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50 Years of Human Space Flight:

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1 50 Years of Human Space Flight: 1961-2011
By Richard C. Cook Author, Challenger Revealed February 25 & 26, 2011 An Educational Program Created for Roanoke Public Libraries, Roanoke, VA Developed as a public service and not copyrighted. Fair Use Doctrine claimed for illustrations.

2 Man the Dreamer Leonardo da Vinci Space Station Drawing?
Jules Verne’s From the Earth to the Moon Early Chinese Rocket

3 The “Call of Space” Flash Gordon - 1934 Buck Rogers - 1928
Superman The Day the Earth Stood Still

4 Dr. Robert Goddard ( )

5 German V-2 Rocket – WW II

6 Launched by the Soviet Union
First Earth-Orbiting Satellites Sputnik 1 Launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 Explorer 1 Launched by the U.S. on January 31, 1958

7 National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958
DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE Sec. 102.  (a) The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. (b) The Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the United States require that adequate provision be made for aeronautical and space activities. The Congress further declares that such activities shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, a civilian agency exercising control over aeronautical and space activities sponsored by the United States, except that activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States (including the research and development necessary to make effective provision for the defense of the United States) shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, the Department of Defense; and that determination as to which such agency has responsibility for and direction of any such activity shall be made by the President in conformity with section 2471(e). (c) The Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (as established by title II of this Act) seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.

8 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Kennedy Space Center, Florida Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Johnson Space Center, Houston Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland

9 Project Mercury 1959-1963 1st American Astronauts:
Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, Donald “Deke” Slayton Trained at NASA’s Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 20 unmanned launches, followed by two suborbital and four orbital manned flights

10 Mercury Spacecraft Mercury Capsule with Escape Tower Mercury Control
at Cape Canaveral, Florida

11 The Soviet Union and the U.S.
Send Men to Space. First Suborbital Flights Alan Shepard May 5, 1961 Yuri Gagarin April 12, 1961

12 (After his flight, Ham lived in until the ripe old age of 26)
Oops. Almost Forgot! Ham the Chimp beat both men to space with a January 31,1961 suborbital flight (After his flight, Ham lived in the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., until the ripe old age of 26)

13 First American to Orbit the Earth
John Glenn First American to Orbit the Earth February 20, 1962 U.S. Senator Astronaut Oldest shuttle astronaut – 1998 Age 77

14 First Woman in Space June 16, 1963 - Vostok 6 carries Soviet
cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, and orbits the earth 48 times.

15 Project Gemini 10 two-man flights in 1965-66
Preparation for lunar mission Rendezvous and docking of capsules First American spacewalks Demonstrate endurance in zero-gravity

16 Tragedy Jan. 27, 1967: Gus Grissom, Ed White
and Roger Chaffee are killed on the launch pad when a flash fire engulfs their command module during testing for the first Apollo/Saturn mission. They are the first U.S. astronauts to die in the line of duty. April 24, 1967: Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies when his Soyuz capsule crash lands after a 13-orbit mission.

17 Humanity Reaches for the Moon

18 The Apollo Program 1961-1975 Met President John F. Kennedy’s goal
of “landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth” by the end of the decade. 12 men walked on the moon in six landings. Only spaceflight program to send men beyond low earth orbit. Utilized giant Saturn rocket developed by Dr. Werner von Braun and his team Included three Skylab missions and one docking mission with Soviet Soyuz.

19 How They Got There Saturn 5 Rocket Command Module Lunar Module (LEM)
Lunar Rover

20 Man on the Moon: Apollo 11 Launched July 16, 1969 Landed July 20, 1969
Neil Armstrong Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin Michael Collins On the Moon In Flight Recovery

21 Lunar Adventure Earthrise Mission Control A Big Rock Apollo 13 Rescue
Golf Course Apollo-Soyuz Docking Mission

22 Early Unmanned Spacecraft
Corona Spy Satellite 1964 – Mariner-Mars 1961 – Telstar 1 1977 – Viking 1&2 to Jupiter & Saturn 1965 – Soviet Venus 3 1975 – Viking 1&2 to Mars

23 cosmonauts die on rentry
Soviet Space Stations 1971 – Salyut 1 1982 – Salyut 7 Soviet cosmonauts set duration record of 211 days June 29, 1971 – 3 Soviet cosmonauts die on rentry after visiting Salyut 1 Mir

24 Space Shuttle Approved by President Nixon on January 5, 1972.
World’s first reusable spacecraft, as well as largest, most complex, and most expensive. Nine years to develop, with first launch of Columbia taking place on April 12, 1981. Designed as “space truck” to carry all U.S. scientific, military, and commercial payloads, a highly radical policy that changed after Challenger disaster. Confined to low earth orbit – miles with longer-distance rockets in payload bay. Seven-person crew. 133 missions have been flown to date with two catastrophic failures. Scheduled to be terminated with last flight in June 2011.

25 Shuttle Components Orbiter External Tank Solid Rocket Boosters
Upper and lower passenger decks Powered by liquid hydrogen/oxygen World’s only spacecraft to land on a runway Large payload bay with robotic arm for cargo External Tank 153.8 feet long Contains hydrogen & oxygen for main engines Manufactured in New Orleans and shipped by barge to Florida Discarded in flight and breaks up over Indian Ocean Covered with lightweight insulating foam Solid Rocket Boosters Segments shipped from Utah by rail and joined at Kennedy Space Center (field joints) Solid ammonium perchlorate/aluminum fuel with explosive igniter Burn for first two minutes of flight Parachute to ocean after flight and are reused

26 Thermal Protection System (TPS) First Use of Solid-Fuel
Cutting Edge Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) Runway Landings Flight Computer System Thermal Protection System (TPS) First Use of Solid-Fuel Rockets in Manned Spaceflight

27 Space Shuttle Liftoff July 4, 1982, President Reagan
declares shuttle “operational” at landing of Columbia, Edwards AB, Calif. Sally Ride, First U.S. woman In space, STS-7, Challenger, June 18, 1983 November 28, 1983 – Columbia 1st launch of German-built Spacelab January 24, 1985 – Discovery First classified Department of Defense space shuttle mission

28 thermal tiles had to be replaced shutdown 5 min. into flight
Anomalies Solid Rocket Booster O-ring charring first appears on STS-2 December 1984 – Challenger flight cancelled when 3,800 thermal tiles had to be replaced January 24-27, 1985 Discovery: Five SRB O-rings damaged in during “freeze of the century” July 29, 1985 – Challenger Premature Main Engine shutdown 5 min. into flight

29 Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986
Challenger broke up 73 seconds into flight. All seven astronauts died. Due to Teacher-in-Space Christa McAuliffe, most-watched launch since moon landing. Cold weather weakened Solid Rocket Booster o-ring joint which failed at ignition. Morton-Thiokol engineers opposed launch but were overruled by company management acting under pressure from NASA. Crew had no escape system or early warning capability. Investigations concluded that NASA should have grounded shuttle due to seriousness of o-ring joint problems. Investigations cited launch schedule pressures.

30 Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident
Chairman William Rogers Former Sec. of State Vice-Chairman Neil Armstrong Commission Member Sally Ride Commission Member Richard Feynman Richard Cook described O-ring “budget threats” Roger Boisjoly of Morton Thiokol explained how he and other engineers opposed launch Allan Mcdonald of Morton Thiokol refused to sign document approving launch Astronaut John Young testified on launch schedule pressures

31 The Shuttle Returns to Flight
September 29, 1988 – Discovery First post-Challenger launch April 24, 1990 – Discovery Hubble Space Telescope October 6, 1990 Ulysses Solar Mission June 27, Atlantis First shuttle docking with Russian Mir May 27, 1999 – Discovery First servicing mission for International Space Station May 7, First flight of Endeavor orbiter

32 Hubble Views the Universe
Omega Nebula N90 Star-Forming Region Crab Nebula Galaxies in Deep Space Sombrero Galaxy Spiral Galaxy

33 International Space Station
ISS project began in 1994 with 1st module launched by Russia in 1998. Operated jointly by NASA, Russian Federal Space Agency, European Space Agency, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Canadian Space Agency. Continuously occupied since October 31, 2000. Used only for peaceful purposes. Visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 nations. Most expensive project in human history. Serviced by manned Soyuz and Shuttle spacecraft and unmapped Russian, European, and Japanese vehicles. Contains 14 separate pressurized modules. Solar-powered with photovoltaic arrays. Visible to the naked eye. Purposes are scientific research, enhancing human performance and health in space, earth weather observation, education, and furthering international cooperation.

34 Columbia Disaster February 1, 2003
Columbia disintegrated over Texas and Louisiana during reentry at the end of a 17-day flight. All seven crew members died. Cause was determined to be a briefcase-sized piece of foam that fell from the External Tank onto the Orbiter at 66,000 feet after liftoff and damaged the leading edge of the left wing. Engineers suspected damage during the flight but NASA’s managers took no action and crew was not told. Tiles had been damaged in previous flights but not fatally. “Foam shedding” had become an acceptable occurrence. Investigating board was highly critical of NASA’s decision-making and risk assessment processes. After the Columbia disaster the shuttle was idle for two years while safety improvements were made.

35 Fallen Shuttle Astronauts
Challenger Crew Front Row: Michael Smith, Frances “Dick” Scobee, Ronald McNair Back Row: Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, Judith Resnik Columbia Crew Front Row: Rick Husband, Kalpana Chawla, William McCool Back Row: David Brown, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, Ll Ramon

36 Unmanned U.S. Flights Continue to Explore the Solar System
June 1997 NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) lands on Eros in Feb. 2001 1990 – Magellan Venus radar mapping mission Galileo Jupiter probe Mars Global Surveyor October Launch of Cassini/Huygens to Saturn; lands on Titan 2005

37 What Lies Beyond? Voyager 1 & 2 to leave solar system
and transmit data until 2020 New Horizons expected to reach Pluto in 2015 Then leave solar system Wikipedia: “Each Voyager space probe carries a gold-plated audio-visual disc in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its life forms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from the people (e.g. the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of the Planet Earth) and a medley, ‘Sounds of Earth,’ that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a variety of music.”

38 Earth’s Magnetosphere
Studying Earth Changes from Space Tracking Sunspots Hurricane Gordon Changes in Earth’s Magnetosphere Shrinking Ice & Snow Cover

39 China Becomes the Third Nation to Launch Men into Space
Yang Liwei, first Chinese astronaut January 2001 Chinese launch of Shenzhou spacecraft carrying a monkey, dog, and rabbit. Shenzhou means “divine vessel.” On October 15, 2003, Shenzhou 5 placed first man from China into orbit. Six have flown to date. Shanzhou Re-entry Capsule

40 Race Back to the Moon ? Chandrayaan 1, Indian lunar flight confirms
water on moon, October 2008 U.S. planned moon landing announced for 2019 Indian manned mission Chandrayaan 3 planned for 2015 Planned Indian and Japanese manned moon landings Planned Chinese manned moon landing 2025 – Planned Russian manned moon landing followed by permanent lunar base

41 Military Satellite Photo
Military Uses of Space Military Satellite Photo of the Eiffel Tower Space operations conducted by all modern nations for communications, surveillance, and navigation. Weapons can be delivered through space by ICBMs. Outer Space Treaty dating to 1966 bans deployment of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in space. Only the Soviet Union has used manned military space stations. President Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative – “Star Wars” program began to use shuttle as weapons testing platform with lasers and particle beams. Use of shuttle for military missions discontinued during Clinton administration. Military “black budgets” have potential for secret military space programs. Military commanders of major nations have declared intent to wage war from and in space in future. Tactical Military Satellite Dish

42 Proposed Next Step: The Constellation Fleet…but…
Aries crew launch vehicle with resusable solid rocket and LOX upper stage Orion crew exploration vehicle to shuttle four-person crew between low earth orbit, space station, and moon Altair lunar lander that docks with Orion in low orbit then flies toward moon Lunar Outpost – a base at the Moon’s south pole where the Mars Orion mission would be configured

43 Constellation on the Way Out?
On February 1, 2010, the Obama administration canceled the Constellation program. At an April 2010 Space Conference in Florida, President Obama proposed continuing development of the Orion capsule, but initially using it as an escape capsule for the ISS. Development of new deep space vehicles would be postponed. Private companies such as SpaceX are lobbying to build NASA’s next manned launch vehicle. Congress has mandated that NASA build a new rocket from existing components. Thousands of jobs are scheduled to be eliminated when the shuttle is retired in 2011.

44 Explosive Chemical Rockets? – There Must Be a Better Way !
Magnetoplasma Rocket: An electro-magnetic thruster that uses radio waves to ionize and heat a propellant and magnetic fields to accelerate the resulting plasma and generate thrust. Developed by Costa Rican scientist and former astronaut Frankliln Chang-Diaz for testing on the International Space Station. But it will be useable only after it has already been carried into space. Space elevator: Involves traveling along a fixed structure instead of using rocket powered launch systems. The concept refers to a cable that reaches from the surface of the earth on or near the equator to a platform in geostationary orbit and a counterweight outside the geostationary orbit. Discussion of a space elevator dates to 1895 when Konstantin Tsiolokovsky proposed a free-standing "Tsiolkovsky" tower reaching from the surface of earth. Its use is limited by the height of the platform. Magnetic Levitation: A superconductor cooled to an extremely low temperature is repelled by a magnetic field and made to levitate, the Meisner Effect. This is the principle behind the mag-lev train, whereby an extremely heavy train filled with cargo and passengers can travel at speeds over 100 mph on a track it never even touches. The mag-lev train actually floats a centimeter above the track in seeming defiance of the law of gravity. Animals such as frogs have been levitated in the laboratory. But can it get us off earth?

45 How About Nuclear Fusion Rockets?
A fusion rocket would be driven by nuclear fusion power. Recent developments indicate this technology may be able to provide terrestrial based power within 30 years. For space flight, the main advantage of fusion would be the very high specific impulse, the main disadvantage being the probable large mass of the reactor. In addition, a fusion rocket may produce less radiation than a fission rocket, reducing the mass needed for shielding.

46 Even More Exotic Antigravity
Even though many scientists resist the idea that antigravity could exist, it has become the most promising field of theoretical research for out-of-the-box propulsion applications. Faster than Light? American researcher Peter Grandics has stated that, “Time is found to be a derivative of gravitation that appears at right angles to magnetism” and proposes methods for time warping that could be used for faster-than-light spacecraft Design. Wormholes A wormhole is a theoretical shortcut through spacetime, potentially able to be crossed by space travelers. The Schwarzschild wormhole consists of a black hole, a white hole, and two universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole. In the film Contact, Dr. Eleanor Arroway travels to the star system Vega through a series of wormholes.

47 Space in the Popular Imagination
Star Wars Star Trek Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1977 Independence Day X – Files E.T Contact

48 Are We Alone? The Search for UFOs and ETs
SETI, or Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is a generic term for a variety of scientific attempts to contact intelligent life elsewhere in the universe through electromagnetic transmissions, including NASA-funded studies. UFO-like objects have been reported throughout history, including ancient Rome and medieval times. In 1968, Science & Mechanics magazine published detailed accounts of UFO phenomena from the Air Force’s Project Blue Book files; Air Force terminated the project in 1970; U.S. government denies any knowledge of UFOs. Former astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell say ETs are real. Mitchell says that he was briefed on UFO/ET contacts while at NASA. Officials from the U.N., the British Royal Society, the Vatican, and many other institutions back the search for extraterrestrial life. Military officers, pilots, and government officials from many countries have reliably and extensively documented UFO sightings; they do exist. What they are and who flies them are unknown.

49 The space program has contributed to this in two significant ways:
Results of Space Exploration The world in which we live would have been inconceivable a century ago. The space program has contributed to this in two significant ways: Global Vision Technology

50 Our Future in Space --and on Earth-- Is Up to Us

51 But whoever you are or wherever you are,
it’s up to you to decide how to serve others

52 Thank You! To Roanoke Public Libraries and
Mr. River Laker for inviting me and being so creative in facilitating the program. To my hard-working laptop for being so cooperative. To my wife Karen for putting up with my long silences while working on the presentation. To my mom, who has encouraged me for 64 of her 88 years. To the men and women around the world who have taken part in 50 years of manned space flight. To all ETs, wherever you are. But most important - to all of you who came to participate – you are a great audience!

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