowbound River Text 2: The Snowbound River O’er mountains and mountains no bird is on the wing; On thousand lines of the pathways there’s no footprint. In a lone boat on the snowbound river, an old man, In palm-bark cape and straw hat, drops his angle string. ( 吴钧陶 译 ) ( 吴钧陶 译 )
6. Illustration: “ Jiang Xue ” Text 3: River Snowfall Text 3: River Snowfall Amidst all mountains, birds no longer fly; On all roads, no more travelers pass by. Straw hat and cloak, old man’s in boat, head low, Fishing alone on river cold with snow. ( 王大濂 译） ( 王大濂 译）
6. Illustration: “ Jiang Xue ” Text 1 Ngp+ngp: A hundred mountains and no bird, Ngp: A thousand paths without a footprint; Ngp+ngp: A little boat, a bamboo cloak, Ngp: An old man fishing in the cold river- snow.
Text 2 Clause: relational process: O’er mountains and mountains no bird is on the wing; Clause: existential process: On thousand lines of the pathways there’s no footprint. Clause: material process: In a lone boat on the snowbound river, an old man, / In palm-bark cape and straw hat, drops his angle string.
Text 3 Clause: material process: Amidst all mountains, birds no longer fly; Clause: material process: On all roads, no more travelers pass by. Clause: material process: Straw hat and cloak, old man ’ s in boat, head low, / Fishing alone on river cold with snow.
6. Illustration: Summary Text 1: static (Thing, nominal group) Text 2: static---dynamic (Situation, clause, relational/existential process) Text 3: dynamic (Situation, clause, material process) Source text (state) ---Target text (state/event)
7 Summary 1 Two general approaches to translation studies 2 Functional Linguistics and translation studies 3 Hallidayan functionalism in translation studies 4 SFL approach revisited 5 Illustrations: “ Jiang Xue ” 6 Evaluation of translated texts