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IS MAN OVERDESIGNED? Pekka Reinikainen Physician Helsinki, Finland.

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2 IS MAN OVERDESIGNED? Pekka Reinikainen Physician Helsinki, Finland

3 OR IS MAN JUST AN ”UPDATED CHIMPANZEE”? Have we evolved from quarks and did we have a common ancestor with chimpanzees 7 million years ago?

4 Has man’s origin been proven beyond doubt by empirical scientific study? Or is the academic version ofman’s origin just a naturalistic creation myth? Or has modern empirical scientific study shown that the textbook claim is false?

5 500 million years ago a curious organism swam in the sea. All vertebrates: fishes, dinosaurs, birds, mammalians and finally men evolved from its descendants. Helsingin Sanomat/tiede (science)

6 1 % DIFFERENCE ? This has been taught as a factum in biology for 40 years!

7 1 % = 30 MILLION DNA CODE NUCLEOTIDS!

8 DNA is semantic information, written in code language, and determines a function.

9 MORSE: _. _. _ COMPUTER: ALPHABET: A B C D…Z DNA: A T G C

10 DNA CAN NOT BE MADE WITHOUT DNA -the duplication of DNA is a very complex, exact and enormously fast process (like copying letter by letter bibles per hour). Only 1 letter out of one billion is copied incorrectly! (thanks to the repair function). This requires the co-operation of 12 specific enzymes.

11 It is of course not true that the difference is 1% or 30 million nucleotids, as will be shown later.  But even this 1% is as many symbols as an encyclopedia of 10 volumes! Random mutations should write this 10 volume encyclopedia! (Richard Dawkins’ example of apes typing the sonnets of Shakespeare … in The Blind Watchmaker)

12 Relative Differences: The Myth of 1% - missing DNA sequences - orphan genes, that only men have - huge differences in non coding genes -differences in chromosome structures -of the brain gene-expression networks 17,4% are unique to humans -Y – chromosomes are very different 29 JUNE 2007 VOL 316 p SCIENCE

13 WHAT IS THE REAL % DIFFERENCE CHIMP/MAN? => Comparison of the transcribed intergenic regions of the human genome to chimpanzee Despite the proportionally small amount (1-3%) of protein coding sequence, the genome is ubiquitously transcribed into RNA ENCODE - Project

14 The human genome is extensively transcribed and produces a wide array of long nonocoding RNAs that are used in gene regulation, chromatin modification, nuclear organisation, and scaffolding for functionally active protein complexes. Of interest in human origins are the ’long’ (lincRNA) and ’very long’ (vlincRNA) intergenic noncoding RNAs transcribed from genomic regions outside protein coding genes. LincRNA regions of the genome are more taxonomically restricted than protein coding segments and make logical candidates for research in genomic discontinuity.

15 There are an estimated twofold greater number of lincRNA genes compared to protein-coding sequences. In a recent study it was found that only 47% of expressed human lncRNAs were conserved across primates and only 28% were found to have homologs across mammals (eutherians). These results led the researchers to state that “lncRNA transcription evolves rapidly”. This Illustrates their evolutionary assumption of common ancestry. Nesculea, A., et al., 2014, The evolution of lncRNA repertoires and Expression patterns in tetrapods. Nature 505(7485): However, the sudden “appearance” of lincRNA genes in separate lineages are intractable problems for the evolutionary paradigm.

16 RESULTS: -Short human lincRNA genomic regions (less than 600 nucleotids) were about 75-79% similar to chimpanzee -The larger ones (over 600 nucleotids) were about 71-74% similar -The very long regions (vlincRNA) were only 67% similar to chimpanzee -In contrast, all known human protein coding exons ( nucleotids) are 86% similar to chimpanzees Jeffrey P. Tomkins,

17 IN ADDITION TO GENETIC DIFFERENCES THERE ARE OTHER HUGE DIFFERENCES: - In physiology - In the disease spectrum - In brain development - In reproductive physiology - In muscles and bones: men can outrun an antelope, throw a javelin, hammer etc… - Hand dexterity and the muscles used in speech - We have language and culture, we can compose and play instruments, paint pictures and do scientific research - We can change our brain’s neural network by studying - We differ from animals by a quantum leap! - It is not known which selection pressure would cause all of this?

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21 An evolutionary biologist warns: ”The history of evolution is full of deceit. The fact that we deceive is inherited from our forefathers that deceived. Those of us that behave in a certain fashion have got this in their genes. That is why this behaviour is so common.”

22 Differences between men and chimps Bipedalism Skilful hands Speech Facial communication Long childhood Complex brain

23 Bipedalism requires specific structures that are unique Picture from, Image of God Bipedalism is not an ‘evolutionary accident’ that causes ’slipped discs’ and other back problems

24 Mango the Bear gets back surgery for slipped disk at Israeli zoo

25 Knee is irreducibly complex

26 The irreducible mechanism of the knee joint is shown to contain at least 16 critical characteristics, each requiring thousands of precise units of information to exist simultaneously in the genetic code. This demonstrates that the knee could not have evolved but must have been created as a fully functioning limb joint from the beginning of its existence.

27 Schematic diagram of the four-bar mechanism in the knee joint: The biomechanics of the knee are also simplified above for clarity. In reality, the ligaments do stretch by a tiny amount when the knee is in certain positions. There is also a small amount of torsional freedom between the femur and tibia. These features make the knee joint an extremely sophisticated mechanism. Indeed, the knee joint is so sophisticated that human designers have been unable to produce an artificial knee that has anything approaching the performance of a real knee.

28 The Impossibility of an Evolved Knee The knee joint presents a major challenge to the evolutionist because it is unique, and because there are no intermediate forms of joint between a condylar joint and the other two limb joints found in animals and humans - the ball and socket joint and the pivot joint. The knee is widely acknowledged by anatomists as being a completely distinct type of joint. This is because the knee uses completely different mechanical principles for hinged movement. Whereas the knee has two mechanical linkages that perform a vital guidance role (the cruciate ligaments), the joints of the hip, shoulder and elbow have no such mechanical linkages at all. Whereas the knee rolls and slides, the joints of the hip, shoulder and elbow only slide. Whereas the knee has a centre of rotation that moves by up to several centimetres, the joints of the hip, shoulder and elbow have a fixed centre of rotation.

29 mail.co.uk/tvshow biz/article /Matthew -Wolfenden- crowned-Dancing- On-Ice-champion- performs-difficult- Bolero-began.htm

30 We can play on the piano over 20 notes per second and place our hands on the keyboard in over 30 ways. We can play many other instruments, build computers and do brain surgery. We can play tennis or ice-hockey or nail roof panels. We have simultaneously both a power grip and a fine movement grip. To build a robot arm that can do all that is very challenging. You can click ’the flight of a bumblebee’ from the icon below

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33 EVOLUTIONISTS’ EXPLANATION: Where did the ability to gesticulate when speaking come from? Some people gesticulate even when they are on the phone, when their fellow man cannot even see him/her. Andrew Bass of Cornell University says that we have inherited this from the fish that were our ancestors! ”Combining hands and speech can be traced to a time, when the ability to communicate with fins evolved in fish”. Fish can actually communicate by moving their fins. ”The communication between speech and pectoral muscles takes us back to the origin of speech and hand gestures. This may have to do with the development of language”. Why do we gesticulate? Sciencedaily.com

34 Lip smacking by this ethiopian monkey may bring light to the origin of human language Tselada or the ethiopian baboon samcks its lips and makes faces to communicate. This might help scientists to understand the development of early human language. Current Biology 8th April 2013.

35 When speaking man uses up to 100 different muscles. The throat is built for speaking respiration and eating.

36 Special trait for man: communication Speech is controlled by 100 muscles Learning to speak takes over a year, co-operation of over 100 muscles! The scale can be over 3 octaves (for example, if one note has a frequency of 440 Hz, the note an octave above it is at 880 Hz, and the note an octave below is at 220 Hz). Gorillas have only half as many face muscles – No muscles for complex facial communication – Apes cannot produce speech – Men can speak up to 200 words/min In daily routines use up to words – Pianist can remember up to notes – Memory record is decimals of Pi (3,14159…)

37 Of the 50 face muscles of man, the 24 under the skin produce man’s facial expressions. Paul Ekman of the University of California has estimated that hundres of thousands of expressions can be produced. It is challenging to take a passport photo, because the face is constantly changing! 25% of the motor cortex is wired for face muscle use!

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41 FACIAL COMMUNICATION Man’s ability for facial communication is fantastic Our facial muscles – Move different areas of the face very precisely Half of the muscles help eating – 24 are reserved exclusively for expressions – Apes do not have these muscles It is very hard to keep a “poker face” – It is often easy to see when a person is lying For smiling, only 4-6 muscles are needed For frowning up to 20 are needed We have the ability to recognise people from their face

42 This is how vertebrates got their faces over 400 million years ago According to the evolutionists! Romundina - fish

43 More information: 25% of cortex for hands, 25% face expressions ja 25% speech => 75% COMMUNICATION

44 Research: Chimps communicate with 66 gestures, Helsingin Sanomat,

45 Brain weight does not determine intellect: whales and elephants have much bigger brains. Brain cells are connected by synapses, which can be compared to microprocessors and memory sticks. Human brain contains one million billion (10^15) synapses. The specific structure of the molecular switches of the synapses determines intellect! Man has 100 billion billion switches (10^20).

46 In addition certain areas of the human brain are markedly larger than in animals. It is good to remember that a big brain is a risk at birth and up to 50% of the baby’s energy consumption goes towards brain development. The first 2 years of life are marked by huge brain cell accumulation and organisation. This does not happen in apes. Man has an ’adult’ brain at the age of 24 years. What would be the selection pressure? It is interesting that the thousands of genes controlling our intellect are degenerating and humanity is continually becoming less intellectual. We were at the top of our intellect about years ago!

47 Computers are simple when compared to man’s brain. There is a bigger neural network in the human brain than in all of the world’s computers and information networks put together.

48 A japanese-german research group imitated human brain function with the world’s 4th fastest supercomputer (comparable to home computers). The researchers imitated the function of 1,73 billion (10^9) neurons (corresponds to about 1% of the brain’s neurons) and the billion (10^13) synapses that connect them. The goal was to simulate what happens in your brain during 1 second. This took the computer 40 minutes. Riken – research centre, Kobe, Japan, Markus Diesmann Yle News , Eero Nurmi

49 The Smith Laboratory pursues neuroscience research at Stanford University, developing and applying new imaging methods to explore brain microcircuit connectivity and molecular architecture. The work of the laboratory is supervised by Stephen J Smith, Ph.D., Prof. of Molecular and Cellular Physiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Stephen J Smith earned a PhD from the University of Washington in 1977 for research supervised by Profs. Charles F. Stevens and Wolfhard Almers. He did postdoctoral research at Berkeley with Prof. Robert Zucker The Smith laboratory was established when Smith took a faculty position at Yale in 1980 and then moved to Stanford University in Prof. Smith teaches Neuroscience and Microscopy at Stanford and at other international teaching venues. /Smithlab_Home.html

50 Human brain’s complexity is a challenge The volume of the human brain is only 1,5 litres. Our brain contains thousands of kilometres of axons and dendrites. These neural pathways connect hunderds of billions (10^9)of different neurons and supporting cells with a million billion (10^15) synapses. Evolutionists’ explanation: brain growth started when man learned how to cook meat: human-brain.html

51 Each of the synapses is a complicated molecular machine that is made of thousands of different protein molecules. Most of these molecules operate actively as individual “molecular switches” transmitting dynamically a large array of electrical and biochemical signals. Moreover, synaptic proteins can be expressed from many alternative genes and exist in different neurons in multiple protein isoforms, so it is certain that a high degree of combinatorial proteomic diversity must distinguish large numbers of synaptic subpopulations within every region of the central nervous system.

52 This unbelieveably compex brain network of synapses and the vide variety of different kinds of synapses and neurons is an enormous challenge for us who try to understand brain structure, memory and conscious thinking. It is only during the past few years that progress in information technology and molecular genetics has made possible the reconstruction and direct empirical study of brain’s synapse network. This kind of research in neuroscience seemed almost impossible a few years ago. VIDEOS OF BRAIN FUNCTION: very fine!

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54 Ultrastructural appearance of asymmetric and symmetric synapses. Four asymmetric synapses (arrows) and one symmetric synapse (arrowhead) can be identified on four dendritic spines (d 1 to d 4 ). Asymmetric synapses show a thick post-synaptic density

55 CONCLUSIONS: The human brain contains about 200 billion (10^9) cells and 10^20 synapses, the numbers are astronomical. Each synapse is like a processor. It was thought that each synapse operates as a switch or a transistor. The new research and imaging techniques revealed that in reality the synapses are extremely complex. Each synapse contains a memory bank and processes information and can contain thousands of protein switches. This means that one man’s brain is more complex than all the world’s supercomputers, computers and information networks put togther = you truly have the internet and google inside your head!

56 ”Brain is so complex that it is hard to believe”, commented professor Stephen Smith in astonishment.

57 And this is not all -The chemistry of the transmitting substances -The hormonal regulation -The role of the 100 billion (10^11) supporting cells -Consciousness

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59 Chimp uses tool to break a nut

60 Did men and chimpanzees have a common “forefather” 7 million years ago? Mutations are random and generally not dependant on each other, but their effects are not independent. Mutations that promote some trait may harm another trait.

61 In addition many new anatomical structures and physiological functions can be very complex. This kind of new traits require many co-ordinated mutations to get a selective advantage. Also many new structures must appear simultaneously, so that the result is useful (for example bipedalism).

62 Transition to walking on two feet requires co- operation between the design of feet, knees, hips, spinal column, skull, face and balance organs. This can not be achieved by evolving one structure at a time. All the new and necessary traits must evolve towards the same goal and with the same timetable.

63 Here is the crux of the matter Hundreds of traits separate men from chimpanzees. This requires millions of mutations. Even if the numer of traits that must be changed were only and only 100 mutations were needed, even these changes would take over 13,8 billion (10^9) years. Estimation in the hominid line: 2 co-ordinated mutations would be fixed in a population of , in about 216 million years.

64 ORPHAN GENES 10-20% of the genome

65 MORE INFORMATION: creation.com icr.org biocomplexity.org evolutionnews.org answersingenesis.org In finnish: teoria.fi, taustaa.fi, luominen.fi, datakirjatkustannus.fi In swedish: genesis.nu In german: wort-und-wissen.de englannin kielellä: creation.com ja icr.org

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67 Macroevolution has no mechanism

68 Today it is possible to show, by empirical research in the laboratory, that evolution i.e. mutation + natural selection cannot produce totally novel structures and functions (harware and software)

69 Evolution cannot even restore the E. coli bacterium its ability to metabolise lactose for energy that it had lost

70 What does empirical data tell us about the performance of the hypothetical evolutionary mechanism? => Mutations are not the motor of evolution. Does the requirement of 2 mutations really prevent evolution? => The 2 desired mutations  simply do not happen! Experiments with Escherichia coli trpA genes:

71 -if evolution requires 1 mutation, mutants can always be found -if evolution requires 2 or more simultaneous mutations, nothing happens. EXAMPLE: USE OF LACTOSE Two requirements: Lactase: breaks down lactose Permease: transports lactose into cell Both are needed

72 permease O O lactase galactose food! Irreducibly complex: The cell needs both lactase and permease to be able to use lactose for food glucose lactose

73 1-2 mutations rule is valid: When an insect becomes resistant to DDT A rat to rat poison A bacterium to an antibiotic A malarial parasite to a drug A man to the malarial parasite

74 If we wanted to have 7 co-ordinated mutations in a bacterium, where lots of mutations happen and populations are huge, this would take 10^27 years. = years (based on Doug Axe’s population genetics model, also published in BIO- Complexity)

75 The darwinistic random mutation/selection mechanism works, when the result can be reached with 1-2 point mutations BUT the structure must already exist (!!!) = the gene was already there. Creation of a totally new function or structure requires crossing an impossible gap Esitmates in literature* of the probability of finding one functional protein Is one possibility in a group of – molecules Experimental results strongly contradict the fantastic results that the evolutionary theory claims

76 The textbook evidence that ”proves evolution” is usually within the reach of 1-2 mutations.

77 Where have the explanations disappeared? ”I am told that there are evolutionists who have described how the necessary changes could have happened. When I ask, in which books I can find them, I either get no answer or am led to books, where these explanations cannot be found. Everybody seems to know that the explanations exist, but I have not found anyone who knows where they are.” David Griffin, 2000, Religion and Scientific Naturalism, State University of New York Press

78 12 weeks from conception. The child starts to move and is 6 cm long. Heart sounds can be heard and the sex can be known. 16 weeks from conception. hedelmöityksestä. The child is 10 cm long. The fundus of the uterus can be felt 7 cm belov mother’s navel. The child posesses own fingerprints. etal_development_pictures_slid eshow/article.htm#

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