Presentation on theme: "Javier Leung and Kassy Tyler University of West Florida Educational Statistics III Dr. Carla Thompson."— Presentation transcript:
Javier Leung and Kassy Tyler University of West Florida Educational Statistics III Dr. Carla Thompson
Outline Introduction Purpose Statement Therapeutic Community Pathways for Change Research Questions Hypotheses Research Design Methodology Results Recommendations
Introduction The United States has 5% of the worlds population and 25% of the worlds inmate population. Pathways for Change (PFC) has created a program to effectively reduce recidivism one inmate at a time. Inmates are immersed into a Therapeutic Community to learn basic life skills, rebuild self -esteem and develop habits to become productive citizens. Objective: to take personal responsibility and remove inmates dependency on drugs.
Purpose Statement Substance abuse has been found to be a factor in recidivism. TCs provide a 24-hour–per day peer group community. The 18-month therapeutic community program is offered to non-violent offenders with chemical dependency. Reduce criminal behavior Reduce drug use Reintegration into society The purpose of this study is to identify factors which contribute to successful completion of the Pathways for Change program.
Therapeutic Community These communities are defined as a drug free residential treatment setting that uses a hierarchical model of peer influence (NIDA, 2008). Governed by a strict set of rules monitored by peers who serve as key change agents In a 2000 report from the New York State Commission on drugs and the courts, retention rates of up to 70% were found at the one year mark for substance abusers when given a choice to enter a TC.
Pathways for Change A faith-based therapeutic community An alternative sentencing option for non-violent offenders with substance dependency. Inmates are taught to break the cycle of destructive behavior following the three phase program: Intensive classwork Community service Vocational training or employment
Pathways for Change continued New pro-social skills through modeling, peers, practice and reinforcement is one of the treatment principles found by the NIC ( 2005). TC follows a model of treatment stages that incrementally increases an inmates level of personal and social responsibility (NIDA, 2002). Inmates may be released back to detention for non- compliance, abusive behavior, substance abuse and other anti-social actions.
Pathways for Change continued PFC employs a very limited staff and does not have a dedicated fund raising professional. As a department of Baptist Health Care it is also limited to seeking funding through sources which are not of interest to the local hospitals development efforts. Future grant proposals showing results of the program will help in funding activities.
Research Questions Which factors indicate a relationship in successful program completion for offenders who enter the PFC program? Which intervention factors contribute to successful program completion? Data available: 1)clients ability to read and write, 2)choice to enter the treatment program, 3)prescription drug use, 4)chemicals of dependency, 5)employment and 6)marital status.
Hypotheses 1H 0 There is no relationship between court mandated admission and non-court mandated admission to the PFC program in regard to successful program completion. H 1 There is a relationship between court mandated admission and non- court mandated admission to the PFC program in regard to successful program completion. 2H 0 There is no relationship between income and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program. H 1 There is a relationship between income and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program.
Hypotheses 3H 0 There is no relationship between prescription drug usage and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program. H 1 There is a relationship between prescription drug usage and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program. 4H 0 There is a relationship between clients ability to read/write and the length of time to successfully complete the PFC program. H 1 There is no relationship between clients ability to read/write and the length of time to successfully complete the PFC program.
Hypotheses 5H 0 There is a relationship between employment prior to incarceration and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program. H 1 There is no relationship between employment prior to incarceration and successful program completion for clients in the PFC program.
Research Design Action research design for analyzing documents provided by the program director. Variables of interest/funding: demographics, recidivism, drug abuse, medication usage and family and employment status at the time a client is admitted. The team noted inconsistency in the coding of dichotomous variables. Recoding all variables for consistency.
Research Design Additional documentation requested to fill gaps in the data. For analysis purposes, both male and female databases were combined. Additional variables based on literature: length of time in the program, prescription drug use, graduation status and gender. Quantitative analyses using chi square and discriminant function analysis were performed.
Results Significant Chi-Squares Prescription Drugs and Graduation chi square value of 18.250 (X 2 =18.250, p =.00, p <.05) Court Mandated and Graduation chi square value of 9.738 (X 2 =9.738 p =.008, p <.05) Employed Prior Incarceration chi square value of 7.528 (X 2 =7.528 p =.023, p <.05)
Results Non significant Chi Squares Non significant Discriminant Analysis Ability to write/read and graduation chi square value of 3.621 (X 2 =3.621, p =.164, p <.05) Participating in Court Mandated Program chi square value of 4.575 (X 2 =4.575, p =.102, p <.05) Income and Length of Program with Graduates and Non Graduates Wilks lambda was not significant-A=0.713, X 2 (2, N= 15) = 4.061, p <0.001.
Results of Interventions Significant Chi Squares Chemical Dependency Class chi square value of 22.355 (X 2 =22.355 p =.00, p <.05) Foundations of Living chi square value of 20.166 (X 2 =20.166 p =.00, p <.05) Business Technology chi square value of 22.070 (X 2 =22.070 p =.00, p <.05) Vocational Rehabilitation chi square value of 11.657 (X 2 =11.657 p =.003, p <.05) AA Support chi square value of 18.433 (X 2 =18.433 p =.00, p <.05)
Results of Interventions Non significant Chi Squares Social Service Programming chi square value of 1.449 (X 2 =1.449 p =.485, p <.05) Vocational Technical Training Program chi square value of 1.248 (X 2 =1.248 p =.536, p <.05) Voluntary Involvement with PFC chi square value of 4.028 (X 2 =4.028 p =.133, p <.05) Skills in Carpentry chi square value of 2.098 (X 2 =2.098 p =.350, p <.05)
Recommendations A single feature of a program or an intervention does not reduce recidivism, however a unification of principles contribute to successful reintegration (NIC, 2005). Risk assessment Target interventions MeasuremtnFeedback Positive reinforcement Support communities Motivation
Recommendations The mixture of client composition, staff experience, program age, size, resources, and leadership style in the management of TCs provide individual change as a part of the global impact of community life (De Leon, (2000), p. 9). Researchers and stakeholders need to understand how a convergence of interventions in treatment programs, skill training for staff, and evaluation of services delivered, influence participants behavioral changes and development of social skills.
Recommendations Future research endeavors must keep in mind that the effectiveness of the program depends on: Clearly articulated program An understandable statement of goals and outcomes A rational connection between goals and outcomes (Rutman, 1977).