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Gould S.J. & Eldredge N. 1977 Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: 115-151.  Herhaling  " most evolutionary.

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Presentation on theme: "Gould S.J. & Eldredge N. 1977 Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: 115-151.  Herhaling  " most evolutionary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  " most evolutionary change is concentrated in rapid events of speciation in small, peripherally isolated populations"  " the norm for a species … is morphological stasis"  " paleontologists have worn blinders … ignored gaps in the stratigraphic sequences … and evolutinaru stasis"

2 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand" John Wyatt Durham

3 Gryphaea "…Trueman rejoiced in Gryphaea, but never mentioned the hundreds of Liassic species that showed no temporal change … "

4 Micraster "…Rowe monographed Micraster but spoke not a word about its legion of static colleagues in the English chalk … "

5 "…Ziegler's celebrated study of the Silurian brachiopod Eocoelia … presents data for five characters. Three display a fluctuating pattern, one no trend at all, and the last a directional pattern. Only the last is graphed."

6 Lepidolina multiseptata Tomowo Ozawa "…Ozawa measures nine characters … Four exhibit gradual trends; five do not. The first four are either graphed or listed in tables; the remaining five are discussed in qualitative terms only."

7 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review van empirische testen  Studies op verkeerde schaal  te kleine schaal ("neontologische" studies)  te grote schaal (graduele series van soorten)

8 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review van empirische testen  Studies op verkeerde schaal  Studies met ontoereikende data(-analyse) "…most cases presented as falsifications are circular because they rely upon the gradualistic presuppositions they claim to test…"

9 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Studies op verkeerde schaal  Studies met ontoereikende data  Mogelijks "ware" gevallen van gradualisme ontworteling en reïnterpretatie

10 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Studies op verkeerde schaal  Studies met ontoereikende data  Mogelijks "ware" gevallen van gradualisme  Studies die punctuated equilibria ondersteunen

11 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Nieuwe ideeën  Species selection

12 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Nieuwe ideeën  Species selection  relative ability to speciate, not morphological flexibility

13 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Nieuwe ideeën  Species selection  relative ability to speciate, not morphological flexibility  "the need to translate micro to macroevolution guarantees that paleobiology shall provide essential theory"

14 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:  Herhaling  Verpersoonlijking van de "vijand"  Review empirische testen  Nieuwe ideeën  Politiek

15 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning ! " punctuated equilibrium has been accepted by most of our colleagues … as a valuable addition to evolutionary theory"

16 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning ! " misunderstandings of colleagues … who failed to grasp …"

17 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning ! " the need to reformulate macroevolution, notably the key phenomenon of trends, as an accumulation of discrete speciation events treated as entities rather than undefinable segments of continua"

18 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning !  Macro-evolutie = species sorting "Most macroevolution must be rendered by asking what kinds of species … did better than other (speciated more frequently, survived longer) … "

19 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning !  Macro-evolution = species sorting  Implicaties  "levende fossielen"  "darwins" nonsensicaal  Cope's rule : kleine soorten speciëren sneller  gecorreleerde punctuaties

20 Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: Gould S.J. & Eldredge N Punctuated equilibria comes of age. Nature 366:  Overwinning !  Macro-evolution = species sorting  Implicaties  Empirische ondersteuning

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