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8-1 Lecture slides to accompany Engineering Economy 7 th edition Leland Blank Anthony Tarquin Chapter 8 Rate of Return Multiple Alternatives © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Why incremental analysis is required in ROR 2.Incremental cash flow (CF) calculation 3.Interpretation of ROR on incremental CF 4.Select alternative by ROR based on PW relation 5.Select alternative by ROR based on AW relation 6.Select best from several alternatives using ROR method © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-3 Why Incremental Analysis is Necessary Selecting the alternative with highest ROR may not yield highest return on available capital Must consider weighted average of total capital available Capital not invested in a project is assumed to earn at MARR Example: Assume $90,000 is available for investment and MARR = 16% per year. If alternative A would earn 35% per year on investment of $50,000, and B would earn 29% per year on investment of $85,000, the weighted averages are: Overall ROR A = [50,000(0.35) + 40,000(0.16)]/90,000 = 26.6% Overall ROR B = [85,000(0.29) + 5,000(0.16)]/90,000 = 28.3% Which investment is better, economically? © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
Why Incremental Analysis is Necessary © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 8-4 If selection basis is higher ROR: Select alternative A (wrong answer) If selection basis is higher overall ROR: Select alternative B Conclusion: Must use an incremental ROR analysis to make a consistently correct selection Unlike PW, AW, and FW values, if not analyzed correctly, ROR values can lead to an incorrect alternative selection. This is called the ranking inconsistency problem (discussed later)
8-5 Incremental cash flow = cash flow B – cash flow A where larger initial investment is Alternative B Calculation of Incremental CF Example : Either of the cost alternatives shown below can be used in a grinding process. Tabulate the incremental cash flows. BA First cost, $ -40, ,000 Annual cost, $/year -25, ,000 Salvage value, $ 8,000 10,000 The ROR on the extra $20,000 investment in B determines which alternative to select (as discussed later) The incremental CF is shown in the (B-A) column -20, B - A © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-6 Interpretation of ROR on Extra Investment For independent projects, select all that have ROR ≥ MARR (no incremental analysis is necessary) Based on concept that any avoidable investment that does not yield at least the MARR should not be made. Once a lower-cost alternative has been economically justified, the ROR on the extra investment (i.e., additional amount of money associated with a higher first-cost alternative) must also yield a ROR ≥ MARR (because the extra investment is avoidable by selecting the economically-justified lower-cost alternative). This incremental ROR is identified as ∆i* © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-7 ROR Evaluation for Two ME Alternatives (1)Order alternatives by increasing initial investment cost (2) Develop incremental CF series using LCM of years (3) Draw incremental cash flow diagram, if needed (4) Count sign changes to see if multiple ∆i* values exist (5) Set up PW, AW, or FW = 0 relation and find ∆i* B-A Note: Incremental ROR analysis requires equal-service comparison. The LCM of lives must be used in the relation (6) If ∆i* B-A < MARR, select A ; otherwise, select B If multiple ∆i* values exist, find EROR using either MIRR or ROIC approach. © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-8 Example: Incremental ROR Evaluation Either of the cost alternatives shown below can be used in a chemical refining process. If the company’s MARR is 15% per year, determine which should be selected on the basis of ROR analysis? B A First cost,$ -40, ,000 Annual cost, $/year -25, ,000 Salvage value, $ 8,000 10,000 Life, years 5 5 © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved Initial observations: ME, cost alternatives with equal life estimates and no multiple ROR values indicated
8-9 Example: ROR Evaluation of Two Alternatives B A First cost, $ -40, ,000 Annual cost, $/year -25, ,000 Salvage value, $ 8,000 10,000 Life, years 5 5 Solution, using procedure: Order by first cost and find incremental cash flow B - A -20, B - A 0 = -20, (P/A,∆i*,5) (P/F,∆i*,5) ∆i* B-A = 17.2% > MARR of 15% ROR on $20,000 extra investment is acceptable: Select B Write ROR equation (in terms of PW, AW, or FW) on incremental CF Solve for ∆i* and compare to MARR © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
Breakeven ROR Value An ROR at which the PW, AW or FW values: Of cash flows for two alternatives are exactly equal. This is the i* value Of incremental cash flows between two alternatives are exactly equal. This is the ∆i* value © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved 8-10 If MARR > breakeven ROR, select lower-investment alternative
8-11 ROR Analysis – Multiple Alternatives Six-Step Procedure for Mutually Exclusive Alternatives (1) Order alternatives from smallest to largest initial investment (2) For revenue alts, calculate i* (vs. DN) and eliminate all with i* < MARR ; remaining alternative with lowest cost is defender. F or cost alternatives, go to step (3) (3) Determine incremental CF between defender and next lowest-cost alternative (known as the challenger ). Set up ROR relation (4) Calculate ∆i* on incremental CF between two alternatives from step (3) (5) If ∆i* ≥ MARR, eliminate defender and challenger becomes new defender against next alternative on list (6) Repeat steps (3) through (5) until only one alternative remains. Select it. For Independent Projects Compare each alternative vs. DN and select all with ROR ≥ MARR © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-12 Example: ROR for Multiple Alternatives Example: ROR for Multiple Alternatives The five mutually exclusive alternatives shown below are under consideration for improving visitor safety and access to additional areas of a national park. If all alternatives are considered to last indefinitely, determine which should be selected on the basis of a rate of return analysis using an interest rate of 10%. A B C D E_ First cost, $ millions Annual M&O cost, $ millions Solution: Rank on the basis of initial cost: A,C,B,E,D; calculate CC values C vs. A: 0 = /0.1 ∆i* = 6.7% (eliminate C) B vs. A: 0 = /0.1 ∆i* = 25% (eliminate A) E vs. B: 0 = /0.1 ∆i* = 6.7% (eliminate E) D vs. B: 0 = /0.1 ∆i* = 8% (eliminate D) Select alternative B © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved
8-13 Must consider incremental cash flows for mutually exclusive alternatives Summary of Important Points Incremental cash flow = cash flow B – cash flow A where alternative with larger initial investment is Alternative B Eliminate B if incremental ROR ∆i* < MARR; otherwise, eliminate A For multiple mutually exclusive alternatives, compare two at a time and eliminate alternatives until only one remains For independent alternatives, compare each against DN and select all that have ROR ≥ MARR © 2012 by McGraw-Hill All Rights Reserved Breakeven ROR is i* between project cash flows of two alternatives, or ∆i* between incremental cash flows of two alternatives
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