Presentation on theme: "50 Years of Human Space Flight:"— Presentation transcript:
1 50 Years of Human Space Flight: 1961-2011 By Richard C. CookAuthor, Challenger RevealedFebruary 25 & 26, 2011An Educational Program Createdfor Roanoke Public Libraries,Roanoke, VADeveloped as a publicservice and not copyrighted.Fair Use Doctrine claimedfor illustrations.
2 Man the Dreamer Leonardo da Vinci Space Station Drawing? Jules Verne’s From theEarth to the MoonEarly Chinese Rocket
3 The “Call of Space” Flash Gordon - 1934 Buck Rogers - 1928 SupermanThe Day the Earth Stood Still
6 Launched by the Soviet Union First Earth-Orbiting SatellitesSputnik 1Launched by the Soviet Unionon October 4, 1957Explorer 1Launched by the U.S.on January 31, 1958
7 National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSESec. 102. (a) The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of the United Statesthat activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. (b) The Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the United Statesrequire that adequate provision be made for aeronautical and space activities. The Congressfurther declares that such activities shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by,a civilian agency exercising control over aeronautical and space activities sponsored bythe United States, except that activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the developmentof weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States (including theresearch and development necessary to make effective provision for the defense of the UnitedStates) shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, the Department of Defense;and that determination as to which such agency has responsibility for and direction of anysuch activity shall be made by the President in conformity with section 2471(e).(c) The Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that theNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (as established by title II of this Act)seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.
8 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center, FloridaMarshall Space Flight Center, AlabamaJohnson Space Center, HoustonGoddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
9 Project Mercury 1959-1963 1st American Astronauts: Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper,John Glenn, Virgil “Gus” Grissom,Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard,Donald “Deke” SlaytonTrained at NASA’sLangley Research Center,Hampton, Virginia20 unmanned launches,followed by two suborbitaland four orbital manned flights
10 Mercury Spacecraft Mercury Capsule with Escape Tower Mercury Control at Cape Canaveral,Florida
11 The Soviet Union and the U.S. Send Men to Space.First Suborbital FlightsAlan ShepardMay 5, 1961Yuri GagarinApril 12, 1961
12 (After his flight, Ham lived in until the ripe old age of 26) Oops. Almost Forgot!Ham the Chimp beat bothmen to space with aJanuary 31,1961suborbital flight(After his flight, Ham lived inthe National Zoo inWashington, D.C.,until the ripe old age of 26)
13 First American to Orbit the Earth John GlennFirst American to Orbit the EarthFebruary 20, 1962U.S. SenatorAstronautOldest shuttleastronaut – 1998Age 77
14 First Woman in Space June 16, 1963 - Vostok 6 carries Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, the firstwoman in space, and orbits the earth 48 times.
15 Project Gemini 10 two-man flights in 1965-66 Preparation for lunar missionRendezvous and docking of capsulesFirst American spacewalksDemonstrate endurance in zero-gravity
16 Tragedy Jan. 27, 1967: Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee are killedon the launch pad when a flash fireengulfs their command moduleduring testing for the first Apollo/Saturnmission. They are the first U.S.astronauts to die in the line of duty.April 24, 1967: Soviet cosmonautVladimir Komarov dies when his Soyuzcapsule crash lands after a 13-orbitmission.
18 The Apollo Program 1961-1975 Met President John F. Kennedy’s goal of “landing a man on the moon andreturning him safely to the earth” bythe end of the decade.12 men walked on the moon insix landings.Only spaceflight program to send menbeyond low earth orbit.Utilized giant Saturn rocket developed byDr. Werner von Braun and his teamIncluded three Skylab missions andone docking mission with Soviet Soyuz.
19 How They Got There Saturn 5 Rocket Command Module Lunar Module (LEM) Lunar Rover
20 Man on the Moon: Apollo 11 Launched July 16, 1969 Landed July 20, 1969 Neil ArmstrongEugene “Buzz” AldrinMichael CollinsOn the MoonIn FlightRecovery
21 Lunar Adventure Earthrise Mission Control A Big Rock Apollo 13 Rescue Golf CourseApollo-Soyuz Docking Mission
22 Early Unmanned Spacecraft CoronaSpy Satellite1964 – Mariner-Mars1961 – Telstar 11977 – Viking 1&2to Jupiter & Saturn1965 – Soviet Venus 31975 – Viking 1&2 to Mars
23 cosmonauts die on rentry Soviet Space Stations1971 – Salyut 11982 – Salyut 7Soviet cosmonautsset duration record of211 daysJune 29, 1971 – 3 Sovietcosmonauts die on rentryafter visiting Salyut 1Mir
24 Space Shuttle Approved by President Nixon on January 5, 1972. World’s first reusable spacecraft, as well aslargest, most complex, and most expensive.Nine years to develop, with first launch ofColumbia taking place on April 12, 1981.Designed as “space truck” to carry all U.S.scientific, military, and commercial payloads,a highly radical policy that changed afterChallenger disaster.Confined to low earth orbit – mileswith longer-distance rockets in payload bay.Seven-person crew.133 missions have been flown to date with twocatastrophic failures.Scheduled to be terminated with last flightin June 2011.
25 Shuttle Components Orbiter External Tank Solid Rocket Boosters Upper and lower passenger decksPowered by liquid hydrogen/oxygenWorld’s only spacecraft to land ona runwayLarge payload bay with robotic armfor cargoExternal Tank153.8 feet longContains hydrogen & oxygen for main enginesManufactured in New Orleans andshipped by barge to FloridaDiscarded in flight and breaks upover Indian OceanCovered with lightweight insulating foamSolid Rocket BoostersSegments shipped from Utah by rail andjoined at Kennedy Space Center (field joints)Solid ammonium perchlorate/aluminum fuelwith explosive igniterBurn for first two minutes of flightParachute to ocean after flight and are reused
26 Thermal Protection System (TPS) First Use of Solid-Fuel Cutting EdgeSpace ShuttleMain Engines (SSMEs)Runway LandingsFlight Computer SystemThermal Protection System (TPS)First Use of Solid-FuelRockets in MannedSpaceflight
27 Space Shuttle Liftoff July 4, 1982, President Reagan declares shuttle “operational” atlanding of Columbia, Edwards AB, Calif.Sally Ride, First U.S. womanIn space, STS-7, Challenger,June 18, 1983November 28, 1983 – Columbia1st launch of German-built SpacelabJanuary 24, 1985 – DiscoveryFirst classified Department of Defensespace shuttle mission
28 thermal tiles had to be replaced shutdown 5 min. into flight AnomaliesSolid Rocket BoosterO-ring charring firstappears on STS-2December 1984 – Challengerflight cancelled when 3,800thermal tiles had to be replacedJanuary 24-27, 1985Discovery: Five SRBO-rings damaged induring “freeze of thecentury”July 29, 1985 – ChallengerPremature Main Engineshutdown 5 min. into flight
29 Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986 Challenger broke up 73 seconds into flight.All seven astronauts died.Due to Teacher-in-Space Christa McAuliffe,most-watched launch since moon landing.Cold weather weakened Solid Rocket Boostero-ring joint which failed at ignition.Morton-Thiokol engineers opposed launch butwere overruled by company managementacting under pressure from NASA.Crew had no escape system or early warningcapability.Investigations concluded that NASA shouldhave grounded shuttle due to seriousness ofo-ring joint problems.Investigations cited launch schedule pressures.
30 Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident Chairman William RogersFormer Sec. of StateVice-ChairmanNeil ArmstrongCommission MemberSally RideCommission MemberRichard FeynmanRichard Cookdescribed O-ring“budget threats”Roger Boisjolyof Morton Thiokolexplained how he andother engineersopposed launchAllan Mcdonald ofMorton Thiokolrefused to signdocument approvinglaunchAstronaut John Youngtestified on launchschedule pressures
31 The Shuttle Returns to Flight September 29, 1988 – DiscoveryFirst post-Challenger launchApril 24, 1990 – DiscoveryHubble Space TelescopeOctober 6, 1990Ulysses Solar MissionJune 27, AtlantisFirst shuttle docking withRussian MirMay 27, 1999 – DiscoveryFirst servicing mission forInternational Space StationMay 7, First flightof Endeavor orbiter
32 Hubble Views the Universe Omega NebulaN90 Star-Forming RegionCrab NebulaGalaxies in Deep SpaceSombrero GalaxySpiral Galaxy
33 International Space Station ISS project began in 1994 with 1st module launchedby Russia in 1998.Operated jointly by NASA, Russian Federal SpaceAgency, European Space Agency, JapaneseAerospace Exploration Agency, and CanadianSpace Agency.Continuously occupied since October 31, 2000.Used only for peaceful purposes.Visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from15 nations.Most expensive project in human history.Serviced by manned Soyuz and Shuttle spacecraftand unmapped Russian, European, and Japanesevehicles.Contains 14 separate pressurized modules.Solar-powered with photovoltaic arrays.Visible to the naked eye.Purposes are scientific research, enhancinghuman performance and health in space, earthweather observation, education, and furtheringinternational cooperation.
34 Columbia Disaster February 1, 2003 Columbia disintegrated over Texas and Louisianaduring reentry at the end of a 17-day flight.All seven crew members died.Cause was determined to be a briefcase-sizedpiece of foam that fell from the External Tankonto the Orbiter at 66,000 feet after liftoff anddamaged the leading edge of the left wing.Engineers suspected damage during the flight butNASA’s managers took no action and crew wasnot told.Tiles had been damaged in previous flights butnot fatally. “Foam shedding” had become anacceptable occurrence.Investigating board was highly critical of NASA’sdecision-making and risk assessment processes.After the Columbia disaster the shuttle was idlefor two years while safety improvements weremade.
36 Unmanned U.S. Flights Continue to Explore the Solar System June 1997 NEAR (Near EarthAsteroid Rendezvous) landson Eros in Feb. 20011990 – Magellan Venusradar mapping missionGalileoJupiter probeMarsGlobal SurveyorOctober Launch ofCassini/Huygens to Saturn;lands on Titan 2005
37 What Lies Beyond? Voyager 1 & 2 to leave solar system and transmit data until 2020New Horizons expected to reachPluto in 2015 Then leave solar systemWikipedia: “Each Voyager space probe carries a gold-plated audio-visual discin the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from otherplanetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its life forms, a range ofscientific information, spoken greetings from the people (e.g. the Secretary-Generalof the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of thePlanet Earth) and a medley, ‘Sounds of Earth,’ that includes the sounds of whales,a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a variety of music.”
39 China Becomes the Third Nation to Launch Men into Space Yang Liwei, firstChinese astronautJanuary 2001 Chinese launch of Shenzhouspacecraft carrying a monkey, dog, and rabbit.Shenzhou means “divine vessel.” On October 15, 2003, Shenzhou 5 placed firstman from China into orbit.Six have flown to date.Shanzhou Re-entry Capsule
40 Race Back to the Moon ? Chandrayaan 1, Indian lunar flight confirms water on moon, October 2008U.S. planned moon landing announced for 2019Indian manned mission Chandrayaan 3 plannedfor 2015Planned Indian and Japanese mannedmoon landingsPlanned Chinese manned moon landing2025 – Planned Russian manned moon landingfollowed by permanent lunar base
41 Military Satellite Photo Military Uses of SpaceMilitary Satellite Photoof the Eiffel TowerSpace operations conducted by all modern nations forcommunications, surveillance, and navigation.Weapons can be delivered through space by ICBMs.Outer Space Treaty dating to 1966 bans deployment ofnuclear weapons and weapons of mass destructionin space.Only the Soviet Union has used manned military spacestations.President Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative –“Star Wars” program began to use shuttle as weaponstesting platform with lasers and particle beams.Use of shuttle for military missions discontinuedduring Clinton administration.Military “black budgets” have potential for secretmilitary space programs.Military commanders of major nations have declaredintent to wage war from and in space in future.Tactical Military Satellite Dish
42 Proposed Next Step: The Constellation Fleet…but… Aries crew launch vehiclewith resusable solid rocketand LOX upper stageOrion crew exploration vehicleto shuttle four-person crew betweenlow earth orbit, space station, and moonAltair lunar lander that docks with Orion in low orbit then flies toward moonLunar Outpost – a base at theMoon’s south pole where the Mars Orionmission would be configured
43 Constellation on the Way Out? On February 1, 2010, the Obama administrationcanceled the Constellation program.At an April 2010 Space Conference in Florida,President Obama proposed continuing developmentof the Orion capsule, but initially using it as anescape capsule for the ISS.Development of new deep space vehicles wouldbe postponed.Private companies such as SpaceX are lobbying tobuild NASA’s next manned launch vehicle.Congress has mandated that NASA build a newrocket from existing components.Thousands of jobs are scheduled to beeliminated when the shuttle is retired in 2011.
44 Explosive Chemical Rockets? – There Must Be a Better Way ! Magnetoplasma Rocket: An electro-magnetic thruster thatuses radio waves to ionize and heat a propellant and magneticfields to accelerate the resulting plasma and generate thrust.Developed by Costa Rican scientist and former astronautFrankliln Chang-Diaz for testing on the International Space Station.But it will be useable only after it has already been carried into space.Space elevator: Involves traveling along a fixed structureinstead of using rocket powered launch systems.The concept refers to a cable that reaches from the surfaceof the earth on or near the equator to a platform in geostationaryorbit and a counterweight outside the geostationary orbit.Discussion of a space elevator dates to 1895 when KonstantinTsiolokovsky proposed a free-standing "Tsiolkovsky" towerreaching from the surface of earth. Its use is limited by theheight of the platform.Magnetic Levitation: A superconductor cooled to an extremelylow temperature is repelled by a magnetic field and made to levitate,the Meisner Effect. This is the principle behind the mag-lev train,whereby an extremely heavy train filled with cargo and passengerscan travel at speeds over 100 mph on a track it never even touches.The mag-lev train actually floats a centimeter above the track inseeming defiance of the law of gravity. Animals such as frogs havebeen levitated in the laboratory. But can it get us off earth?
45 How About Nuclear Fusion Rockets? A fusion rocket would be driven by nuclear fusion power. Recent developmentsindicate this technology may be able to provide terrestrial based powerwithin 30 years. For space flight, the main advantage of fusion would bethe very high specific impulse, the main disadvantage being the probable largemass of the reactor. In addition, a fusion rocket may produce less radiationthan a fission rocket, reducing the mass needed for shielding.
46 Even More Exotic Antigravity Even though many scientists resist the idea that antigravitycould exist, it has become the most promising field of theoreticalresearch for out-of-the-box propulsion applications.Faster than Light?American researcher Peter Grandics has stated that, “Time isfound to be a derivative of gravitation that appears at rightangles to magnetism” and proposes methods for timewarping that could be used for faster-than-light spacecraftDesign.WormholesA wormhole is a theoretical shortcut through spacetime,potentially able to be crossed by space travelers. TheSchwarzschild wormhole consists of a black hole, a whitehole, and two universes connected at their horizons by awormhole. In the film Contact, Dr. Eleanor Arroway travels tothe star system Vega through a series of wormholes.
47 Space in the Popular Imagination Star WarsStar TrekClose Encountersof the Third Kind1977Independence DayX – FilesE.TContact
48 Are We Alone? The Search for UFOs and ETs SETI, or Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is a generic term for a varietyof scientific attempts to contact intelligent life elsewhere in the universe throughelectromagnetic transmissions, including NASA-funded studies.UFO-like objects have been reported throughout history, including ancient Romeand medieval times.In 1968, Science & Mechanics magazine published detailed accounts of UFOphenomena from the Air Force’s Project Blue Book files; Air Force terminated theproject in 1970; U.S. government denies any knowledge of UFOs.Former astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell say ETs are real. Mitchellsays that he was briefed on UFO/ET contacts while at NASA.Officials from the U.N., the British Royal Society, the Vatican, and many otherinstitutions back the search for extraterrestrial life.Military officers, pilots, and government officials from many countries havereliably and extensively documented UFO sightings; they do exist. What they areand who flies them are unknown.
49 The space program has contributed to this in two significant ways: Results of Space ExplorationThe world in which we live would have been inconceivable a century ago.The space program has contributed to this in two significant ways:Global VisionTechnology
51 But whoever you are or wherever you are, it’s up to youto decide howto serve others
52 Thank You! To Roanoke Public Libraries and Mr. River Laker for inviting me andbeing so creative in facilitating theprogram.To my hard-working laptop for being so cooperative.To my wife Karen for putting up with my long silences whileworking on the presentation.To my mom, who has encouraged me for 64 of her 88 years.To the men and women around the world who have takenpart in 50 years of manned space flight.To all ETs, wherever you are.But most important - to all of you who came to participate –you are a great audience!