2Learning Targets I can………………………….. Define the term “Enlightenment” Identify the historical time periods in which the Enlightenment took place.Summarize the reasons that the Enlightenment took place.Identify Enlightenment thinkers and describe their ideas.Analyze the effects of the Enlightenment on Europe.
3Discussion Questions: What views or traditional social ideas are being challenged today?Who are the people in which traditional ideas originate? Who are the individuals or groups who seem to be pressing for change?
4EnlightenmentA revolution in intellectual activity changes Europeans’ view of government and society.Scientific, political and social changes would occur as result of the Enlightenment,
5Reasons for the Enlightenment 1) The Renaissance led to secularism, an emphasis on the worldly matters and included pursuing human achievement.2) The Reformation- Church political power had weakened as a result of scandals.3) Humanism led to the scientific Revolution which emphasized experimentation and reason.4) Political changes- People were tired of absolutism and began to challenge it.5) Reason- people sought reasoning in science and political matters.
6Views on GovernmentEuropeans seek insights into society during the 1600’s and 1700’sLeads to the Enlightenment - a movement stressing reason and thought
7Hobbes’s Social Contract Hobbes distrusts humans, favors strong government to keep orderPromotes social contract – getting order by giving power to monarch
8Locke’s Natural Rights Philosopher John Locke says government gets power from the peopleStresses that the people have the right to overthrow an unjust government
9Philosophes Advocates Reason The philosophes are French social critics in the mid-1700sValue reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
10VoltaireVoltaire – influential philosophe, pen name of Francois Marie ArouetPublishes many work arguing for tolerance, reasonMakes powerful enemies and is imprisoned twice for his views
11Montesquieu French writer who admires Britain’s government system Favors separation of powers to keep one body form running government
12Rousseau Philosophe who favors individual freedom, direct democracy Views social contract as agreement by free people to form government
13BeccariaItalian philosopher Cesare Beccaria works to reform justice systemCalls for speedy trails, greater rights for criminal defendants
14Mary Wollstonecraft Urges greater rights for women Argues that women need education to be virtuous and useful
15Urges women to go into traditionally male professions like politics Some wealthy women use their status to spread enlightenment ideas
16Legacy of the Enlightenment Philosophes are not activists, but inspire others to begin major revolutionsScientific breakthroughs show human capacity to improve society
17Secular outlook – new ideas question religious ideas Many people openly question beliefs and practices of Christianity
18Importance of the Individual People place more importance on individual rights and abilitiesReason becomes central concept for philosophers and rulers
19Which definition best explains the Enlightenment? Accepting traditional ideas with little or no experimentation.Challenging existing political, social and scientific ideas using reason and science.Using a combination of religious and scientific ideas in order to arrive at conclusions.Applying Roman and Greek philosophies in order to validate previous conclusions.123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
20When did the Enlightenment take place? After the decline of the Roman EmpireDuring the start of the 15th century.After Columbus’ voyage to the new world.During the ’s.123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
21Which of the following is not a reason that the Enlightenment took place? Church political power was weakened.Secularism led people to worldly ideas.Kings pushed for political reform.Scientific ideas centered around reason and experimentation.123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
22Lets play the Enlightenment game Identify the Enlightenment thinker who is being portrayed in the skit…………Explain why this is the correct thinker.