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11 Textbook Pages A Powerpoint Presentation by Mr. Zindman
22 1.The Conservative Revolt Ronald Reagan led a conservative revolt against years of government expansion. In two terms as President, he began to move the nation in a new direction.
33 Since the 1930s American government has grown steadily. The past presidents felt that government should play a large role in managing the economy and providing programs. By the 1980s, conservatives led by Ronald Reagan believed that federal social programs had become too costly. Reagan also felt that federal regulations has kept businesses from growing.
44 After decades of social change, many conservatives called for return to traditional values. These included religion, family, and patriotism. Evangelical Christian churches grew rapidly during the 1970s and 1980s. Evangelists sought out to convert people using television to widen their audience. In 1979 Jerry Falwell founded the Moral Majority. The group supported political candidates who favored conservative religious goals.Jerry FalwellMoral Majority Jerry Falwell
55 In 1980 Ronald Reagan defeated Jimmy Carter for President. Reagan promised to make America great again. He was reelected in 1984 by an even wider margin. The Presidents first priority was his program he called, Reaganomics. Reagans persuaded Congress to cut taxes. He hoped the taxpayers would use the money to buy more and save more. Reaganomics also involved cutting federal spending and to slow the size of government. Reagan slowed the spending on social programs such as welfare and aid to education. A third goal of Reaganomics was deregulation, or reduction of restrictions on businesses.Reaganomicsderegulation
66 After a slow start the economy was booming by When Reagan left office their was 16 million more jobs, while inflation was held in check. Another of Reagan's goals was a balanced budget. A balanced budget requires the government only as much as it takes in. With the old War tensions high, Regan still spent more money on the military. As military spending rose, the budget deficit jumped to an all time high of 240 billion dollars.balanced budget I wish the government had a balanced budget…Mr. Reagan!
77 George H.W. Bush George H.W. Bush won a victory as President and promised to continue Reagans economic policies. During his campaign Bush said Read my lips……No new taxes! Bush could not keep his promise. He raised taxes. Many banks gave out risky loans that were not repaid. Without bank loans the economy slowed. Many businesses cut costs by downsizing, or reducing the work force. These conditions led to a recession, or an economic slump that is milder than a depression. downsizingrecession George H.W. Bush Read my lips……No new taxes!
88 Reagan and Bush appointed a total of five Justices to the Supreme Court. Sandra Day OConnor was the first woman to serve on the court.Sandra Day OConnor Sandra Day OConnor
99 On election day voters signaled their dissatisfaction by electing Bill Clinton as the new President of the United States.Bill Clinton Bill Clinton
11 President Clinton followed a middle –of-the-road course. He convinced Congress to increase some taxes and reduce spending. The federal deficit began a steady decline. On the other hand Clinton pushed for bold reform in the health care system. In 1994 more than 37 million Americans had no healthcare insurance. President Clinton called for a national system of health insurance. Clinton could not get his plan enacted through congress.health care system. Senator Hillary Clinton, President Clintons wife, is currently trying to continue to reform the health care system.
12 Voter frustration helped the Republicans win a resounding victory in the 1994 congressional elections. The Republicans held he majority in both the Senate and House of Representatives. Newt Gingrich became the Speaker of the House. Gingrich drew up aContract With America. This included trimming social welfare programs, reducing environmental regulations, and cutting taxes. President Clinton was unsuccessful in helping the poor and middle class so he settled of balancing the federal budget. By the economy grew so strongly the government reported a budget surplus, in which income exceeded spending. Newt Gingrich Contract With Americasurplus Newt Gingrich
13 In 1996, Clinton easily won reelection. But controversy over real estate dealings and lying under oath about a relationship with a White House intern. The House voted to impeach President Clinton. In February 1999, Clinton was acquitted. All 45 Democratic senators supported the President. All but five Republicans voted to convict him. The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. The House managers are seated beside the quarter-circular tables on the left and the president's personal counsel on the right, much in the fashion of President Andrew Johnson's trial. President Bill ClintonChief Justice William H. Rehnquist Andrew Johnson
14 In the presidential election of 2000, the Republicans nominated Texas governor George W. Bush, son of former President George H.W. Bush along with Richard Cheney. Vice President Al Gore ran for the Democrats. For his running mate he chose Senator Joseph Lieberman of Connecticut. Gore won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a narrow margin. With the Florida vote so close the votes had to be recounted. After 46 days the Supreme Court ordered the counting to be stopped. Gore conceded and Bush became the winner. George W. Bush became the new President of the United States.George W. BushRichard CheneyAl Gore Joseph Lieberman George W. BushRichard Cheney Al Gore Joseph Lieberman
16 2. American Leadership in the New World Despite the end of the Cold War, conflict still threatened many areas of the world. The United States led the search for a new international order that would bring stability and lasting peace to the world. President Clinton and President Bush both promoted a global democracy, or the process of spreading political freedom across the world. With it comes economic freedom where companies would compete in free markets. Sometimes the United States would use a mediator to settle economic and political pressures. A mediator is an agent that helps conflicting parties iron out their differences.global democracy mediator
17 In 1996, thousands of Filipinos protested the rule of dictator, Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos was charged with fraud in a recent election. When the people refused to recognize Marcos as president Marcos fled the country. During the 1990s the United States provided economic aid to the new Filipino democracy.
18 In 1989, after president Nixon's historic visit, students and workers launched a bold campaign to bring democracy to China. Many demonstration in Beijing and Tiananmen were crushed by the army. Many people were killed or arrested. President Bush took no action against China. President Bush visited China in 1998 pledging to strengthen ties between the two nations.
19 The cause of global democracy had its most dramatic success in South Africa. Since 1948, the government of South Africa enforced the policy of apartheid, or strict separation of races. The nations nonwhite majority was segregated and allowed no voice in government. In 1986, Congress approved economic sanctions against South Africa to force to apartheid. Sanctions are measures designed to make a country change its policy. American countries were no longer permitted to invest in South Africa or import South African products.apartheid segregated economic sanctions Nelson Mandela was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully- representative democratic elections.
20 After the Cold War, the former Soviet republics of Eastern Europe struggled to adapt to their new freedom. The former communist government in Russia sold off business to private enterprises. As a result, inflation and unemployment rose in Russia. A civil war broke out in Bosnia. Boris Yeltsin, the Russian President, tried to establish a democracy in his country. The United Stated intervened to settle the civil war with the Dayton Accord. The Dayton Accord stated that Bosnia would become a single nation governed by two republics.Boris YeltsinDayton Accord Dayton Accord Bosnia The Flag of Bosnia Boris Yeltsin
22 The former Soviet Union collapsed as the world faced a new threat. The threat of the spread of nuclear weapons. The United States and Russia signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in In the treaty the United States and Russia agreed to destroy one third of their nuclear weapons. Soon afterwards began a nuclear arms race between many other countries of the world. President Clinton tried to take steps to contain the growing nuclear threat. The Clinton administration drafted the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Its goal was to end further testing of nuclear weapons.nuclear weaponsStrategic Arms Reduction Treaty Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty A nuclear weapon explosion
23 3. The Spread of Regional Conflict Conflict has troubled the Middle East, a region extending from Asia across North Africa. Friction between religious groups has led to violence has led to discord and violence. The United States has supported the country of Israel in the Middle East. The United States also has ties with the Islamic Arab nations, such as Saudi Arabia, that help supply our country with oil.IsraelSaudi Arabia A flag of IsraelIsraelA flag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
24 In 1948 the Jewish people founded the Jewish state of Israel. The United States and other nations quickly recognized the new nation. Neighboring Arab nations refused to recognize Israel, instead they attacked the country. The United States sent aid to Israel in the 1973 war. The members of OPEC became very angry. They cut off shipments of oil to the United States. This caused oil prices to shoot up. OPEC lifted the embargo in Egypt led by Anwar el- Sadat and Israel, led by Prime Minister Meacham Begin signed a peace agreement in Israel was to give up the Sinai Peninsula and Egypt was to recognize the state of Israel. This was called the Camp David Accords.OPECAnwar el- Sadat Prime Minister Meacham Begin Camp David Accords OPECOPEC logo Prime Minister Meacham Begin Anwar el-Sadat
25 The Palestinian Arab guerillas waged war on Israel. Under Israeli rule the Palestinians had little rights in the Israeli territories. Many Palestinians wanted to return Israels land to the Palestinians. They supported the Palestinian Liberation Organization or the PLO. After years of fighting the United States convinced both sides to come to an agreement. Palestinian Liberation Organization
26 The shah or ruler of Iran was dethroned and a religious leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini took over Iran and forced the shah to flee Iran. The Ayatollah was strongly anti-American and against democracy. Ayatollah Khomeini shah Ayatollah Khomeini
27 In August 1990, Saddam Hussein sent 100,000 troops to invade oil rich Kuwait. President Bush feared the invasion was the start of a greater plan to get control of the Middle East Oil. President Bush sent troops to Saudi Arabia. He also persuaded the United Nations to impose a trade boycott on Iraq. These events led to the Persian Gulf War. In six weeks the Iraqis were driven out of Kuwait. In spite of the end of the war Saddam Hussein continued a chemical and biological weapons program. Hussein refused to cooperated with weapons inspectors so a four day air strike was imposed on Iraq.Saddam Hussein Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein Persian Gulf War
29 After the 1960s terrorism, or the deliberate use of violence to spread fear and to achieve political goals. American, Northern Ireland and Israel became the targets for terrorism. On September 11, 2001 terrorists slammed two into the World Trade Center and one into the Pentagon. A fourth plane crashed Pennsylvania when the passengers fought back.terrorism September 11, 2001