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EDF 1001 Historical & Philosophical Found. Of Malaysian Education

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1 EDF 1001 Historical & Philosophical Found. Of Malaysian Education

2 TASK 10 : Reforms in Malaysian Educational System from 1990s to 2005

3 Education Act ,1961 Became the basis of the National Edu. Policy (NEP). Contained in the Razak Report (1956) and the Rahman Talib Report (1960) constituted the National Edu. System adopted today.

4 Education Act , 1996 In line with rapid ICT, the government decided to re-examine the Edu. Act, 1961.  The formation of National Advisory Council.  The National Edu. System was to encompass pre school – tertiary level.  The National lang. / BM be the main medium of instruction.  The Minister of Edu. Had the power to set up technical edu. at any institution including those at tertiary level & the setting up of teacher training ] colleges.  Islamic religious teachers would be provided to all schools with more than five Muslim pupils.

5 Why there are Changes in the Educational System?
Edu. plays a vital role in preparing a trained and highly competitive workforce for the nation. Aimed at achieving world class edu. Upgrading the efficiency of the public universities in Malaysia. Government encouraged the formation of private institutions of higher learning. - encouraged to widen & inculcate research and devlpmnt as a culture in order to develop Malaysia into a centre of edu. excellence.


7 Vision 2020 & The Edu. Approach
Malaysia is a fast developing country in the middle of the International trade highway. The economic change from agriculture industry =drastic changes including the nation’s edu. system. In line with the aims outlined in Vision 2020:

8 “To build a progressive and scientific society, a society which has a high capacity for change and forward looking, not only as the user of technology but also as a contributor to the future of science and technology. (6th Challenge Vision 2020)

9 Vision 2020 & The Edu. Approach
In 1991, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamed introduced Vision 2020 as the foundation and direction in developing a progressive industrial nation in its own mould. The MAIN goal : produce outstanding individuals who are JERI balanced in line with the National Philosophy of Edu. (NPE). Other aspects : curriculum, quality teachers, present infrastructure & an efficient edu. management system.

10 Structuring the Edu. Curriculum
Reviewed in line with the 1967 Higher Edu. Planning Committee Statement. 1996: - MOE formulated the Smart School concept. - Upgrading the broadcasting of ETV. - Fully equipped computer laboratories. The intro. Of the KBSR & KBSR (emphasis co-curriculum programmes; uniform bodies, clubs/societies & sports. -to develop & enhance relationships -to spend time wisely -to apply and reinforce knowledge gained in classroom -to train them to be confident & independent -to help students complete the academic achievement

11 Changes in Educational Curriculum

12 New Primary School Curriculum (NPSC)
Pre-school - 1992: government initiated it in all national primary schools esp. in rural areas under MOE. - Cover all aspects in children’s mental, spiritual, emotional, physical & social development. New Primary School Curriculum (NPSC) - Introduced in 1982 in 305 schools on an exp.basis. - The MAIN aim: produce students who are intellectual only but also of high moral standards. - Organised into 3 parts : comm., human & environment and individual development. - Each part divided to basic skills, spirituality, values & attitudes; humanity & envrnmnt and arts &recreation.

13 - 1993: NPSC IPSC (Integrated Primary School Curriculum).
- Changes in subjects –Lang., Physical Edu., Islamic Edu. & Moral Edu. New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC) - Began in 1980, in line with the proposal in the Cabinet Committee Report (1979). - 1st implemented in 1988 in Form 1 and Remove Classes (BM, English, Chinese & Tamil lang.) - 1989:NSSC fully implemented in Form - Lower Sec. Level: subjects divided into core & additional groups. - Upper Sec. Level: elective subjects introduced.

14 The National Exam. System
Malaysian Examination Syndicate (MES) and the Malaysian Examination Council (MEC). Phases of Development 1) The Pre Independence Phase -no attempt by the colonial government to develop a national education policy or a coherent system of education. -based on individual school requirements or that of external examining bodies such as the Overseas School Certificate.

15 2)Implementation of the Razak Report (1956)
-led to the formulation of the National Edu. Policy. -establishment of the Malaysian Examination Syndicate. -apart from the administration of the Cambridge Examination, it also conducted on its own the Malayan Secondary School Entrance Examination (MSSEE) and the \ Lower Certificate of Education (LCE).

16 3) The Implementation of the Rahman Talib Report (1960)
-elective subjects were introduced into the LCE and the ‘Sijil Rendah Pelajaran’ (SRP) , -the Standard Five Assessment Examination, -the Malaysian Vocational Education Certificate Exam. & the Year Three Diagnostic Test.

17 4) Implementation of the Cabinet Report (1979)
-Implementation of the (UPSR)/Primary School Achievement Test replaced the ‘Peperiksaan Penilaian Darjah V’ (PPDL) or Standard Five Assessment Exam., and the (PMR)/Lower Certificate of Education Exam. -Ensure that the (SPM)/Malaysian Certificate of Edu. was in line with the NPE. -Led to the formation of the Malaysian Exam. Council (MEC) in 1980. responsible of co-ordinating and administering the (STPM)/Malaysian Higher School Certificate which replaced the Higher School Certificate (HSC) Exam. initially co-ordinated by the University of Cambridge Local Examination Syndicate with the co-operation of University of Malaya.

18 Teachers’ Education Pre-service Training Programmes
1)MPIK Twinning Programme-UK/New Zealand -1992: MPIK twinned with 13 institutions of higher learning in the UK and New Zealand to offer courses in (TESL). 2) Diploma in teacher Education Malaysia -July 1996: the 6 Semester Diploma Course was introduced to replace the Certificate in teaching as an attempt to upgrade the Image of the teaching profession

19 3) Privatised Teacher Training Programme
-Introduced in September 2000 and offered to teachers at private teaching institutions, private candidates and agencies outside the MOE 4) Bachelor Degree Teaching Programme/ (PISMP) -The first intake of 1,525 candidates, in June 2004, is attending this programme which will gradually replace the Malaysian Teaching Diploma Course (KDPM).

20 5)Special Programme -The Ministry implemented a special programme for People’s Religious School (SAR) teachers for Islamic Studies and academic subjects. 6)Postgraduate Teaching Course (KPLI) Full Time, Primary & Secondary School -Primary: 3,954 candidates were trained in all teachers’ training colleges in 11 primary school subjects. Projection for the 2005 intake is 3,000. -Secondary: 1,952 candidates were trained in 2004 and 1,940 are projected for the 2005 intake

21 7) TESL Edu. Bachelor Degree Course & Outstanding Students for Overseas Universities
MOE B.ed TESL IPTA/Overseas institutions implemented in May 2002. For 5 years, had its 1st intake (2002) and the 5th intake in (2006). Estimated that 2,500 graduates will be produced by the end of 2011. Overseas institutions: College of St. Mark & St. John (UK), Queensland University of Tech. & Macquarie University (Aus), Victoria University of Wellington & University of Auckland (NZ).  7 IPTAs are also involved in this programme.

22 - 2003: 300+ Cohort 2 TESL students in 7 different teachers’ training colleges including 50 students in MPPM. -2004: 375 students in local universities’ twinning programmes, 125 TESL students in overseas universities and 102 outstanding students in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology were placed in well-known overseas universities.

23 Teslians (Cohort 2)-MPPM

24 In-Service Training Programmes
1) Smart School Teacher Training Course -Since 1998, it was organised to upgrade teacher skills in order to fulfil the needs of smart schools especially those concerning ICT. 2) Special Programme to produce Graduate Teachers (SPGT) -Carried out in 1999 through the MoU between the teacher training colleges and institutions of higher learning nationwide 3) Master and PhD Programmes (MPP) -AIM: increase the number of highly qualified lecturers to assist course participations who are attending the twinning programmes with universities, post Graduate Teaching Course and the in-service courses.

25 4)Special Programme Enabling Non-Graduate Teachers to Attain Degrees (PKPG)
-2004: to enable teachers to attain degree (PKPG) involved 16 teachers’ training colleges and 11 institutions of higher learning (IPTA). \ 5)Open University Malaysia (OUM) Distance Education Programme (PJJ) -BPG-OUM co-operation began on 22 March 2002 when the OUM was signed for a period of five years (concluding by the end of 2005). 6)English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science Programme - 2002: the Cabinet resolved that the Mathematics and Science subjects would be taught I English beginning from 2003 in Year 1, From 1 and Lower 6

26 Project (KGSK) 7) National Reserve Teachers Group Pioneer
-Those qualified to become members of KGSK are:  Teachers on compulsory retirement  Teachers on optional retirement  Teaching professional qualification holders  Teachers who have not been served disciplinary action  Teachers who are not more than 65 years of age. -Play the role of replacement teachers (to fill vacancies in schools due to teachers attending courses, on sick leave, on pilgrimage leave, etc) and carry out teaching and learning duties in the classroom, co-curricular activities and preparation of teaching materials

27 Moral and Islamic Education Programme
Placement and Transfer of Islamic Education Teachers -2004:1054 Islamic Edu. Teachers posted o primary and secondary schools throughout the country. Aid for Public religious Schools -JAPIM has organised aid for Public Religious Schools which follow the KAFA curriculum. -A total of 1557 People’s Religious Schools that follow the KAFA curriculum qualified t receive such aid.

28 J-QAF Programme -to fulfil he aspiration of the honourable PM. -objective: ensure that primary school students complete their reading of Quran, master reading and writing in jawi, improve and be proficient in Fardu Ain and know basic communication in Arabic.

29 ICT

30 The globalisation of information has extended our accessibility to knowledge. Hence, student being as the nation most valuable asset students must be exposed to the use of ICT.

31 Self-direct own learning Engage in continuous learning
MOE implemented a range of activities and projects based on E-learning, which has the capacity to develop a culture of learning where students are able to: Self-direct own learning Engage in continuous learning Access courses from a variety of sources Communicate and discuss with almost anyone regardless of distance and borders.

32 The Munsyi Web Pilot Project
It was implemented in involving 14 secondary schools throughout Malaysia. It is a co-ordinated effort of MOE and a private telecommunication company. The main purpose of the project is to encourage teachers and students to share information on the Internet and develop an Electronic Resource Centre (ERC)

33 School Net Project It is a broadband internet access infrastructure project that aims to bridge the digital divide. It involves network connection for schools throughout Malaysia. Its is under the supervision of Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Finance and it is funded by the Communications and Multimedia Commission from The School Net is developed to connect ten thousand schools throughout Malaysia under one network.

34 Partners-in-Learning Programme
A MoU between MOE and Microsoft (M) Sdn. Bhd. was signed in 2004 to establish co-operation in order to make this programme a success. This programme is aimed to expose student and teacher to the latest computer technologies and the best ways to utilise them.

35 Web-Based Applications
MOE Bachelor in Education Programme (PISMP) Jawi, Quran, Arab and Fardu Ain (j-QAF) Malaysian Teacher Selection Test (MTeST)

36 Smart School

37 In July 1997, The Malaysian Smart School –
a Conceptual Blueprint was produced by a project team, which consisted of industry representatives, officials from the Multimedia Development Corporation and the Ministry of Education. The joint venture partners were Telekom Multimedia Sdn Bhd, Sapura Telecommunication Bhd, Educational Trend sdn Bhd, DEMC Anzagain Sdn Bhd, digital Technologies Sdn Bhd, Custommedia Sdn Bhd, Multi Media Synergy Corp Sdn Bhd, BT Multimedia (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, Electronic Data Systems IT Services (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, NIIT Malaysia Sdn Bhd.

38 Pilot Project Dec 2002 87 schools By 2010 9000 schools

39 Current education system in Malaysia and will continue in Sekolah Bestari.
Firstly: The National Phylosophy of Malaysian Education will be the main component of Sekolah Bestari curriculum Secondly: moral values that have been stressed in present curriculum will go on into Bestari schooling These two foundations of Malaysian Education will not be nagiotable in the Bestari Curriculum. This will make the Sekolah Bestari different than the rest of Smart Schools. How the curriculum is being carried out in Sekolah Bestari may resemble to the existing Smart Schools.

40 Misconceptions… People started imagining classrooms packed with computers, internet, video conferencing equipments and all the latest communication technology can offer. These misconceptions were due to the association of Sekolah Bestari and MSC. Sekolah Bestari is NOT ABOUT TECHNOLOGY. If the technology is there then it is wise to use it.

41 The most important idea about Sekolah Bestari
involves the teaching and learning process. The Bestari curriculum will cater for all levels of learners. This is where virtual express class concept comes in. A fast learners will be able to proceed to the higher and more complex contents of the syllabus while the slow learners will continue with activities until they are ready to move on. The teaching continuum will move from teaching to facilitating as students in one Bestari classroom will be doing different activities according to their abilities. The present Sage by the Stage approach will move to Guide by the Side.


43 The implementation of sports development programmes in schools is under the ambit of the Sports and Physical Education Department (SPED). The function of this department are to formulate sport policies, plan sports development and manage sports programmes that involve various governments schools, while the Malaysian Schools Sports Council (MSSM) focuses on sport excellence.

44 Bukit Jalil Sports School
Established in 1996 Currently accommodating 600 students In 2000, a Pre-University programme was developed as a result of a joint effort between UPM and Malaysian Sports Council

45 Achievements… 10 Gold medals, 17 Silver medals & 13 Bronze medals at the 2003 SEA Games in Vietnam Three divers; Leong Mun Yee, Gracie Junita and Bryan Nickson represent Malaysia in 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. Bryan Nickson – was placed 19th out of 33 in his event, in Belem, Brazil (2005), he won the 3-metre diving event. 2004 World Junior Badminton Championship in Richmond, Vancouver; Hoon Thiew How and Tan Boon Heong won the doubles.

46 Bandar Penawar Sports School
Established in 1998 in Kota Tinggi, Johore Malaysia’s second Sports School Accommodation for 600 students Offers classes for students from Year 4 until Pre-University

47 Achievements… Sepak takraw runner-up in the 2004 ASEAN Schools Championship Won the gold (under 16) in the 7th Thailand Schools Sports Championship Qualified for the quarterfinal of the Hockey Tournament (2004) in Jawaharlal Nehru, India.



50 The ability to master science and technology appears to be a prerequisite to achieve the status of developed nation by the year 2020 based on K-economy The MOE, in line with this policy, has made various changes to the education system with a focus on science and technology to be implemented between 2001 to Significantly, more S & T classes have been increase in each state.

51 Science subject was formerly taught in Form 1
In 1995, it became a subject in Year 4, together with Kajian Tempatan, replacing Alam & Manusia. In 2002, it was introduced to Standard 1 pupils in 50 primary schools as a pilot project, which is extended to all primary schools in 2003.

52 Among other strategies implemented in enhancing students’ interest and performance in S & T are :
The introduction of Science at Level 1 of primary school Introducing various programmes to upgrade the teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics Upgrading the professionalism of S & T teachers Setting standards for Science and Mathematics education Designing more S & T based activities and programmes

53 Teaching and Learning of Maths & Science in English
It has been implemented since January 1, 2003. The first batch of Form Four students who sat for the PMR in 2005 will be learning pure Science subjects in English. This means that science stream students will now do Physics, Mathematics, Additional Mathematics, Biology and Chemistry in English. In addition, science students are also required to take English for Science and Technology (EST). The Star 01 January 2006

54 Language…

55 Also to be introduced in 2006 is additional languages
Also to be introduced in 2006 is additional languages. Chinese, Tamil and Arabic in selected national schools. It was earlier reported that 89 schools in the country have been identified for the pilot project. International languages including Japanese, French, and German will also be taught in 27 national secondary schools. Previously they were only available in fully residential schools. The Star 01 January 2006


57 Since achieving independence, Malaysia has expanded tremendously in terms of its economy, social, culture and education. As a result, its educational system experienced a change in technical and vocational education. This expansion can be clearly seen in the setting up of the Technical Education Department through the restructuring of MOE(1995). The department was set up to ensure that the implementation and development of technical and vocational education is on going in this country.

58 Development of Technical and Vocational Education
The upgrading of 69 vocational schools to technical institutions The increment of physical infrastructure and facilities. Presently 85 vocational /Technical institutions offer three streams of study; namely, technical education, vocational education and skills training.

Entered its 3rd year of implementation in 2004. Introduced 8 new subjects, i.e. Food Processing, Aquaculture and Recreational Animals, Domestic Wiring, Automobile Servicing, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Servicing, Facial Care and Hair Styling, Basic Interior Designing, and Early Child Care. The number of vocational subjects offered increased to 18 or 82.0 per cent of the total subjects offered under the VS Programme. Entailed an additional 134 new schools and 163 workshops.

60 Thus, the number of schools offering vocational subjects from 2002 until this year increased to 341, and the number of workshops increased to 530. Out of the 341 schools, some schools offer one, two or three vocational subjects. The aim of the VS Programme was successfully realised when vocational subjects recorded excellent results in the 2003 Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination which were announced in early Three vocational subjects recorded 100 per cent passes, while five other vocational subjects recorded between 93.4 to 99.9 per cent passes.

61 Polytechnic Education
Polytechnic education has been upgraded and strengthened as authorized by theCabinet(1979). Subsequently, more courses and more new polytechnics have been established. As of April 2001, there are ten main polytechnics and two city polytechnics in the country. Polytechnics in this country offer a variety of courses in the fields of engineering, commerce and hospitality at certificate and Diploma levels.

62 Technical Secondary School
In line with the National Agriculture Policy, the Technical Education Department has sent young students abroad for exposure to various agricultural techniques. In 1998, an agreement signing ceremony between the Education Ministry through the Technical Education Department and Gunma Prefecture, Japan, was held. The agreement was to realise a programme called the Asian Agricultural High School Student Overseas Study Programme - fully funded by Gunma Prefecture, involves the selection of three agricultural students from each country in Southeast Asia such as Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand and Mongolia.

63 After the completion of the programme, the participants would have been exposed to a modern agricultural education programme, experienced the way of life of the Japanese people and able to master the Japanese language.


65 The Special Education programme caters to the needs of students with visual and hearing impairment and those with learning difficulties. These students with special needs require special attention to ensure equal access to education and a quality of life enjoyed by normal children.

66 The Development of Special Education
The Department of Special Education was set up in 1995 to plan, administer and monitor the implementation of the special education programme in the primary secondary schools, and at the polytechnics. Today there are 31 special education schools in the country at the primary and secondary levels.

Dyslexia’s children need help through the use of special approaches, strategies and teaching and learning activities. To that effect, the Department launched the Dyslexia Pioneer Programme involving 178 pupils of seven to nine years in 30 primary schools. The launching ceremony was held on 16 June 2004 at the Sekolah Kebangsaan Taman Tun Dr. Ismail in Kuala Lumpur.

In 2005, this school will admit students with learning disabilities. At present, 30 students with impaired hearing are attending academic courses with MPV elective subjects such as computer graphics, hair styling and make-up. 5 students with impaired vision are attending the MLVK course in reflexology. Teachers placed in this school have undergone special training in handling special education students.


70 Main mechanism in generating qualified and competent personnel for the realisation of the nation's vision. Primarily intended to develop with quality the individual's mind and society at large in the face of a global competition. Main agent in producing a just socio-economic structure with a K-economy base, as well as producing a dignified and a highly ethical society with spiritually and physically balanced individuals.

71 Public Institutions of Higher Education (PIHE)
Currently there are 15 public institutions of higher education. The institutions of higher education are currently offering a total of 217 academic programmes at four levels; namely, Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Post Graduate. The courses offered are those that fulfill the needs of both the private and public sectors.

72 Distance Education Programme
The democratisation of education in the country has led to the development of a Distance Education Programme. To provide educational opportunities to the community. It was first introduced by the Universiti Sains Malaysia in 1971. Currently, the programme is being conducted by 6 universities (UiTM, UKM, UPM, UTM, UM, and UUM). In August, public universities collaborated to form the Open University of Malaysia (UNITEM/OUM) with the primary aim of conducting Distance Education Programmes

73 PTPTN (1996) “Perbadanan Tabung Pendidikan Tinggi Nasional (PTPTN) adalah bukti keprihatinan kerajaan ke arah memberi kemudahan pinjaman kepada para pelajar yang mendapat tawaran untuk melanjutkan pelajaran ke peringkat institusi pengajian tinggi awam dan swasta.” `Pendidikan Teras Pembangunan Insan` Bernama 26 Ogos 2005

74 Meritocracy (2002) “Ketua Pengarah Jabatan Pengurusan IPT, Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi, Prof Datuk Dr Hassan Said, sebagai berkata pemilihan calon memasuki IPTA bagi Program Pengajian Lepasan Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia/Matrikulasi/Setaraf (Ijazah Pertama) bagi sesi akademik 2006/2007 dibuat berasaskan meritokrasi dengan mengambil kira semula 10 peratus markah kokurikulum. Bagi pengiraan markah kokurikulum 10 peratus, markah purata dikira dua daripada empat bidang terbaik, iaitu sukan/permainan, pasukan beruniform, kelab/persatuan serta Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN).” Berita Harian 07 July 2006

75 MUET (2000) MUET (Malaysian University English Test) is required to pursue a degree course in any institution of higher learning in Malaysia. In addition to being a pre-requisite for a degree programme, the MUET also helps you consolidate and enhance your English language skills. These skills will help you cope with the English language encountered in your specific discipline in institutions of higher learning, while at the time develop your ability to think critically.


77 The Matriculation Division was established on 1 September 1998 with the main aim of streamlining all Matriculation/Foundation Programmes that have been conducted by public institutions of higher learning (IPTA) for 25 years. At present, only Universiti Malaya and Universiti Islam Antarabangsa still conduct their own matriculation programmes. The intake of students for the Matriculation Programme conducted by the Division commenced in June 1999 with the establishment of five matriculation colleges and subsequently four (4) more colleges were built by 2003, bringing the number of such colleges to nine. They can accommodate 25,000 students for each academic session.

78 The programme offers two streams of study, i.e. Science and Accounting.
Each student is required to take subjects that are fixed for each stream besides compulsory subjects such as English, Skill Dynamics, Islamic/Moral Education and Science Informatics. Students are also required to take one co-curricular subject. Beginning from 2004, all Science subjects including Mathematics and Science Informatics are taught in English.

79 NEW POLICIES Teaching and Learning of Science and Mathematics in English (TLSME) - The Matriculation Programme implemented the teaching and learning of Science and Mathematics in English in stages for several components of Science and Mathematics subjects in 2003 with full English usage in 2004. - The TLSME is implemented with the help of ICT equipment and trained lecturers.

80 Intake of 10 per cent Non-Bumiputera Students into the Matriculation Programme
- Competition for places in the Matriculation Programme has become intense since the introduction of the intake of ten per cent non-bumiputera students for the 2003/2004 session. - The Matriculation Programme practises and applies the principle of meritocracy in the intake and placement of students in its colleges.

81 Currently, students may take either one or two years in matriculation programme depending on their SPM results.

82 BUDGET ‘07

83 More scholarships will be given for students to pursue critical courses such as science, pharmacy, medicine and engineering at graduate and post-graduate levels in both local and foreign universities.  Top students who obtain 10 1As in the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia or its equivalent from families with a monthly income of RM1,500 and below will be given scholarships to pursue tertiary education.  Terengganu and Kelantan will get their own universities, to be called Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia and Universiti Darul Naim respectively.   The Malaysian Military Academy will be upgraded to Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia. Existing universities will get RM195mil to upgrade their facilities.

84 A sum of RM450mil has been allocated for the construction and upgrading of polytechnics and community colleges.  The Human Resources Ministry will be given RM148mil to build two industrial training institutes and four advanced technology training centres, while RM214mil will be available for training programmes under Mara.  In a move to create more marketable graduates, production-based education programmes will be introduced in the German-Malaysia Institute and British-Malaysia Institute, and the Human Resources Development Fund expanded to include internships and training programmes for graduates. 

85 The effective Capital Market Training Scheme for Graduates implemented by the Securities Commission will be expanded to train 1,000 a year while the Multimedia Development Corporation will start programmes to meet the requirements of ICT-based companies.  Graduates in the bio-life sciences will be trained under programmes set up by the Malaysian Biotechnology Corporation.  To inculcate reading, the tax relief on book purchases will be increased from RM700 to RM1,000 a year.

86 Education has been allocated a total of RM33
Education has been allocated a total of RM33.4bil under Budget 2007, which accounts for 21% of the total Budget.

87 Bibliography BOOKS Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (2001), Educational Milestones in Malaysia. Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Annual Report 2004.

88 Thank You...

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