Presentation on theme: "APPLICATION OF SATLC IN SECONDARY LEVEL * A. F. M. Fahmy, ** J. J. Lagowski * Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Science Education Center,"— Presentation transcript:
APPLICATION OF SATLC IN SECONDARY LEVEL * A. F. M. Fahmy, ** J. J. Lagowski * Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Science Education Center, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPT ** Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX
INTRODUCTION - The interest in the ChemicaI Education reform (CER) has gained great importance internationally Taagepera and Noori (2000) (1) tracked the development of students conceptual understanding of organic chemistry during a one-year sophomore course. They found that the students knowledge base increased as expected, but their cognitive organization of the knowledge was surprisingly weak. -The authors concluded that instructors should spend more time making effective connections, helping students to construct a knowledge space based on general helping students to construct a knowledge space based on general principles.
-Bonder (1986) reported on the constructivist model of learning, which the summarized in a single statement: Knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner (3) -Barrows (1998) stated that students must be able to fit thenew material into their own mental framework and then build their own understanding (2). This will not be achieved if students learning only at the lower cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension. Development of their own mental framework requires higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis
-We suggest the development of an educational process based on the application of "systemics" named (SATL) (1998), which we believe, will affect both teaching and learning (5). The use of systemics, in our view, will help students begin to understand interrelationships of concepts in a greater context, a point of view that ultimately should prove beneficial to the future citizens of a world that is becoming increasingly globalized. - Pungente, and Badger (2003) stated that the primary goal when teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using skills of synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory.
- By "systemic" we mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made clear, up front, to the learner using a concept map-like representation. - In contrast with the usual strategy (6) of concept mapping, which involves establishing a hierarchy of concepts, our approach strives to create a more-or-less "closed system of concepts cluster which stresses the interrelationships among concepts; Figure 1 illustrates diagrammatically the difference between a linear representation of concepts (1a) and our systemic representation (1b).
Concept Fig: 1.b. Concept Fig: 1.a. Concept In practice, the systemic approach allows the teacher to build up sequentially a single concept map starting with prerequisite background information required of the student before he/she starts on a systemic approach to learning. Figure 2 shows this strategy for developing the closed cluster concept map involving the five concepts entitled E, F, X, Y, Z.
Figure 2. The evolution of a completed closed concept cluster from a starting point
The instructor has in mind the concept structure shown in Figure 1a, which he/she wants to develop into the closed cluster shown as Figure 1b. The prerequisites are simple bi-directional relationships between the concepts. Thus, initially, there are four unknown (to the student) relationships in the final cluster of concepts (Figure 2). The full closed cluster concept map can be developed in four stages by sequentially introducing the (initially) four unknown concepts. At each step, another part of the final closed concept cluster is added and developed. This process clearly illustrates the systemic constructivist nature of our SATL approach THE APPLICATION OF SYSTEMICS TO CHEMISTRY INSTRUCTION A list of SATL studies is given in Table I. All of these studies required the creation of new student learning materials, as well as the corresponding teacher-oriented materials
Presented at the 16th ICCE, Budapest, Hungry, (August, 2000). One Semester Course: (16 Lects - 32hrs). During the academic years (1998/ / /2001). SATL- Aliphatic Chemistry. (Text book) (8) Presented at the 3ed Arab conference on SATL (April, 2003). (15 Lessons - Three Weeks) Oct SATL- Classification of Elements (7) Presented at the 15th ICCE, Cairo, Egypt, (August, 1998). (9 Lessons Two weeks) March SATL- Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (Unit) (5) Data Duration / Date Title of SATLC Material University Level - Pre-Pharmacy. - Second year, Faculty of Science. Pre- University - Secondary School (2nd Grade). Student Sample Table 1. A list of experiments conducted using the SATL strategy in various aspects of chemistry
Presented at the 7th ISICHC, Alex., Egypt (March, 2000). (10 Lects hrs). During the academic years: (1999/ /2001). SATL- Heterocyclic Chemistry. (Text book) (9) - Third year, Faculty of Science. In preparation One Semester Course: (16 Lects-32 hrs). During academic years ( ). ( ) SATL- Aromatic Chemistry (Text book) (10) - Second year, Faculty of Science. Presented at the 17th ICCE Beijing (August 2002) One Semester Lab Course 24hrs (2hr/week) During academic year ( ). From SATL- to Benign Analysis (11) - First year Faculty of Science
SATL COURSES EVALUATION -Our evaluation strategy generally involves experimental groups of students that use SATL materials taught by instructors trained in SATL methods (Figure 1b) and an equivalent (as far as background is concerned) control group of students taught by conventional methods, which are often based on a linear strategy (Figure 1a)
SATL EXPERIMENT IN SECONDARY LEVEL -Our initial experiment probing the usefulness of the SATLC to learning chemistry was conducted at the pre-college level in the Cairo and Giza school districts. - Nine SATL-based lessons in organic chemistry Figure (B) taught over a two-week period were presented to a total of 270 students in the Cairo and Giza school districts; the achievement of these students was then compared with that of 159 students taught the same material using standard (linear) methods Figure (A).) I- (SATL CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES) I- (SATL CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES)
Figure.(A):Linearly based teaching and Learning Figure.(B):Systemic based Teaching and Learning.
-The results indicate that a greater fraction of students exposed to the systemic techniques, the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by conventional linear techniques. Figure 3. Percent of students in the experimental classes who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period.
Figure 4. Students in the control classes who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention. The experimental group was taught by SATL-trained teachers using SATL techniques with specially created SATL materials, while the control group was taught using the conventional (linear) approach.
II- SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS -Our second experiment about the usefulness of SATL to learning Chemistry at the pre-college level was conducted in the Cairo and Giza school districts. Fifteen SATL- based lessons in inorganic chemistry taught over a three - week period were presented to a total 130 students. The achievement of these students was then compared with 79 students taught the same material using standard (linear) method..
-We present now the details of the transformation of the usual linear approach usually used to teach this subject that involves separate relationships, and the corresponding systemic closed concept cluster that present the systemic approach. -The periodicity of the properties within the horizontal periods is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 5), and within the vertical groups is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 6).
Electronegativity Atomic radius Electronaffinity Ionization energy Non-metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basicproperty By increasing the atomic number in periods ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Figure (5): Periodicity of properties of the elements within the periods
Figure (6): Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groups Atomic radius Electron affinity Ionization energy Non- metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basic property By increasing the Atomic number in groups ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? Electronegativity
--The previous diagrams of periods and groups represent linear -separated chemical relations between the atomic number and Atomic -radius – Ionization energy - electron affinity - electronegativity – - metallic and non-metallic properties - basic and acidic properties. -Systemic relationship is the relation between any concept and other related concepts. illustrated systemically by changing the diagram in Figure (5) to systemic diagram (SD1-P) Figure (7). - So the periodicity of the properties through the periods can be
Electroneg ativity Amphoteri c property Metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 1 ? 2 ? 10 ? 17 ? ? 4 ? ? 6 ? Non-metallic property Figure (7): Systemic Diagram (SD 1 - P) for the periodicity of properties of elements within periods Also the periodicity of the properties within groups can by illustrated systemically be changing Figure (6) to systemic diagram (SD 1 -G) Figure(8).
Electronegativity Metallic Property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 19 ? 17 ? 10 ? 13 ? 2 ? ? 1 4 ? 6 ? Figure (8): Systemic Diagram (SD 1 - G) for the periodicity of properties of the elements within groups After study of the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify systemic diagrams (SD1-P) Figure (7) to (SD2-P) Figure (9), for peroids, and (SD1-G) Figure (8), to (SD2-G) Figure (10) for Groups.
Electronegativit y Amphoteric property Metallic property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods The oxidation number for element in its oxide Figure (9): Systemic Diagram (SD 2 - P) for the periodicity of the properties for the elements within periods
Electronegativi ty Metallic Property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups Figure (10): Systemic Diagram (SD 2 - G) for the periodicity of the properties of elements within-groups
LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC PERIODS In the periodic table the graduation in properties are studied in a linear method from left to right increasing or decreasing. e.g: In period (2): The linear graduation of the properties in the second period starting from lithium to neon increasing or decreasing. LiBeBCNOFNe Linear Period (2) But in systemic period: The graduation in the properties are studied systemically starting from any element in the period to any other element as shown in the Figure (11).
N Be B C O F Ne ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? Li Figure (11): Systemic period (2) (?) it shows increasing or decreasing in the given property on moving from one element to another through the systemic period. The systemic period is characterized from the linear period in the following: 1- Find a relation between any element of the period and all the other elements. 2- Solve the abnormality in the periodicity of some of the properties. Because it finds the relation between each element and the next element in a certain property till the end of the period.
In the Linear Approach: The electron affinity increases by increasing atomatic number with the exception of Beryllium and nitrogen and Neon. LiBeBCNOFNe (abnormal) In the case of systemic Approach: The relation takes place between any two elements from the point of electron affinity as shown in Figure (12).
N +31 Be +66 B -29 C -121 O -142 F -332 Ne +99 increases Li increases decreases Figure (12): Periodicity of electron affinity in period (2) Notice: As the (-ve) value increases the amount of energy released increases so the electron affinity increases. Generally the systemic period (SD-P) can be drawn as follow.
LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC GROUPS The graduation in the properties trough groups in the periodic table are studied in linearity from top to bottom as shown in Figure (14). EP2 EP3 EP4Increasing Or decreasing EP5 EP6E = element EP7P = period EP1 Figure (14): Linear Group EG V S 2 P 3 EG II S 2 EG III S 2 P 1 EG IV S 2 P 2 EG VI S 2 P 4 EG VII S 2 P 5 EG VIII S 2 P 6 EGI S 1 ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? E = element G = group (?) = Increasing or decreasing
But in case of systemic group the graduation in the properties are to be studied systematically. Starting from any element to another. It can be represented by the following systemic diagram (SD-G) Fig (15). Figure (15): Systemic Group EP 3 EP 4 EP 5 EP 6 EP 7 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? EP 1 EP 2 ? ? ? (?) = Inereasing or decreasing The characteristics of systemic groups are the same as systemic periods
Example: K RbCs Fr LiNa (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases 1- (a.r.) decreases. 2- (I.P.) increases. 3- Electronegativity increases Figure (16): Periodicity of Properties of (atomic radius - Ionization potential - Electronegativity) through systemic group (SG-1). The results, of experimentation indicate that a greater fraction of students exposed to systemic techniques in the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by linear techniques. The overall results are summarized in Figures (17 and 18).
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the exp. (group) Figure 17: Percent of students in the experimental groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indiate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period.
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the control (group) Figure 18: Percent of students in the control groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indiate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention period. Our results from the SECONDARY LEVEL experiment point to a number of conclusions that stem from the qualitative data (5, 7), from surveys of teachers and students, and from anecdotal evidence.
1. Implementing the systemic approach for teaching and learning using two units of general chemistry within the course has no negative effects on the ability of the students to continue their linear study of the remainder of the course using the linear approach. Moreover, teacher feedback indicated that the systemic approach seemed to be beneficial when the students in the experimental group returned to learning using the conventional linear approach. 2. Teachers from different experiences, professional levels, and ages can be trained to teach by the systemic approach in a short period of time with sufficient training. The training program in systemics seems to impact teachers performances during the experiment. Thus, virtually any teacher with appropriate training and teaching materials can use SATL methods. 3. After the experiment both teachers and learners retain their understanding of SATL techniques and continue to use them.
*SATLC improved the students ability to view the chemistry from a more global perspective. *SATLC helps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis. *SATLC increases students ability to learn subject matter in a greater context. SATLC increases the ability of students to think globally. CONCLUSION
Literature Cited (1)Taagepera, M.; Noori, S.; J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 1224 Barrow, G. M.; J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 541.(2) (3)Bodner, G. M.; J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, 873 Michael, P., Badger R., J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80, 779.(4) (5)Fahmy, A. F. M.; Lagowsik. J. J.; J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, (9), 1078 [(6)a] Novak, J. D. and Gowin, D. B., Learning How to Learn; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, b] Novak, J. D., Learning, Creating and Using Knowledge; Lawrence Erlbaum, Associates: Mahwak, New Jersey, 1998 and references therein
7)Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003) (8)Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000) (9)Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999) (10)Fahmy A. F. M., Hashem, A. I., and Kandil, N. G.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aromatic Chemistry. Science, Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (2000) (11)Fahmy, A. F. M.; Hamza M. S. A; Medien, H. A. A.; Hanna, W. G., M. Abedel-Sabour; and Lagowski; J. J.; Chinese J. Chem. Edu., 23 (12) 2002, 12, 17th IEEC, Beijing August (2002)