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Violence in Sport… Mr. P. Leighton Contemporary Sporting Issues Socio-Cultural Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Violence in Sport… Mr. P. Leighton Contemporary Sporting Issues Socio-Cultural Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Violence in Sport… Mr. P. Leighton Contemporary Sporting Issues Socio-Cultural Studies.

2 Todays Session… Understand the issues surrounding violence in sport. Understand the issues surrounding violence in sport. Look at some examples of both player and spectator violence. Look at some examples of both player and spectator violence. Understand the problems and possible solutions to violence in sport. Understand the problems and possible solutions to violence in sport.

3 Aggression Vs. Assertion… CONTROLLED AGGRESSION (Assertion) is a fundamental part of sport. CONTROLLED AGGRESSION (Assertion) is a fundamental part of sport. However, when it spills over into an uncontrolled situation serious injury can occur. However, when it spills over into an uncontrolled situation serious injury can occur. Violence on the streets= Criminal Offence Violence on the streets= Criminal Offence Violence in sport= sometimes endorsed or partially penalised. Violence in sport= sometimes endorsed or partially penalised.

4 Violence in Sport: A History… Sport and violence have always gone hand-in-hand historically- examples? Sport and violence have always gone hand-in-hand historically- examples? Remember our work on surviving ethnic sports? Remember our work on surviving ethnic sports? Mob football is still characterised by violence and brutality today! Mob football is still characterised by violence and brutality today! After 1850, however, sport became more associated with fair play and sportsmanship- why? After 1850, however, sport became more associated with fair play and sportsmanship- why? Games were not taken to seriously in the schools, taking part was more important. Games were not taken to seriously in the schools, taking part was more important. Physicality Vs. Gentlemanly conduct? Physicality Vs. Gentlemanly conduct? Sports were played to the letter of the law- the Victorians thrived upon the rigidity of rules and sport was no different. Sports were played to the letter of the law- the Victorians thrived upon the rigidity of rules and sport was no different.

5 Violence in Sport: Today… Times have changed! Times have changed! Amateurish attitudes have begun to be squeezed out of sport. Amateurish attitudes have begun to be squeezed out of sport. Stakes are high- money is the main aim and stadia become like Cauldrons for performers. Stakes are high- money is the main aim and stadia become like Cauldrons for performers. Gamesmanship is now commonplace! Gamesmanship is now commonplace!

6 Some Key Terms… Sportsmanship: Fair play throughout sport. Sportsmanship: Fair play throughout sport. Gamesmanship: Stretching the rules to gain an unfair advantage. Gamesmanship: Stretching the rules to gain an unfair advantage. Deviance: (in sport) Seriously breaking the rules and norms (of sport) Deviance: (in sport) Seriously breaking the rules and norms (of sport)

7 Violence by Participants… Cheating: A blatant infringement of the rules and codes and a disregard of the values of sport. Cheating: A blatant infringement of the rules and codes and a disregard of the values of sport. This can be categorised and explained in the following terms… This can be categorised and explained in the following terms… Health: Causes injury and physical damage, can be life threatening Health: Causes injury and physical damage, can be life threatening Legality: Against the laws of the land and is more noticeable in sport through punishments. Legality: Against the laws of the land and is more noticeable in sport through punishments. Role Modelling: Elite sports performers have a responsibility to young people. Role Modelling: Elite sports performers have a responsibility to young people.

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9 The possible causes of violence by players… Causes of Violence… Importance of The result Nature of the game Provocation Disappointment and Frustration De-Humanised view Of the opposition Weapons Crowd Behaviour Emotional Intensity

10 Possible solutions To the problem… TECHNOLOGY: Video playback to assess and adjudicate on Unfair play. RULE CHANGES: Combat the ways players And coaches try to swerve The rules i.e. Rugby ELVs MORE SERVERE PENALTIES: Penalty tries, sin bins, Yellow cards, bans, Lifetime bans etc EDUCATION: NGBs and clubs to instil Ethos of fair play in performers GREATER NUMBERS/ MORE AUTHORITY: Referees, umpires And linesmen.

11 Violence by Spectators… Aggressive acts and rebellious behaviour at sporting events is not new. Aggressive acts and rebellious behaviour at sporting events is not new. Hooliganism exemplifies to perfection the difficulty of disentangling what is new from what is old in social history Hooliganism exemplifies to perfection the difficulty of disentangling what is new from what is old in social history Peace, peace is what I seek and public calm; endless extinction of unhappy hates. Mathew Arnold, 1985

12 Spectator Violence: A History… The problem was around in pre-industrial days and throughout Victorian England. The problem was around in pre-industrial days and throughout Victorian England. Hooligan, a fictitious Irish immigrant family at the time of immigration into the UK gave us the term Hooligans/Hooliganism. Hooligan, a fictitious Irish immigrant family at the time of immigration into the UK gave us the term Hooligans/Hooliganism. Hooliganism raised its head in the 1960s in connection with the violent behaviour of predominantly white, urban, unskilled males at football matches… Hooliganism raised its head in the 1960s in connection with the violent behaviour of predominantly white, urban, unskilled males at football matches…

13 Causes of Crowd Violence Ritual importance Of the event Copied Violence on Pitch Pre-match Hype Controversy Chanting and Abuse Diminished Responsibility Activity by a Minority of Violent criminals Limited outlets For stress The score or result Poor provision For spectators Racism and Religion Alcohol or Drugs

14 Case Study: Heysel 1985… 39 Spectators (31 Juventus fans) were crushed to death trying to escape a charge by Liverpool fans. 39 Spectators (31 Juventus fans) were crushed to death trying to escape a charge by Liverpool fans. 250 Others were injured. 250 Others were injured. All in front of a worldwide TV audience. All in front of a worldwide TV audience. Italian PM Bettino Craxi said the UK was A country submerged in disgrace by the criminal actions of violent and irresponsible groups. Italian PM Bettino Craxi said the UK was A country submerged in disgrace by the criminal actions of violent and irresponsible groups. Liverpool were banned from Europe for 5 years. Liverpool were banned from Europe for 5 years.

15 Case Study: Hillsborough 1989… This had nothing to do with hooliganism, but a miscalculation and irresponsible policing and overcrowding. This had nothing to do with hooliganism, but a miscalculation and irresponsible policing and overcrowding. 95 people died after hundreds were channelled into an already overcrowded section of the stadium. 95 people died after hundreds were channelled into an already overcrowded section of the stadium. Resultant reports led to more seating at games and less standing room. Resultant reports led to more seating at games and less standing room.

16 Solutions to the problem Of violence by supporters… (Football) Promotion of sport as Family Entertainment Responsible Media Coverage Use of CCTV to subdue Violence and hooliganism Tougher deterrents Severe punishments Separation of Fans Liason between police Across the country i.e. Wigan Vs. Milwall. Control of Alcohol Improve Facilities

17 Key Words/Terms from today?


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