Presentation on theme: "To do: Introduce the Enlightenment Go over Locke and Hobbes Activity Possible movie clips??? Warm Up: What were two ideas that Galileo discovered? Why."— Presentation transcript:
To do: Introduce the Enlightenment Go over Locke and Hobbes Activity Possible movie clips??? Warm Up: What were two ideas that Galileo discovered? Why did the Church not like Galileos theories? What happened to Galileo? HAPPY FRIDAY, JANUARY 11 TH
How did eighteenth century intellectuals use the ideas of the scientific revolution to reexamine all aspects of life? ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE
People were influenced by the Scientific Revolution. People began applying scientific principles to all aspects of society. Government Religion Economics Education ENLIGHTENMENT
2 major ideas or philosophies developed during this time period. Thomas Hobbes John Locke PHILOSOPHIES Hobbes Locke
The horrors of the English Civil War convinced Thomas Hobbes that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked. Without governments to keep order, there would be war of every man against every man. Life would be solitary, poor, nasty, and short. THOMAS HOBBES
In order to escape such a bleak life, people had to give up their rights to a strong ruler. In exchange, they gained law and order. Hobbes called this agreement a social contract. Because people acted in their own self interest, Hobbes said the ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control. HOBBES SOCIAL CONTRACT
The best government was that of a Leviathan. (sea monster) In Hobbes view, such a government was an absolute monarchy. He expressed his ideas of the social contract in a book called, The Leviathan, published in THE LEVIATHAN
More positive view than Hobbes He believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. As reasonable beings, they had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare of society. JOHN LOCKE
He criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government. According to Locke, all people are born free and equal, with three natural rights – life, liberty, and property. He called them, the Natural Rights of Man. THE NATURAL RIGHTS OF MAN
Locke said the purpose of the government is to protect the Natural Rights. If the government fails to do so, then the people have the right to overthrow it. He published his ideas in 1690, Two Treatises on Government. GOVERNMENT MUST PROTECT RIGHTS
JOHN LOCKE Not this John Locke!
Lockes ideas of Natural Rights influenced modern political thinking. He stated that the governments power comes from the consent of the people. That became the foundation of modern democracy. THINKING CHANGES
Homer the Vigilante, which he says illustrates John Lockes approach to the state of nature. In the episode, Homer forms a vigilante posse to combat the Springfield cat burglar. Homers actions highlight Lockes argument that, without governmental authority, people would band together in private associations to protect themselves, Bonevac says. But they also reveal why that doesnt solve the problem. Homers gang quickly spirals out of control, prompting Lisa to wonder, Who will police the police? THE SIMPSON'S: HOMER THE VIGILANTE
To do today: Go over Enlightenment in France and the Impact of the Enlightenment Activity at the end!!! Warm Up: What were two differences between John Lockes and Thomas Hobbes view on government? Who do you agree with: Lock or Hobbes? Look at your notes! MONDAY, JANUARY 14TH
Monday: A&W/finish Enlightenment Tuesday: Finish Enlightenment Wednesday/Thursday: Start French Revolution/video Friday: continue video on French Revolution Three-day weekend! TO DO THIS WEEK
ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE
France was the capital of the Enlightenment movement. It reached its height in the mid-1700s. Paris became the meeting place for people who wanted to discuss politics and social issues. The people were calledPhilosophes ENLIGHTENMENT IN FRANCE
They believed they could apply reason to ALL aspects of life, just as Isaac Newton had applied reason to science. Five important concepts formed the core of their philosophy. PHILOSOPHES BELIEFS
1) Reason – Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking. Reason was the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in ones thinking. 1)REASON
2) Nature – they believed there were natural laws of economics and politics just as there were natural laws of motion. 3) Happiness – a person who lived by natures laws would find happiness.
4) Progress – society and humankind could be perfected using a scientific approach. 5) Liberty – through reason, society could be set free (freedom of speech, religion, travel, trade, etc.) 4) & 5)
Using the pen name, Voltaire, Francois published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy, history, fiction, and drama. He made frequent targets of the clergy, aristocracy, and the government. He was sent to prison twice, and then exiled to England for two years after his second prison sentence. VOLTAIRE
Voltaire became impressed with the English government. After his exile, he returned to France and continued to mock Frances laws and customs. He enraged the King and the Catholic church. He fled Paris in VOLTAIRE CONT.
Although he made many enemies, he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.
WOMEN IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT
1764, English Writer, Mary Astell published A Serious Proposal to the Ladies. Addressed lack of educational opportunities for women. Unequal relationship between men and women in a marriage. If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves? WOMEN WRITERS
Mary Wollstonecraft published an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Women in The key to freedom was getting a better education. Women need education to become virtuous and useful. Be able to be nurses and doctors Rights to participate in politics MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT
Wollstonecraft received little education. She and her sisters taught themselves by reading books. Later, she ran a school for a brief period of time. She married the writer, Richard Godwin. Died at age 38 after giving birth to her daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Shelley, later wrote the classic novel. Frankenstein
1994 film Mary Shelleys Frankenstein
Women made important contributions to the Enlightenment in other ways. Wealthy women helped spread Enlightenment ideas through social gatherings called salons. Emilie de Chatelet, was educated in math and science. She translated Newtons work from Latin into French, which sparked interest in science in France. WOMENS CONTRIBUTIONS
CHILDREN & THE ENLIGHTENMENT
Before the Enlightenment, children were believed to be naturally sinful. Parents raised their children with a harsh hand and treated them like miniature adults. CHILDREN
People believed children should be better educated and could be allowed to mature into adulthood. Parents lessened the use of corporal punishment and increased play time. By 1780, rocking horses, puzzles, and play clothes. The first Mother Goose books of nursery rhymes appeared. The Newtonian System of the Universe Digested for Young Minds by Tom Telescope appeared. AFTER THE ENLIGHTENMENT Children began to get discount tickets to museums and curiosity shows.
ACTIVITY: You INDIVIDUALLY will be given 6 key people of the Enlightenment You are to fill out the chart completely All of the individuals are in your book, and you are to go to the page that is given READ about them- you will not be given the answers, you will have to FIND them Good luck!
IMPACT OF ENLIGHTENMENT
People no longer believed that the monarchy held absolute power and divine right. Made European monarchs to make reforms and give more rights to their people. Theories eventually inspired the American and French Revolutions. IMPACT
Belief in Progress A more Secular Outlook Importance of the Individual 3 MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES EMERGED
Following Newtons and Galileos examples, scientists made discoveries in new areas. Chemistry Physics Biology Mechanics BELIEF IN PROGRESS
The success of the scientific revolution gave people the confidence that human reason could solve social problems. Philosophes and reformers urged an end to the practice of slavery. Argued for more social equality and improvements in education. THROUGH REASON, A BETTER SOCIETY IS POSSIBLE
Non-religious outlook on life. Rid religious faith of superstition and fear. Promote tolerance of all religions. A MORE SECULAR OUTLOOK
As people began to turn away from the church and royalty for guidance, they looked to themselves instead. People used their OWN reason to decide what is right or wrong. Adam Smith, extended emphasis in economics saying that people created economic progress when they acted in their own self-interest. IMPORTANCE OF THE INDIVIDUAL