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Conclusion The cases described are fundamentally very different and approach good eLearning practices from different points of view. The York case is a.

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Presentation on theme: "Conclusion The cases described are fundamentally very different and approach good eLearning practices from different points of view. The York case is a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conclusion The cases described are fundamentally very different and approach good eLearning practices from different points of view. The York case is a practical learner centered case while the UK cases approach the situation more from management point of view. The EC initiated project has an emphasis on teacher as a central figure in eLearning. It is the view of the authors that these approaches alone are not sufficient when describing good eLearning practices. The cases are, however, able to demonstrate well their particular aspects of good eLearning practices. Aim The purpose of this poster is to study and review Good Practices in eLearning. The team first tried to identify cases, which were examples of Good Practices in eLearning, then discussed the cases in light of criteria below. It turned out that there was much more material about the criteria (see also CEN/ISSS and SWAP) about than the Good Practices. CEN/ISSSSWAP Charles Graham Charles Graham et al. defines the principles for good practices in eLearning with following seven points: 1.Good Practice encourages student-faculty contact. 2.Good Practice encourages cooperation among students. 3.Good Practice encourages active learning. 4.Good Practice gives prompt feedback. 5.Good practice emphasizes time on task. 6.Good Practice communicates high expectations. 7.Good Practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning. This is more exhaustive list that the list provided by the JISC report, which includes Point 3 (eLearning engages learners in the learning process), and Point 7 (eLearning encourages independent learning skills). In addition the JISC list includes the following items:JISC report 1.eLearning develops learners skills and knowledge. 2.eLearning motivates to further learning. Furthermore eLearning should use the right resources, the blend of modes of delivery, the right context, the right learners and right level of support. Introduction eLearning is relatively new area in pedagogy and has emerged mainly during last 10 years. The JISC organization defines eLearning as follows: eLearning facilitates and supports learning through the use of information and communications technology, e-learning may involve the use of some,or all, of the following technologies: Desktop and laptop computers Software, including assistive software Interactive whiteboards Digital cameras mobile and wireless tools, including mobile phones Electronic communication tools, including , discussion boards, chat facilities and video conferencing Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) Learning activity management systems. e-Learning can cover a spectrum of activities from supporting learning, to blended learning (the combination of traditional and e-learning practices), to learning that is delivered entirely online. Whatever the technology, however, learning is the vital element. e-Learning is no longer simply associated with distance or remote learning, but forms part of a conscious choice of the best and most appropriate ways of promoting effective learning. This poster describes good practices in eLearning by presenting the Hull York Medical School case example as well as from two Further Education Colleges in the UK and two elearning pilots across four UK HE/FE institutions. Also the European Commission initiated Ulearn (for a detailed discussion click here) project was discussed.here The setting at York Universitys Hull York Medical School before the implementation of eLearning was such that students in the 3rd year medical class were expected to attend a two-hour seminar each week. Before the seminar they were expected to read assigned reading materials and be prepared to discuss the material. The class was relatively large having about 30 or more students and therefore effective collaboration, deep learning and reflection was not possible. In addition the preparation by students for the seminar was not adequate. Consequently an eLearning collaborative online conferencing was introduced where students under the guidance of a tutor went through the assigned material using a Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach before the weekly seminar.PBL This new approach: Encouraged student-faculty contact via tutor involvement in the conferencing Facilitate cooperation between students. The PBL approach supported active learning approach. Provided constant feedback in the conferencing. Forced the students to complete the discussion before the seminar. Communicated high expectations (PBL case to be concluded before seminar). Helped a wide variety of student talents. Developed learners skills and knowledge (the most important objective of any new pedagogical method). Encouraged to further collaborative learning (virtual patient cases had to handled from many different points of view). The two Further Education Colleges in the UK were funded by a local university and JISC to develop elearning within their university validated college based Foundation Degree courses. This was a 2,5 year project the results of which were collated from: Observations and interviews with all level of staff, (senior management, academic and technology staff) Student evaluation and learner views were anecdotal. After 2,5 years project both colleges had implemented a variety of elearning technologies and learning platforms. The recommendations demonstrate examples of good practice in elearning around Strategic practice. Technological practice. Competencies and assessment This York University Medical School case issue touches the following eLearning competencies from the complete list as defined by OU for the eLearning Professional (in this case both the instructor and the eLearning technologist): Primary competencies Awareness of pedagogy (practice) Awareness of different models of elearning (practice) Understanding of students (their needs and knowledge base) (practice) Secondary competencies Ability to master new software and new applications (technology) Ability to select and structure content (practice) Design and use of visual aids and learning support materials (technology) Ability to communicate in writing appropriately (practice) Plan and manage workload and schedules etc. (self-management) Good eLearning Practices Haverila Matti, Reeds Louise and Garuti Paola Open University, H808 eLearning Professional course Students at theYork Universtys Hull-York Medical School were presented a new clinical case with readings and had come up with a solution with reflective thoughts on a weekly basis using the Blackboard online conferencing system. Resources 1.Canterbury Christ Church University 2.Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, (accessed 1 Dec 2006). 3.Goodyear, P., Salmon, G., Spector, M., Steeples, C. and Tickner, S. (2001) Competencies for online teaching, Educational Technology Research & Development, vol. 49, np. 1, pp. 65–72. 4.Gorissen, P. (2005) CEN/ISSS good practice report on quality in e- learning, e-learning Themasitem, (accessed 1 Dec 2006). 5.Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Craner, J., Lim, B., & Duffy, T. M. (2000). Teaching in a Web-based distance learning environment: An evaluation summary based on four courses. Center for Research on Learning and Technology Technical Report No Indiana University Bloomington. (Accessed Dec 1, 2006). 6.Hillier, Y. (2002) The quest for competence, good practice and excellence [online], The Higher Education Academy. Available from: on=generic&id=494 (accessed 1 st Dec 2006). on=generic&id=494 7.Hull York Medical School website 8.Jameson, J., Ferrell, G., Kelly, J., Walker S. & Ryan M (2006) Building trust and shared knowledge in communities of e-learning practice: collaborative leadership in the JISC eLISA and CAMEL lifelong learning projects, in British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 37 No JISC (2004) Effective practice with e-learning: a good practice guide in designing for learning [online], JISC/HEFCE. Available from: (accessed 1 December 2006). 10.Social Policy and Social Work (2006) Good practice in e-learning implementation, (accessed 1 Dec 2006).http://www.swap.ac.uk/elearning/using4.asp 11.Wikipedia (2006) Problem Based Learning, (accessed 1 Dec 2006). 12.Stiles, M (2005) Reuse And Repurposing of Content in the Context of the Introduction and Embedding Of Elearning in New Review of Information Networking, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2005, available on line accessed 2 nd Dec The University of York The Hull York Medical School The new collaborative team approach using VLE conferencing provided by Blackboard with the virtual tutor present helped students to get a much deeper and broader grasp and understanding of the weekly seminar material. The new VLE enabled learning system added two additional steps into the learning process: Deep and reflective group discussion and tutor input in the handling of pre-assigned reading material. Jameson et al. describe two elearning pilots in four UK HE/FE institutions. They looked at formal project reports and evaluations through a literature review using institutions with good and outstanding accreditations from government bodies. The experiences of these elearning projects propose models for collaborative team leadership for future elearning practice. Authors suggest institutions, organisations and management styles need a rethink to build trust and shared knowledge for elearning food practice. They illustrate leadership styles diagrammatically showing collaborative styles from repressive to ideal, the ideal having collaborative reflexive characteristics and contribute to the mind map created from the case studies. Ideal team for a community of good practice in elearning (Jameson, 2006) Operates distributed-collaborative leadership styles Recognises own strength and weaknesses and can trust internal processes for improving practice Carries out self-assessment proactively, respecting personal boundaries, and sharing Trusts external processes of peer review Fosters collaborative and democratic culture Encourages sharing of tacit knowledge, critique and change Case links to elearning professional competencies and their assessment 1.Technology competencies (to be developed within open supportive culture) 2.Practice competencies (Implicit and explicit in results of both case studies) 3.Communication competencies (Paramount in a collaborative and reflexive culture of practice) 4.Research competencies (Effective project management covered) 5.Self-management (Within collaborative culture described Assessment of good practice (Hillier 2001 and Goodyear et al 2001) How to use and include evaluative learner experience? Outcome based benchmarking, (in UK - QAA, OFSTED etc) already exists Competence relies on observable behaviour only (e.g. artefacts and process evidence in eportfolios) Cognitive and humanistic perspectives needed to assess good practice in elearning. Is this more possible in collaborative reflexive models of Jameson? Are the reports cited above assessment of good practice in themselves? Qualitative and quantitative research on elearning projects published in open domains such as peer reviewed journals for example? Institutions telling their own story, and thus objectivity may be missing. Views of learners are not explicit. HYMS Discussion and evaluation Ulearn is a project that has been proposed as a response to a call for actions of good practice in the context of the Elearning Programme of the European Commission. Ulearn defines pioneer teachers those who are keen to use the ICT in classroom and have already some experience. The Ulearn project handles all competencies in eLearning and was therefore a groundbreaking undertaking.


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