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The Enlightenment in Europe

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment in Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment in Europe
Chapter 6.2

2 Learning Targets I can………………………….. Define the term “Enlightenment”
Identify the historical time periods in which the Enlightenment took place. Summarize the reasons that the Enlightenment took place. Identify Enlightenment thinkers and describe their ideas. Analyze the effects of the Enlightenment on Europe.

3 Discussion Questions:
What views or traditional social ideas are being challenged today? Who are the people in which traditional ideas originate? Who are the individuals or groups who seem to be pressing for change?

4 Enlightenment A revolution in intellectual activity changes Europeans’ view of government and society. Scientific, political and social changes would occur as result of the Enlightenment,

5 Reasons for the Enlightenment
1) The Renaissance led to secularism, an emphasis on the worldly matters and included pursuing human achievement. 2) The Reformation- Church political power had weakened as a result of scandals. 3) Humanism led to the scientific Revolution which emphasized experimentation and reason. 4) Political changes- People were tired of absolutism and began to challenge it. 5) Reason- people sought reasoning in science and political matters.

6 Views on Government Europeans seek insights into society during the 1600’s and 1700’s Leads to the Enlightenment - a movement stressing reason and thought

7 Hobbes’s Social Contract
Hobbes distrusts humans, favors strong government to keep order Promotes social contract – getting order by giving power to monarch

8 Locke’s Natural Rights
Philosopher John Locke says government gets power from the people Stresses that the people have the right to overthrow an unjust government

9 Philosophes Advocates Reason
The philosophes are French social critics in the mid-1700s Value reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty

10 Voltaire Voltaire – influential philosophe, pen name of Francois Marie Arouet Publishes many work arguing for tolerance, reason Makes powerful enemies and is imprisoned twice for his views

11 Montesquieu French writer who admires Britain’s government system
Favors separation of powers to keep one body form running government

12 Rousseau Philosophe who favors individual freedom, direct democracy
Views social contract as agreement by free people to form government

13 Beccaria Italian philosopher Cesare Beccaria works to reform justice system Calls for speedy trails, greater rights for criminal defendants

14 Mary Wollstonecraft Urges greater rights for women
Argues that women need education to be virtuous and useful

15 Urges women to go into traditionally male professions like politics
Some wealthy women use their status to spread enlightenment ideas

16 Legacy of the Enlightenment
Philosophes are not activists, but inspire others to begin major revolutions Scientific breakthroughs show human capacity to improve society

17 Secular outlook – new ideas question religious ideas
Many people openly question beliefs and practices of Christianity

18 Importance of the Individual
People place more importance on individual rights and abilities Reason becomes central concept for philosophers and rulers

19 Which definition best explains the Enlightenment?
Accepting traditional ideas with little or no experimentation. Challenging existing political, social and scientific ideas using reason and science. Using a combination of religious and scientific ideas in order to arrive at conclusions. Applying Roman and Greek philosophies in order to validate previous conclusions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

20 When did the Enlightenment take place?
After the decline of the Roman Empire During the start of the 15th century. After Columbus’ voyage to the new world. During the ’s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

21 Which of the following is not a reason that the Enlightenment took place?
Church political power was weakened. Secularism led people to worldly ideas. Kings pushed for political reform. Scientific ideas centered around reason and experimentation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

22 Lets play the Enlightenment game
Identify the Enlightenment thinker who is being portrayed in the skit…………Explain why this is the correct thinker.

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