l Refined grains have the germ and bran removed, leaving just the starch (ei. Wonder White Bread)
l For every 100 pounds of whole wheat that gets refined, after the germ and bran have been removed only 72 pounds of flour is left. The rest is fed to cattle. l Add malted barley, bleaching agents, and some additives and you have the All-American White Flour
l In the past 20 years, research has shown that a diet based on refined grains is not ideal. l Eating whole grains provides a level of disease protection that is no longer available once the grain has been refined. l Food in its original form is generally better
l Whole grains should be eaten at most meals. They are at the base of the healthy eating pyramid
l Only 13% of Americans eat at least 1 serving of whole grains per day l Only 5% of foods containing wheat contain whole wheat l Its okay to eat some refined grains and starches, just eat them with other whole foods.
Whole Grains and Heart Disease l 10 studies completed l All but one showed that the more dietary fiber people ate, the lower their risk of heart disease l For every 10 grams of fiber you average per day, risk of heart attach goes down 14%, risk of heart disease death goes down 27%
Cardiovascular disease and cereal fiber consumption Risk of Cardiovascular Disease 2 slices of whole wheat bread have 4-6 grams JAMA. 2003;289:1659-1666
10 grams of Whole Grain= l four slices of whole wheat bread l A cup of whole grain cereal One study showed that if you eat whole-grain breakfast cereals risk of heart disease drops 35%
Cancer l 45 studies have been completed on whole grains and cancer l Only 3 of the 45 failed to show a protective effect for cancer of the breast, ovary, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and others
Diabetes l Which is digested faster: whole grain wheat, or refined white flour? Refined white flour reaches the bloodstream quickly and causes a dramatic increase in insulin. This increases diabetes risk.
l 2 or more servings of whole grains per day reduces blood insulin l 2 or more servings per day reduces diabetes risk by 30%
Stroke and Death l 2 or more servings of whole grains per day reduced stroke risk by 36% l 2 or more servings of whole grains per day reduced death rate by 17% Maybe the saying is true that The whiter the bread, the sooner youre dead?
l Individuals who have diets composed mostly of white flour and refined starches are at a significant health disadvantage
Whats going on here? l Why are whole grains so special?
l Whole grains are plants. l Plants have developed adaptations (phytochemicals) to help them survive attacks from: »Fungus, bacteria, virus, molds, ultraviolet light, and free radicals l Phytochemicals (fight-o-chemicals) help stop these attackers l When you eat the plants you eat the phytochemicals and you too get protection
Phytochemicals l Are specialized chemicals produced by plants to help plants avoid disease and death l There are over 100,000 different phytochemicals l Scientists have only identified 5,000
l Refined grains no longer contain the phytochemicals because most of them are located in the bran (outer layer) and in the germ… the part of the plant that has been removed
l Phytochemicals are known to be associated with the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension
Why should you eat whole grains? l They absorb water and make the stool softer. A soft stool makes everything pass through the digestive system a lot easier. A hard stool is part of the cause of constipation. l They change the acidity in the colon, which prompts the body to produce immune fighting cells. This helps you avoid infections.
l They alter the amount of insulin our bodies produce. This means the energy in whole grain foods enters the blood stream more slowly which helps keep blood sugar from having wide fluctuations. (More on this in the discussion of the glycemic index in chapter 7) l They contain phytochemicals, natures health promoting helpers.
How much whole grains should you eat? l Half of your bread/cereal servings every day should be whole grain most adults eat 6 servings… l 3 are key get at least 3 servings of whole grains per day and even more is better
Get Real Whole Wheat Bread INGREDIENTS ENRICHED FLOUR (FLOUR, BARLEY MALT, NIACIN, IRON, THIAMINE MONONITRATE, RIBOFLAVIN), WATER, WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR, CORN SYRUP, CONTAINS 2% OR LESS OF: YEAST, SOYBEAN OIL, WHEAT GLUTEN, SALT, DOUGH CONDITIONERS (MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, CALCIUM AND SODIUM TEAROYL-2-LACTYLATE, CORN FLOUR, SOYA FLOUR, POTASSIUM BROMATE, ENZYMES), CALCIUM PROPIONATE (A PRESERVATIVE), YEAST NUTRIENTS (AMMONIUM SULFATE, CALCIUM SULFATE), CARAMEL COLOR, POTASSIUM SORBATE (A PRESERVATIVE)
This is FAKE whole wheat bread INGREDIENTS ENRICHED FLOUR (FLOUR, BARLEY MALT, NIACIN, IRON, THIAMINE MONONITRATE, RIBOFLAVIN), WATER, WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR, CORN SYRUP, CONTAINS 2% OR LESS OF: YEAST, SOYBEAN OIL, WHEAT GLUTEN, SALT, DOUGH CONDITIONERS (MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES, CALCIUM AND SODIUM TEAROYL-2-LACTYLATE, CORN FLOUR, SOYA FLOUR, POTASSIUM BROMATE, ENZYMES), CALCIUM PROPIONATE (A PRESERVATIVE), YEAST NUTRIENTS (AMMONIUM SULFATE, CALCIUM SULFATE), CARAMEL COLOR, POTASSIUM SORBATE (A PRESERVATIVE)
l This bread ingredient list shows that it is made of refined wheat flour and the carmel coloring is added to make it look darker, like whole wheat…Dont be fooled
Points to Remember l Once a whole grain is refined, it no longer contains all of the fiber and phytochemicals it used to have, and it no longer provides your body with the same level of disease prevention. l Its okay to eat some refined flour and starches, but whole grains should make up most of the breads and cereals you eat every day.
The fiber and phytochemicals found in whole foods appear to be able to reduce the risk of many chronic diseases. At least half of the breads and cereals you eat every day should be whole grain.