Presentation on theme: "50 Years of Human Space Flight: 1961-2011 An Educational Program Created for Roanoke Public Libraries, Roanoke, VA By Richard C. Cook Author, Challenger."— Presentation transcript:
50 Years of Human Space Flight: An Educational Program Created for Roanoke Public Libraries, Roanoke, VA By Richard C. Cook Author, Challenger Revealed February 25 & 26, 2011 Developed as a public service and not copyrighted. Fair Use Doctrine claimed for illustrations.
Man the Dreamer Early Chinese Rocket Leonardo da Vinci Space Station Drawing? Jules Vernes From the Earth to the Moon
The Call of Space Flash Gordon Buck Rogers The Day the Earth Stood Still Superman
Dr. Robert Goddard ( )
German V-2 Rocket – WW II
Sputnik 1 Launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 First Earth-Orbiting Satellites Explorer 1 Launched by the U.S. on January 31, 1958
National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 DECLARATION OF POLICY AND PURPOSE Sec (a) The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. (b) The Congress declares that the general welfare and security of the United States require that adequate provision be made for aeronautical and space activities. The Congress further declares that such activities shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, a civilian agency exercising control over aeronautical and space activities sponsored by the United States, except that activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems, military operations, or the defense of the United States (including the research and development necessary to make effective provision for the defense of the United States) shall be the responsibility of, and shall be directed by, the Department of Defense; and that determination as to which such agency has responsibility for and direction of any such activity shall be made by the President in conformity with section 2471(e). (c) The Congress declares that the general welfare of the United States requires that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (as established by title II of this Act) seek and encourage, to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center, Florida Johnson Space Center, Houston Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
Project Mercury st American Astronauts: Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Virgil Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, Donald Deke Slayton 20 unmanned launches, followed by two suborbital and four orbital manned flights Trained at NASAs Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia
Mercury Spacecraft Mercury Capsule with Escape Tower Mercury Control at Cape Canaveral, Florida
The Soviet Union and the U.S. Send Men to Space. First Suborbital Flights Yuri Gagarin April 12, 1961 Alan Shepard May 5, 1961
Oops. Almost Forgot! Ham the Chimp beat both men to space with a January 31,1961 suborbital flight (After his flight, Ham lived in the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., until the ripe old age of 26)
John Glenn First American to Orbit the Earth February 20, 1962 Astronaut U.S. Senator Oldest shuttle astronaut – 1998 Age 77
First Woman in Space June 16, Vostok 6 carries Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, and orbits the earth 48 times.
Project Gemini 10 two-man flights in Preparation for lunar mission Rendezvous and docking of capsules First American spacewalks Demonstrate endurance in zero-gravity
Jan. 27, 1967: Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee are killed on the launch pad when a flash fire engulfs their command module during testing for the first Apollo/Saturn mission. They are the first U.S. astronauts to die in the line of duty. Tragedy April 24, 1967: Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov dies when his Soyuz capsule crash lands after a 13-orbit mission.
Humanity Reaches for the Moon
The Apollo Program Met President John F. Kennedys goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth by the end of the decade. 12 men walked on the moon in six landings. Only spaceflight program to send men beyond low earth orbit. Utilized giant Saturn rocket developed by Dr. Werner von Braun and his team Included three Skylab missions and one docking mission with Soviet Soyuz.
How They Got There Saturn 5 Rocket Command Module Lunar Module (LEM)Lunar Rover
Man on the Moon: Apollo 11 Launched July 16, 1969 Landed July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong Eugene Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins In FlightRecovery On the Moon
Lunar Adventure EarthriseMission ControlA Big Rock Golf Course Apollo 13 Rescue Apollo-Soyuz Docking Mission
Early Unmanned Spacecraft Corona Spy Satellite 1961 – Telstar – Soviet Venus – Mariner-Mars 1975 – Viking 1&2 to Mars 1977 – Viking 1&2 to Jupiter & Saturn
Soviet Space Stations 1971 – Salyut 1 June 29, 1971 – 3 Soviet cosmonauts die on rentry after visiting Salyut – Salyut 7 Soviet cosmonauts set duration record of 211 days Mir
Space Shuttle Approved by President Nixon on January 5, Worlds first reusable spacecraft, as well as largest, most complex, and most expensive. Nine years to develop, with first launch of Columbia taking place on April 12, Designed as space truck to carry all U.S. scientific, military, and commercial payloads, a highly radical policy that changed after Challenger disaster. Confined to low earth orbit – miles with longer-distance rockets in payload bay. Seven-person crew. 133 missions have been flown to date with two catastrophic failures. Scheduled to be terminated with last flight in June 2011.
Shuttle Components Orbiter Upper and lower passenger decks Powered by liquid hydrogen/oxygen Worlds only spacecraft to land on a runway Large payload bay with robotic arm for cargo External Tank feet long Contains hydrogen & oxygen for main engines Manufactured in New Orleans and shipped by barge to Florida Discarded in flight and breaks up over Indian Ocean Covered with lightweight insulating foam Solid Rocket Boosters Segments shipped from Utah by rail and joined at Kennedy Space Center (field joints) Solid ammonium perchlorate/aluminum fuel with explosive igniter Burn for first two minutes of flight Parachute to ocean after flight and are reused
Cutting Edge Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) Thermal Protection System (TPS) Flight Computer System First Use of Solid-Fuel Rockets in Manned Spaceflight Runway Landings
Space Shuttle Liftoff July 4, 1982, President Reagan declares shuttle operational at landing of Columbia, Edwards AB, Calif. Sally Ride, First U.S. woman In space, STS-7, Challenger, June 18, 1983 January 24, 1985 – Discovery First classified Department of Defense space shuttle mission November 28, 1983 – Columbia 1 st launch of German-built Spacelab
Anomalies Solid Rocket Booster O-ring charring first appears on STS-2 July 29, 1985 – Challenger Premature Main Engine shutdown 5 min. into flight December 1984 – Challenger flight cancelled when 3,800 thermal tiles had to be replaced January 24-27, 1985 Discovery: Five SRB O-rings damaged in during freeze of the century
Challenger Disaster January 28, 1986 Challenger broke up 73 seconds into flight. All seven astronauts died. Due to Teacher-in-Space Christa McAuliffe, most-watched launch since moon landing. Cold weather weakened Solid Rocket Booster o-ring joint which failed at ignition. Morton-Thiokol engineers opposed launch but were overruled by company management acting under pressure from NASA. Crew had no escape system or early warning capability. Investigations concluded that NASA should have grounded shuttle due to seriousness of o-ring joint problems. Investigations cited launch schedule pressures.
Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident Chairman William Rogers Former Sec. of State Commission Member Sally Ride Vice-Chairman Neil Armstrong Commission Member Richard Feynman Richard Cook described O-ring budget threats Roger Boisjoly of Morton Thiokol explained how he and other engineers opposed launch Astronaut John Young testified on launch schedule pressures Allan Mcdonald of Morton Thiokol refused to sign document approving launch
The Shuttle Returns to Flight September 29, 1988 – Discovery First post-Challenger launch April 24, 1990 – Discovery Hubble Space Telescope October 6, 1990 Ulysses Solar Mission May 7, First flight of Endeavor orbiter June 27, Atlantis First shuttle docking with Russian Mir May 27, 1999 – Discovery First servicing mission for International Space Station
Hubble Views the Universe Omega NebulaN90 Star-Forming RegionCrab Nebula Galaxies in Deep SpaceSombrero GalaxySpiral Galaxy
International Space Station ISS project began in 1994 with 1 st module launched by Russia in Operated jointly by NASA, Russian Federal Space Agency, European Space Agency, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Canadian Space Agency. Continuously occupied since October 31, Used only for peaceful purposes. Visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 nations. Most expensive project in human history. Serviced by manned Soyuz and Shuttle spacecraft and unmapped Russian, European, and Japanese vehicles. Contains 14 separate pressurized modules. Solar-powered with photovoltaic arrays. Visible to the naked eye. Purposes are scientific research, enhancing human performance and health in space, earth weather observation, education, and furthering international cooperation.
Columbia Disaster February 1, 2003 Columbia disintegrated over Texas and Louisiana during reentry at the end of a 17-day flight. All seven crew members died. Cause was determined to be a briefcase-sized piece of foam that fell from the External Tank onto the Orbiter at 66,000 feet after liftoff and damaged the leading edge of the left wing. Engineers suspected damage during the flight but NASAs managers took no action and crew was not told. Tiles had been damaged in previous flights but not fatally. Foam shedding had become an acceptable occurrence. Investigating board was highly critical of NASAs decision-making and risk assessment processes. After the Columbia disaster the shuttle was idle for two years while safety improvements were made.
Fallen Shuttle Astronauts Challenger Crew Columbia Crew Front Row: Michael Smith, Frances Dick Scobee, Ronald McNair Back Row: Ellison Onizuka, Christa McAuliffe, Gregory Jarvis, Judith Resnik Front Row: Rick Husband, Kalpana Chawla, William McCool Back Row: David Brown, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, Ll Ramon
Unmanned U.S. Flights Continue to Explore the Solar System 1990 – Magellan Venus radar mapping mission Galileo Jupiter probe June 1997 NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) lands on Eros in Feb Mars Global Surveyor October Launch of Cassini/Huygens to Saturn; lands on Titan 2005
What Lies Beyond? Voyager 1 & 2 to leave solar system and transmit data until 2020 New Horizons expected to reach Pluto in 2015 Then leave solar system Wikipedia: Each Voyager space probe carries a gold-plated audio-visual disc in the event that either spacecraft is ever found by intelligent life-forms from other planetary systems. The discs carry photos of the Earth and its life forms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from the people (e.g. the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States, and the children of the Planet Earth) and a medley, Sounds of Earth, that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a variety of music.
Studying Earth Changes from Space Hurricane Gordon Tracking Sunspots Shrinking Ice & Snow Cover Changes in Earths Magnetosphere
China Becomes the Third Nation to Launch Men into Space January 2001 Chinese launch of Shenzhou spacecraft carrying a monkey, dog, and rabbit. Shenzhou means divine vessel. On October 15, 2003, Shenzhou 5 placed first man from China into orbit. Six have flown to date. Shanzhou Re-entry Capsule Yang Liwei, first Chinese astronaut
Race Back to the Moon ? Chandrayaan 1, Indian lunar flight confirms water on moon, October 2008 U.S. planned moon landing announced for 2019 Indian manned mission Chandrayaan 3 planned for Planned Indian and Japanese manned moon landings Planned Chinese manned moon landing 2025 – Planned Russian manned moon landing followed by permanent lunar base
Military Uses of Space Tactical Military Satellite Dish Military Satellite Photo of the Eiffel Tower Space operations conducted by all modern nations for communications, surveillance, and navigation. Weapons can be delivered through space by ICBMs. Outer Space Treaty dating to 1966 bans deployment of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in space. Only the Soviet Union has used manned military space stations. President Reagans Strategic Defense Initiative – Star Wars program began to use shuttle as weapons testing platform with lasers and particle beams. Use of shuttle for military missions discontinued during Clinton administration. Military black budgets have potential for secret military space programs. Military commanders of major nations have declared intent to wage war from and in space in future.
Proposed Next Step: The Constellation Fleet…but… Aries crew launch vehicle with resusable solid rocket and LOX upper stage Orion crew exploration vehicle to shuttle four-person crew between low earth orbit, space station, and moon Altair lunar lander that docks with Orion in low orbit then flies toward moon Lunar Outpost – a base at the Moons south pole where the Mars Orion mission would be configured
Constellation on the Way Out? On February 1, 2010, the Obama administration canceled the Constellation program. At an April 2010 Space Conference in Florida, President Obama proposed continuing development of the Orion capsule, but initially using it as an escape capsule for the ISS. Development of new deep space vehicles would be postponed. Private companies such as SpaceX are lobbying to build NASAs next manned launch vehicle. Congress has mandated that NASA build a new rocket from existing components. Thousands of jobs are scheduled to be eliminated when the shuttle is retired in 2011.
Explosive Chemical Rockets? – There Must Be a Better Way ! Magnetoplasma Rocket: An electro-magnetic thruster that uses radio waves to ionize and heat a propellant and magnetic fields to accelerate the resulting plasma and generate thrust. Developed by Costa Rican scientist and former astronaut Frankliln Chang-Diaz for testing on the International Space Station. But it will be useable only after it has already been carried into space. Space elevator: Involves traveling along a fixed structure instead of using rocket powered launch systems. The concept refers to a cable that reaches from the surface of the earth on or near the equator to a platform in geostationary orbit and a counterweight outside the geostationary orbit. Discussion of a space elevator dates to 1895 when Konstantin Tsiolokovsky proposed a free-standing "Tsiolkovsky" tower reaching from the surface of earth. Its use is limited by the height of the platform. Magnetic Levitation: A superconductor cooled to an extremely low temperature is repelled by a magnetic field and made to levitate, the Meisner Effect. This is the principle behind the mag-lev train, whereby an extremely heavy train filled with cargo and passengers can travel at speeds over 100 mph on a track it never even touches. The mag-lev train actually floats a centimeter above the track in seeming defiance of the law of gravity. Animals such as frogs have been levitated in the laboratory. But can it get us off earth?
A fusion rocket would be driven by nuclear fusion power. Recent developments indicate this technology may be able to provide terrestrial based power within 30 years. For space flight, the main advantage of fusion would be the very high specific impulse, the main disadvantage being the probable large mass of the reactor. In addition, a fusion rocket may produce less radiation than a fission rocket, reducing the mass needed for shielding. How About Nuclear Fusion Rockets?
Even More Exotic Faster than Light? American researcher Peter Grandics has stated that, Time is found to be a derivative of gravitation that appears at right angles to magnetism and proposes methods for time warping that could be used for faster-than-light spacecraft Design. Wormholes A wormhole is a theoretical shortcut through spacetime, potentially able to be crossed by space travelers. The Schwarzschild wormhole consists of a black hole, a white hole, and two universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole. In the film Contact, Dr. Eleanor Arroway travels to the star system Vega through a series of wormholes. Antigravity Even though many scientists resist the idea that antigravity could exist, it has become the most promising field of theoretical research for out-of-the-box propulsion applications.
Space in the Popular Imagination Star Trek E.T Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1977 Star Wars Contact X – Files Independence Day
Are We Alone? The Search for UFOs and ETs SETI, or Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, is a generic term for a variety of scientific attempts to contact intelligent life elsewhere in the universe through electromagnetic transmissions, including NASA-funded studies. UFO-like objects have been reported throughout history, including ancient Rome and medieval times. In 1968, Science & Mechanics magazine published detailed accounts of UFO phenomena from the Air Forces Project Blue Book files; Air Force terminated the project in 1970; U.S. government denies any knowledge of UFOs. Former astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell say ETs are real. Mitchell says that he was briefed on UFO/ET contacts while at NASA. Officials from the U.N., the British Royal Society, the Vatican, and many other institutions back the search for extraterrestrial life. Military officers, pilots, and government officials from many countries have reliably and extensively documented UFO sightings; they do exist. What they are and who flies them are unknown.
Results of Space Exploration The world in which we live would have been inconceivable a century ago. The space program has contributed to this in two significant ways: Global Vision Technology
Our Future in Space --and on Earth-- Is Up to Us
But whoever you are or wherever you are, its up to you to decide how to serve others
Thank You! To Roanoke Public Libraries and Mr. River Laker for inviting me and being so creative in facilitating the program. To my hard-working laptop for being so cooperative. To my wife Karen for putting up with my long silences while working on the presentation. To my mom, who has encouraged me for 64 of her 88 years. To the men and women around the world who have taken part in 50 years of manned space flight. To all ETs, wherever you are. But most important - to all of you who came to participate – you are a great audience!