2Postclassical/ Middle Ages Period of great faith-Islam and ChristianityChristian missionaries spread message north.Europe grows in participation of tradeEuropeans learned of technologies and scholarship from these contacts (Africans, Asians, Muslims, Byzantines“Their bodies are large, their manners harsh, their understanding dull their tongues heavy. Those who are farthest to the north are the most subject to stupidity, grossness, and brutishness” Muslim writer- crusades
3ProblemsRome was the center of the Church and the Church was the most powerful institution in WestItaly was divided: Papal states, Milan, Florence, Venetian Republic, and Kingdom of NaplesPoor education due to focus on farming and weak regional rulersSpain in the hands of Muslims. Spain was a vibrant and important intellectual and economic area lost to western EuropeFrequent invasions created instability
4Section 1:CharlemagneMiddle Ages or Medieval period : after fall of Rome, Europe remained fragmentedDisruption in trade, downfall of cities, and population shiftsGermanic invaders who stormed Rome were not well educated and the level of learning sankNo written languageAs Germans began to mix with the Romans language changedDialects popped up and various languages appeared like French and SpanishGermanic kingdoms rose in place of the Roman EmpireChurch was the institution that was able to withstand the break up of Rome and governed societyConcept of government changed-loyal to family and community. Warriors loyal to leaders they respected
5CharlemagneMonks gave up all worldly possessions and became servants of GodUnder Pope Gregory I (590) the papacy expanded its powers over secular or worldly matters, including politicsHe used the Church’s money to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poorAll western and central Europe fell under the Pope’s control and authorityIn Gaul the Franks emerged under their leader, ClovisClovis adopted Christianity due to God helping him in battle in 496 CE and to gain prestige over pagan rivalsBy 600 the Church and Frankish rulers helped to convert many Germanic peoplesChurch created religious communities, monasteries, for rural areas
6CharlemagneCharles Martel (Hammer) was Mayor and held more power than the king.He expanded the empire and defeated the Muslims at the Battles of Tours in 732 –this kept Europe Christian!Muslims had been invaded via SpainNext ruler, Charles’ son, Pepin the Short. In order to become strong, Pepin aligned himself with the Pope. He fought against the Lombards and the Pope was happy-”kings by the grace of God” became the Carolingian DynastyEurope fell into small kingdoms after the fall of the Roman EmpireThe strongest was in the area of Gaul under the leadership of Clovis (Franks)Clovis expanded his territory to encompass all of modern France and strengthened his family line (Merovingian)700 Mayor of the Palace-ruler of the kingdom
8He limited the authority of the nobles, strengthened his powers, and traveled throughout his empire He encouraged learning and opened a palace school for his many children814 his son, Louis the Pious became emperor-he was an ineffective ruler and concerned more with religionPious’ 3 sons fought each other for the empire. It was split into 3 kingdoms after the civil war in the Treaty of Verdun in 843762 Otto I king of Germany helped the pope against Roman nobles like Charlemagne and the pope gave him the title “holy” and he added it to Roman Emperor from and hence rulers of ancient Germany became Holy Roman Emperors and the territory was known as the Holy Roman EmpireEmergence of regional monarchiesCharlemagnePepin died and left the Frankish empire to his sons (Carloman and Charles). Charles inherited the throne after Carloman died. He became CharlemagneCharlemagne was 6’4”800 He built an empire greater than anything since Rome: France, Spain, and GermanyPope Leo III granted Charlemagne the title of Roman emperor for fighting off unruly nobles in RomeThis united Germanic kings and the Church
9Section 2: FeudalismVikings(Norsemen) sailed from Scandinavia to Europe down waterways to raid villages and townsThey carried out these raids with terrifying speed and by the time local troop arrived the Vikings were long goneViking warships allowed for these raids…could hold as many as 300 warriorsThey looted villages and monasteries, were traders, and explorersThe destabilization that the civil war caused brought Europe into new political turmoil and led to the development of feudalismFeudalism is a political system based on land ownership and personal loyaltyAt this weakened state Europe was then attacked by invaders: Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims
10Section 2: FeudalismFollowing the Viking decline a new group from the east began assaulting Europe…the MagyarsMagyars did not settle conquered lands instead sold the conquered people into slaveryAt the same time Muslims attacked from the southThese invasions caused disruption of trade, political disorder, and sufferingVikings were also known to go as far as Russia on raidsThey are also credited with reaching the AmericasVikings gradually began to accept Christianity and as this happened the raids decreasedClimate warming combined with this to allow for increased farming in Scandinavia
11Section 2: FeudalismThese attacks led to the development of a new political system called feudalism-power was based on land ownership and loyaltyKingChurch/ clergynoblesknightsLordgivesLand (fief)Peasants/ serfsvassalLoyalty and military service
12New economic and urban vigor New agricultural techniques: 3 field crop rotation, no chock horse collars, and the moldboard plow (deeper soil)Elite defined by landownership and military powersViking raid declined as they become Christian and regional governments became more powerfulPopulation growth occurred! Created new markets. Towns grew while serfdom continued. Specialization occurred and scholarship began again. Literacy increased.11th century universities: medicine and law
13Feudal Monarchies -expand powers After the breakup of Charlemagne's empire kings of France and England sought to increase their powersDukes and counts ruled their lands independently under feudalism. By 1000 France was divided into 30 feudal territories. In 987 the last member of the Carolingian family (Louis the Sluggard) died!987 Hugh Capet (count of Paris) succeeded him. He was voted to become king. The Capet family ruled a small territory around Paris. Capetian monarchy started out around Paris and grew by better administration and diplomacy (marriage).The Capetian dynasty lasted from
14Capetian Dynasty of France Hugh Capet and his successors took advantage of Paris and the powerful trade routes that ran through their territory. They grew out from Paris and eventually united France!He consolidated his power by 1) making the throne hereditary (2) adding lands by playing rivals nobles against each other (3) supporting the Church (4) creating a bureaucracy that collected taxes and imposed royal law (5) created alliance by marriages with strong lords
16King Philip II of France Philip II (Philip Augustus) of France He was successful in seizing Normandy from England (King John) in By the end of Philip’s reign he had tripled the lands under his direct control. For the first time a French king had become more powerful than his vassals!Philip II also created a more powerful government. He created royal officials (bailiffs) and sent them to each district to preside over collecting taxes and courts.Philip consolidated his power by 1) paying middle class to be government officials and thus they were very loyal to him and appreciative of their new offices (2) granting charters to towns –ensuring townspeoples rights and income for himself (3) making a national tax (4) quadrupling the size of France via his war with King John and by helping the Pope fight heretics (Albigensians) in what would become southern France.
17French Kings continued Philip IV 1300s –grandson of Louis IXTried to collect taxes from clergy…led to fight with Pope Boniface III. Philip IV tried to capture the pope, but he escape only soon thereafter to die.Philip set up the Estates General to rally support from the people for his fight with the Pope. 3 Estates ( clergy, nobles, and townspeople)In 1305 a Frenchmen was named pope and he moved the court to Avignon, France (Babylonian Captivity). There the popes were under the influence of the French Kings!King Louis IX 1226Pious man that led 2 Crusades. Made a saint by the ChurchHad roving officials to check on local administratorsBanned private warsExpanded the royal court systemHeard cases himself!
19England Patchwork of feudal states controlled by local lords Many invaders…came up with new prayer “God deliver us from the fury of the Northmen” (Vikings). Only happened after Alfred the Great ( ) managed to turn back the Viking attacks. Gradually he and his successors united the kingdom under one ruler, calling it England or land of the Angles (Germanic tribe)1016 Danish king, Canute, conquered England. In 1042 King Edward the Confessor took the throne and died without a heir.
20Battle of HastingsWilliam the Conqueror of Normandy (n. France) was a cousin of Edward. He invaded England with his Norman army in 1066.He had to fight against the Anglo-Saxon rival, Harold Godwinson. He was the brother in-law of Edward and elected king by an English council.Battle of Hastings, After Harold was killed with an arrow to the eye the Normans won! William declared England his personal property. English lords who supported Harold lost their lands. William granted fiefs 200 Norman lords (barons) who swore personal loyalty to him.
22William the ConquerorConsolidated his power by (1) granting fiefs to loyal nobles. He made these vassals directly loyal to him and no other lord (2) had sheriffs roam England and administer justice to the people (3) took a census and wrote it down in the Domesday Book (called this because like Final Judgment no one, or farm, or even pigpen could escape being counted by the royal officials!
23EnglandWilliam the conquerors successors owned lands of England and Normandy. Many considered the French Kings to be vassals to England.Henry II added to these lands by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine who brought lands from FranceEnglish kings wanted to hold onto their French lands and strengthen their powersEleanor of Aquitaine was the wife of two kings and the mother of two kings! WOW! She was married to Louis VII of France (2nd Crusade) Their marriage was annulled. She then married Henry II of England. She had four sons with him including King Richard the Lionhearted and King John.Thus Henry II was the king of England and vassal to the king of France!
24King Henry II of England Henry II strengthened the royal courts by sending out royal judges, collected taxes, punished crimes, creating common laws, settled lawsuits, and he introduced the jury. Over centuries these judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law. These principles formed the basis for English speaking law codes across the world.Henry had a bitter dispute with his friend the archbishop Thomas Becket over the issue of being able to try clergy in royal courts. One day in anger he screamed “who will rid me of this meddlesome priest”. As a result in 1170 Becket was murdered in his own cathedral!
26King John II of EnglandHenry II succeeded by King Richard the Lionhearted, hero of the 3rd Crusade. After he died his brother, king John (softsword) came to the throne ( ). Problems: (1) lost war and land to French King Philip II (2) dispute with the pope of the nominee of archbishop led to the pope excommunicating him and passing an interdict on all of England (this meant no one could receive the sacraments)…forced to submit to the pope and England had to pay money every year to Rome (3) because of increasing taxes the nobles began to riot and King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in June 15, It became the most celebrated document in English history, the Magna Carta (or great charter) guaranteed basic political rights for nobles and state the king was not above the law!
28Magna Carta/ Parliament June 15, 1215Nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the king’s power. In later years the people argued that the Magna Carta covered all classes and applied to each citizenGuaranteed that nobles had certain rights, forced the monarch to obey the laws, monarchy agreed not to raise new taxes without first consulting the Great Council, protecting people from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and other legal actions…led to due process of the law, set the basis for habeas corpus the principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged for a crime [Habeas Corpus later clarified and defined in the Petition of Right in 1628 and the Habeas Corpus Act of 1679]included no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and the protection of the law.
29Development of Parliament The Great Council evolved in the 1200s into Parliament which later became England’s legislature.1295 Edward I need to raise taxes for a war against the French. He summoned to burgesses (2 nobles) from each borough. In November of 1295 they met in London, in what is now called Model Parliament b/c of its makeup (commoners, non-nobles, as well as lords). He had a representatives of the common people join with the lords and clergy. He stated that “what touches all should be approved by all” Over the next century s the king called knights and burgesses whenever a new taxes was needed. In Parliament, these 2 groups gradually formed an assembly of their own called the House of Commons. Lords and bishops met in the House of Lords. At first he house of lords was the only house in Parliament.
30France and EnglandHugh Capet-established Capetian dynastyPhilip II : increases the territory of FranceLouis IV ( ) created royal courts that could overturn local courts. Strengthen France’s central governmentPhilip IV ( ) adds Third Estate to Estates GeneralWilliam the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, invades England 1066Henry II ( ) introduces use of the jury in English courtsKing John agrees to the Magna Carta under pressures from nobles in 1215Edward I call Model Parliament in 1295
31100 Years WarEnglish king’s status as vassal of the French king for his territories in GasconyEnglish support for urban rebellions in Flanders against the king of FranceEnglish king’s claim to the throne of France after the end of the Capetian dynasty in 1314 (death of Charles IV)1328 Charles IV of France died childlessCharles had a sister: Queen Isabella of EnglandStruggle over French dynastic successionCauses of the war:
33Black DeathThe disease was carried by fleas on infected rats, who would bite humans. Once bitten the person would develop a high fever, begin coughing, and develop painful swelling in lymph nodes of the groin or armpits. Final stage was vomiting bloodSpread bubonic and pneumonic (person to person)Death took 3-5 days to kill most. Although, airborne virus could only take hours to killkilled ½ to 1/3 of Europe’s populationcaused major economic depression (increased taxation, revolts, loss of financial backing in some cities, and increased gap between the rich and poor
35"Der Doktor Schnabel von Rom" (English: "Doctor Beak of Rome") engraving by Paul Fürst. The beak is a primitive gas mask, stuffed with substances (such as spices and herbs) thought to ward off the plague.Plague has a long history as a biological weapon. Historical accounts from medieval Europe detail the use of infected animal carcasses, such as cows or horses, and human carcasses, by Mongols, Turks and other groups, to contaminate enemy water supplies. Plague victims were also reported to have been tossed by catapult into cities under siege.-wikipedia-
36Western Culture in the Postclassical Era Combining rational philosophy and religion. Bernard of Clairvaux- mystical union with God. Bernard believed that reason was dangerous and God’s truth must be received through faith alone.By 12th century Western scholars started to read translated Greek and Byzantine information as well as Arab and Jewish works from the Middle East.Thomas Aquinas, Italian born monk, taught at University of Paris. Through reason alone, humans could know much of the natural order, moral law, and the nature of God. Scholasticism-dominant medieval philosophical approach; so-called b/c of its base in the schools or universities; based on use of logic to resolve theological problemsEmphasis in organizing past work and mastering it.Mix of piety with religious obligations (not always remembered). Mixed with veneration of Mary and worship of saints. Mixed still yet with popular pagan festivals that involved dancing and merriment.Art and architecture to glorify god, very religious subjects. Western Europe Gothic architecture became popular (soaring churches). Church-tax collection, towers-soaring towards heaven-pietyLiterature/ music-religion: Latin and growing vernacular, Beowulf from England and the song of Roland from France. Canterbury Tales-mixed of stories of comic tales and poetry. Poked fun at hypocrisy of Christians and showed a fascination with bawdy behavior. Love hymns produced. Medieval intellectual and artistic life created a host of important themes centered around religion, but not precluding other areas like science and romantic poetry.
37Rural Life/ TradePeasant lives had improved during this time period. Still manorialism existed some peasants were almost free farmers while others were constrained.Urban growth led to more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities. Banking grew as long distance trade grew. Italy, Germany, Low countries, France, and Britain key area. (Greed not a Christian idea). Use of money spread.Trade within Europe and the greater worldSpices from AsiaTimber and grain from the north for cloth and metal products from Italy and Low CountriesEngland-wool industryHanseatic League-cites in n. Germany and Scandinavia grouped together to encourage tradeSupported new business ventures at great risk (pirates, lost a sea) with fortune to be gained or lostFormation of Joint stock companies where merchants came together to invest in an activity
38TradeMerchants had a freer hand than in many other places b/c the western monarchs were weaker. They also liked the merchants as a balance to powerful landed aristocracy. Additionally, the merchants created and ruled cities wherein laws and courts were created to regulate commercial laws. They were unusually independent and powerful. They also gave lots of taxes and loans to kings.Guilds heavily relied upon-they grouped people in the same business or trade in a single city, sometimes with loose links to similar guilds in other cities. Stressed security and mutual control/ benefit. Not about making profits so they discouraged new methods. Guarantee quality and pay. Played important role in city govern.
39Development of the cottage industry As society became increasingly urban and complex women’s roles decline A Patriarchal structure began taking root where women were seen as the assistants/ comforters of men and they should be docile.Religion- Eve as the source of human sin…women were given a hard time due to this. However, during the Middle Ages veneration for Mary occurred balancing this out more! Women were less confined than in Islamic culture, but were not assured of property rights
40Decline of Medieval Synthesis Hundred Years War: war between France and England over control of lands. France won, but no one really one. Exhausted both countries and accidentally helped France b/c the state took over lands without heirs (they died in the war). In England it led to a civil war. War of the Roses!
41War of the Roses The English Civil War 1455-1485 York-badge was the white rose and Lancaster-badge was the red rose. (Roses focus later added on to make the war seem more romantic)War came to an end when Henry Tudor of the Lancaster house defeated King Richard III. Henry Tudor then became Henry VII of England and ruled He married Elizabeth of York. This started the Tudor dynasty of England that ended with Elizabeth I nicknamed the virgin queen.The civil war in EnglandEnglish kings granted more power to aristocracy for financial support during 100 Yrs. War. War created powerful and autonomous aristocratic families with their own armies. Under weak kings the families fought for power for 30 yearsRival branches of the royal family fought of the English crown
42StrainAgricultural problems…limited lands and methods that led to famine.Plagues-black plagueSocial conflict between nobles and peasantsChurch weakened by Babylonian captivity and the great schism. People began preaching against the Church structure and some women claimed a direct emotional relationship with God. (heretics!)Some intellectual and artistic were declared heretical by the Church
44Section 3: ChivalryDuring Middle Ages, nobles fought one another, keeping Europe fragmented for centuriesThrough warfare feudal lords defended their estates, seized new territories, and increased their wealthRole of the warrior was very prized in this societyKnights had a code of chivalry: a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters: feudal lord, the Lord, and his chosen ladyKnights fought bravely in tournaments to show their training and hopefully pick up lands
45Siege Weapons To look at siege weapons click on the following link: Click below to play destroy the medieval castle!!!Troubadours would travel around Europe and play for money-what people did for fun!Women had increasing power because they could inherit land from their husbands and rule in his place while he was gone during the Crusades
46Section 4: The ChurchAmid weak governments and feudal states stood the Church-the most powerful institutionDuring this time the powers of the Church were growingAccordingly the emperor or kings should submit to the powers of the pope/ ChurchMany clashes over powers between the state and Church emergedStructure of the Church similar to that of society during this timePopeBishopspriests
47Section 4: The ChurchDuring the state of constant warfare the Church provided stability and leadership for medieval societyReligious officials provided the sacraments or important religious ceremonies that paved the way for salvationReligion became the social centerThe Church also had laws-canon law-in areas such as marriage and religionPopes got people, including kings, to obey them by the use of excommunication!Following the death of Charlemagne the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) emerged as the kingdom strongest from his lineThe H.R.E. and the pope developed a special relationship-Otto I and People Leo III
48Section 4:Resulted was the Concordat of Worms in 1122: the Church alone could choose a bishop yet the emperor had the veto power to prevent the appointment of a bishop1152 German princes elected Frederick I “Barbarossa” emperorHe launched attacks on rich lands-resourcesAngered Italian merchants. Formed an alliance against Frederick I (Lombard League)1176 meet at the Battle of Legnano-lost to Lombard League and forces of the Pope (Alexander III)Result-weakened German state due to picking emperors and continued clashes with the ChurchChurch became fearful of kings powers over lay investiture -a ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed (invested) church officials-they yielded real power over the Church1073 Pope Gregory VII made reforms-limited secular influences – lay investiture, no marriage for priests, banned simonyGregory vs. Henry IV of H.R.E.- Pope excommunicated Henry IV and headed north to crown a new emperor so Henry asked for forgiveness
50The Roman Catholic Church There was only one church in the Middle Ages in Western Europe (Roman Catholic), which held power both over kings and countries. In the late Middle Ages the church began to lose its powers:Babylonian Captivity (Jewish) and Great Schism (1054) are also earlier eventsBabylonian Captivity: popes lived in Avignon in southeastern France (away from Rome). French kings influenced the pope and the church. Ended with the death of pope Gregory XI in 1377Great Schism: various popes at same time –succession crisis! Ended with the election of pope Martin VConciliar Movement: reform the church by assemblies (constitutional)John Wycliffe precursor of the Reformation-scriptures alone should be the standard for Christian belief
51Jan Hus-rejected much of what Wycliffe thought, but did agree that indulgences were not good. He called for Church reform of liturgy and morals. Both pope XXIII and Bohemian king Wenceslas IV were outraged! Hus was excommunicated and found guilty of heresy. He was burned at the stake! His followers were called HussitesWycliffe attacked the doctrinal and political bases of the Church. He was against the selling of indulgences, stated the sacraments were only as good as the priest, Eucharist was spiritually, and salvation depended on predestination. He attacked the Church’s right to wealth and luxury which made the English monarchy happy and thus he was protected. His followers were called Lollards.