Presentation on theme: "Introduction and Overview of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction and Overview of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism Chapter 1
2Introduction Digital Crime: Viruses destroying data Viruses shutting down the internetcomputer thieves stealing credit card and social security numbersidentity theftlaundering moneyusing the internet to coordinate terrorist attacks. These are endemic to the growing problems of digital crime and digital terrorism.
3Historical Perspective The first electronic computer was completed in 1945, and the first long distance electronic communication on the internet was sent in
4New Threats in the Information Age Traditional criminal acts:most prominently the production and distribution of child pornographyfinancial crimesinformation and corporate espionage exploitationstalkingidentity theft.In 1997, fraudulent VISA transactions were reported at $828 million.
5The Cost of Digital Crime The Intellectual Property Section of the U.S. Department of Justice estimates cybercrime costs as high as $10 billion annually.
6Increases in Cybervictimization Vulnerability from within an organization is the most dangerous and poses the most serious threat.One study estimated that 90% of economic computer crimes were committed by employees of the victimized companies.Recent studies in North America and Europe determined that 73% of the risk to computer security is from internal sources while only 23% is attributable to external sources.
7Types of Computer Crime Computer as a targetComputer as an instrument of the crimeComputer as incidental to crimeCrimes associated with the prevalence of computers
8The Computer as a Target Data alteration and denial directly targets the computer by attacking the useful information stored or processed by the computer.The primary difference between data alteration and network intrusion is the intent of the intruder.
9What is the value of the loss? Kevin Mitnick (poster boy of hackers) – the prosecution of Mitnick relied on estimates of the value of software he downloaded but did not alter.FBI directed the companies to estimate the total development costs of the software.Since Mitnick did not deprive the companies of the product of their research and development, it seems that the actual economic harm caused would be less than the total cost.
10The Computer as an Instrument of a Crime Using the computer as the instrument of the crime means that the computer is used to gain some other criminal objective.Theft is the taking of property with the intent of permanently depriving the owner of their property or service.Market-sensitive proprietary information, financial information, trade secrets, process technology information, human resources information, customer information, information products, transitory information, and security information can all have value to the owner.
11Is it theft? Is copying the data a loss to the owner? The owner either maintains confidence in the integrity of the information or controls the distribution of the information to maintain its value.
12The Salami Slice Scam (Real Assets) The salami slice technique is a money crime; it is an automated means of stealing assets from a large number of transactions. In the round down salami technique, the computer is used to round calculated dollar amounts down to the nearest cent.
13Shopping Cart Fraud and Pyramid Schemes Shopping cart fraud is an example of consumer fraud against a business. Once purchases are selected, the computer criminal saves a copy of the purchase page and alters the prices.Pyramid schemes have found a new source of legitimacy with professional-appearing Web sites and official-sounding Web addresses.
14The Computer as Incidental to a Crime The computer is not the primary instrument of the crime; it simply facilitates it. These crimes includemoney laundering,criminal enterprise,recipeschild pornography, andluring victims into compromising situations.
15Crimes Associated with the Prevalence of Computers Large-scale software piracy began in Asia.Three major credit reporting bureaus control the information on all persons applying for credit in the United States: Equifax, Trans Union, and Experian.These companies allow anyone with a name and Social Security number to access credit histories.